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Detecting Potentially Neurotoxic Pseudo-Nitzschia Species In The Grand Strand Area, Chesney Price 2022 Coastal Carolina Univeristy

Detecting Potentially Neurotoxic Pseudo-Nitzschia Species In The Grand Strand Area, Chesney Price

Honors Theses

Pseudo-nitzschia is a globally distributed diatom genus which contains 26 neurotoxin (domoic-acid) producing species. In shallow coastal waters these diatoms are associated with both the development of harmful algal blooms and the bio-accumulation of toxins in shellfish that can impact human health. Pilot data recovered in 2018 indicated the presence of multiple species of Pseudo-nitzschia, including domoic-acid producing taxa. We hypothesize that we will recover a similar species diversity using multiple sampling dates during the summer of 2021. Environmental DNA (eDNA) samples taken from the public shellfish