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Assessing The Human-Health Risk Of Exposure To Pathogens From Beach Sands, Javier Federico Gallard-Góngora 2022 University of South Florida

Assessing The Human-Health Risk Of Exposure To Pathogens From Beach Sands, Javier Federico Gallard-Góngora

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fecal contamination at recreational beaches impacts the health of beachgoers, through the introduction of disease-causing microorganisms, and the well-being of communities dependent on income from recreational beach activities. Beach ecosystems are also impacted by sewage through the introduction of nutrients that can cause abnormal increases in autochthonous microorganisms which can impact the population of larger organisms in the ecosystem. Fecal contamination is introduced into sand via untreated sewage, direct deposition of human feces into sand, runoff, and deposition of animal feces into sand. The introduction of fecal contamination into sand exposes individuals to pathogens (disease causing microorganisms) which can result ...


Nitrogen Fixation Rates In Forested Mountain Streams: Are Sediment Microbes More Important Than Previously Thought?, Erica A. H. Bakker, Carmella Vizza, Clay Arango, Sarah S. Roley 2022 Washington State University

Nitrogen Fixation Rates In Forested Mountain Streams: Are Sediment Microbes More Important Than Previously Thought?, Erica A. H. Bakker, Carmella Vizza, Clay Arango, Sarah S. Roley

Biology Faculty Scholarship

  1. Biological nitrogen (N) fixation, the microbial conversion of N2 gas to ammonia, makes N available to food webs. Low-N streams often have a high relative abundance of N-fixing taxa, suggesting that N fixation is an important N source in these systems. Despite this potential, stream N fixation has not been well-characterised, particularly compared to lakes and marine environments. One unknown is the relative contributions of various N-fixing organisms, particularly heterotrophic microbes.
  2. In low-N streams in the Cascade Mountains (Washington, USA), three groups of N-fixers predominate: cyanobacteria (Nostoc paramelioides) colonies that house a midge symbiont (Cricotopus spp.), cyanobacteria without a ...


Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia Coli And EnterococcusSpp. In Sand And Water At Tampa Bay Beaches, Jennifer K. Sabater 2022 University of South Florida

Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia Coli And EnterococcusSpp. In Sand And Water At Tampa Bay Beaches, Jennifer K. Sabater

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As antibiotic resistance in the environment continues to rise there is an increased concern that infections may become harder to treat as bacteria acquire genes for multidrug resistance. Recreational beach waters in the Tampa Bay area are routinely monitored by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection for the presence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and enterococci. Exceedances of beach action values (BAV) 235 CFU/100 mL (E. coli) and 70 CFU/100 mL (enterococci) indicate the presence of fecal contamination which is associated with an increased risk of disease for beachgoers. Antibiotic-resistant E. coli and Enterococcus ...


Exploring Melatonin As A Treatment For Oral Ulcers, William H. Sutherland 2022 Brigham Young University

Exploring Melatonin As A Treatment For Oral Ulcers, William H. Sutherland

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The hormone melatonin is best known for its role in the sleep-wake cycle, but its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects have significant implications that have not been fully explored in oral health. Some studies use melatonin to treat gastrointestinal ulcers, including duodenal ulcers and oral mucositis, but we found no study reporting its effects on more common oral ulcers, like aphthous stomatitis. We hypothesize that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics of melatonin could effectively prevent and heal oral ulcers. In this paper, we review the literature on melatonin to propose its use as a treatment for oral ulcers. We also include ...


Investigating The Antagonistic Activity Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Against Uropathogenic E. Coli., Ciara Kenneally 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Investigating The Antagonistic Activity Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Against Uropathogenic E. Coli., Ciara Kenneally

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is the presence of bacteria in urine, resembling a state of commensalism. Bacteria are characterised as ABU when they have been isolated from two consecutive urine samples (≥ 105 CFU/ml) from individuals, but without symptoms attributable to a urinary tract infection (UTI). ABU Escherichia coli strains have evolved from uropathogenic ancestors and lack virulence factors associated with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). UPEC are the main etiological agent of urinary tract infections (UTIs), attributable to > 80% of cases. The frequency at which multidrug-resistant UPEC are isolated is affecting guidelines for use of former first-line antibiotics for UTIs ...


Biowill - Characterising Willow Bark Bio-Actives For Skin Therapies, Arnold Marisa 2022 Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Kerry, Ireland

Biowill - Characterising Willow Bark Bio-Actives For Skin Therapies, Arnold Marisa

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Willow bark is considered as a disposable by-product when processing willow for biomass. Willow (Salix) is known to contain high value bioactive compounds which include salicin and its derivatives, and other phytochemicals of interest such as polyphenols and flavonoids. The plant is historically known as the primary source of salicylates to which the well-known drug aspirin is derived from. The work forms part of the Interreg project BioWILL, which is focused on integrated “Zero Waste” biorefinery utilising all fractions of willow feedstock for the production of biochemicals and renewable energy. This project aims to investigate the crude and processed bark ...


An Investigation Of The Novel Use Of Bacteriophages To Diagnose And Treat Johne's Disease In Cattle, Max Kevane-Campbell 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland

An Investigation Of The Novel Use Of Bacteriophages To Diagnose And Treat Johne's Disease In Cattle, Max Kevane-Campbell

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Johne’s disease is a scourge to dairy farmers all over the world. It is an infectious disease that causes chronic inflammation and lesions along the inside of the small intestine of, primarily, ruminant animals (i.e., cattle and sheep). It is an incurable disease and urgently requires new and radical intervention strategies. Apart from careful on-site farm management practices, little can be offered to farmers to reduce the risk of infection, and nothing short of livestock culling is effective once an animal becomes infected. Currently, there are no vaccines licensed in Ireland or antibiotic treatment strategies available for Johne ...


Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of sublethal concentrations of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on biofilm formation in 57 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (UPEC).

The MIC of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was determined for 57 UPEC isolates. Biofilm formation for each isolate with and without sub-lethal concentrations of each antibiotic was then quantified, and the statistical significance of changes in biofilm formation was ascertained by way of a Dunnett's test.

The effects of sub-MIC antibiotics on biofilm formation of UPEC were variable. A total of 22.8% of strains were induced to form biofilm ...


Investigation Of The Urobiome For The Production Of Novel Antimicrobials Against Uropathogenic E. Coli (Upec), Jennifer Jones 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Investigation Of The Urobiome For The Production Of Novel Antimicrobials Against Uropathogenic E. Coli (Upec), Jennifer Jones

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections globally with antibiotic treatment becoming increasingly less effective. The urobiome remains a relatively understudied niche as a source of potentially novel antimicrobials (e.g., bacteriocins). Improvements to bacterial culturing and sequencing techniques have highlighted the potentially rich source of alternative treatments and control strategies to target uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: (a) BAGEL 4 was used for bioinformatic screening of the genomes of urobiome isolates to identify bacteriocin gene clusters (BGC).

(b) Expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) was used to culture mid-stream urine samples to ...


Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda Induced Decrease In Neurite Growth In An In Vitro Model Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda Induced Decrease In Neurite Growth In An In Vitro Model Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Title: Short chain fatty acid combination treatment protects against 6-OHDA induced decrease in neurite growth in an in vitro model of Parkinson’s disease.

Authors: Alex Morris1, Louise M. Collins1,2,3, Gerard W. O’Keeffe2, Caitriona M. Guinane1

1 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University (MTU), Cork, Ireland.

2 Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

3 Department of Physiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration. This leads to motor dysfunction which is accompanied by gastrointestinal comorbidities such as ...


Investigation Of The Antimicrobial Activity Of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Of Human Origin, Ellen Twomey 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Investigation Of The Antimicrobial Activity Of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Of Human Origin, Ellen Twomey

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are significant members of the human microbiome and have been identified as a source of bacteriocins, small bioactive substances recognised for their antimicrobial properties. In this study we screened a bank of 37 human derived CoNS for the production of these peptides with emphasis on identifying those with the ability to inhibit the growth of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Deferred antagonism assays confirmed potential antimicrobial activity in all 37 isolates against sensitive indicator M. luteus, with nine inhibiting the growth of at least one MRSA strain they were overlaid against. Tests performed with the acid-neutralised ...


'Investigating The Effect Of Cell-Free Supernatant Of Probiotic Strains On The Viability Of Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines', Claire M. Doocey 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

'Investigating The Effect Of Cell-Free Supernatant Of Probiotic Strains On The Viability Of Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines', Claire M. Doocey

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a prevalent cancer accounting for over 450,000 deaths globally in 2020, and is associated with limited treatment options and high mortality rates. Mounting evidence implicates the human microbiome in tumorigenesis and cancer progression with key players including Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer and Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal cancer and PC. Current research, however, also suggests a potential role for certain microbial residents in oncological treatment and biotherapeutic development. Recent studies have shown a link between cell-free supernatants (CFS) from probiotic strains and cancer cell death, suggesting their potential in targeting the tumour microenvironment. Probiotic ...


Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy As An Alternative Method For Non-Invasive Sterility Detection In Ready To Feed Infant Milk Products, Peter Myintzaw 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy As An Alternative Method For Non-Invasive Sterility Detection In Ready To Feed Infant Milk Products, Peter Myintzaw

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background: The potential application of rapid, non-destructive, and user-friendly TDLAS technology to detect contamination in commercially sterile dairy beverages where visual inspection is not possible was investigated for the first time. The TDLAS equipment uses laser light to monitor carbon dioxide changes due to microbial growth in the container headspace which has the advantage of being rapid and non-destructive. This study aimed to provide detailed scientific evidence for the application of TDLAS technology as a method to determine product sterility in real food products.

Methods: TDLAS growth detection of Bacillus fengqiuensis, Candida albicans, Lactococcus lactis, Microbacterium luteolum, Paenibacillus chitinolyticus and ...


Application Of Fructans-Degrading Lachancea Fermentati Fst5.1 As An Alternative To Baker’S Yeast In The Production Of A Low-Fodmap Whole Wheat Bread., Małgorzata Borowska 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Application Of Fructans-Degrading Lachancea Fermentati Fst5.1 As An Alternative To Baker’S Yeast In The Production Of A Low-Fodmap Whole Wheat Bread., Małgorzata Borowska

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

FODMAPs are a group of poorly absorbed dietary carbohydrates comprised of easily fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols. When consumed, they can exert gastrointestinal symptoms of pain, flatulence, or an irregular bowel movement in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Whole wheat bread is an excellent source of proteins, vitamins, polyphenols, and other nutrients, but its consumption is restricted in a low-FODMAP diet due to high fructans content. Although alternatives exist, these are primarily gluten-free, often inferior in terms of quality, nutritional profile, and consumer acceptance. Bioprocessing using microbial fermentation has a proven capacity to reduce FODMAPs in cereal products, but ...


Complex Role Of Microbiome In Pancreatic Tumorigenesis: Potential Therapeutic Implications, Suneetha Amara, Li V. Yang, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi, Mahvish Muzaffar 2022 East Carolina University

Complex Role Of Microbiome In Pancreatic Tumorigenesis: Potential Therapeutic Implications, Suneetha Amara, Li V. Yang, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi, Mahvish Muzaffar

Biology Faculty Research

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality with limited diagnostic and therapeutic options. Although immunotherapy has shown promise in the treatment of several cancers, its role in pancreatic cancer is rather limited. Several studies have focused on determining the role of the tumor microenvironment with cancer-cell-intrinsic events and tumor-infiltrating immune cellular properties. However, in the past decade, there has been emerging research aimed at delineating the role of the host microbiome, including the metabolites from microbes and host responses, on pancreatic tumorigenesis. Importantly, there is emerging evidence suggesting the beneficial role of a gut microbiome transplant ...


Analysis Of Soxs In S. Typhimurium By Transposon Mutagenesis, Joel Hanns, Brenda Pratte, Lon Chubiz PhD, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Analysis Of Soxs In S. Typhimurium By Transposon Mutagenesis, Joel Hanns, Brenda Pratte, Lon Chubiz Phd, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

The mar-sox-rob regulon has been implicated in transcriptional regulation of several stress responses, such efflux of antibiotics, enzymes that break down reactive oxygen species, repression of biofilm formation, or repression of motility through downregulation of flagellar expression. This system is conserved among enteric bacteria and has been studied in species, such as E. coli and S. typhimurium. Some of these mechanisms can be costly and slow cell growth while increasing the probability of survival through tolerance of toxic environments. SoxS works in coordination with SoxR to respond to redox stress encountered by the cell. Interestingly, the overexpression of SoxS in ...


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial ...


The Interaction Of Sulfate And Perchlorate And Its Implications On Bacterial Survival On Mars, Jack M. Richardson, Dylan Clark, Karly Kenny 2022 Eastern Washington University

The Interaction Of Sulfate And Perchlorate And Its Implications On Bacterial Survival On Mars, Jack M. Richardson, Dylan Clark, Karly Kenny

2022 Symposium

Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus are all known spacecraft contaminants. This makes their viability to arrive and survive on Mars feasible, however, this could prove to be a great risk to the Martian environment. In order to test this possibility, all three species were grown within brines containing differing salts and salt concentrations. These salts and their corresponding concentrations are based on known data regarding Martian soil. Growth was measured over a course of 20 hours in solutions containing MgSO4 at concentrations of 4.6% and 9.2%, Mg(ClO4)2 at concentrations of 0.6 ...


Biomass Estimation Of Marine Biofilms On Plastic Surfaces, Kian Banihashemi, Fernando Javier Gil 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Biomass Estimation Of Marine Biofilms On Plastic Surfaces, Kian Banihashemi, Fernando Javier Gil

Biological Sciences

Plastics have become a major source of marine pollution, which threatens food safety and quality, human health, and marine ecosystems. Due to the drastic negative effects of plastics in a marine environment, alternative biodegradable plastics are being generated that are more eco-friendly and have less environmental impact. Though some of these plastics are known to biodegrade, the process of degradation for bioplastics has not been heavily studied in a marine environment. This pilot project sought to both quantify the process of biodegradation and compare across different methods for effectiveness of biomass estimation, which serves as an indicator of biodegradation. Plastics ...


Implications Of Antibiotic And Bacteriophage Resistance In Environmentally Isolated E. Coli, Michael Connolly 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Implications Of Antibiotic And Bacteriophage Resistance In Environmentally Isolated E. Coli, Michael Connolly

Honors Theses

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is an emerging problem for humans. Clinical misuse, overuse in agricultural and food settings, and limited numbers of new antibiotics have accelerated the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To confront this threat, scientists must develop new therapeutics that kill these antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, we used Escherichia coli to analyze antibiotic and bacteriophage susceptibility. E. coli is a common, mostly benign, enteric, gram-negative bacteria. We isolated three E. coli strains from the Hans Groot Kill, a stream that runs through Union College’s campus. We sought to assess various E. coli strains’ antibiotic resistance ...


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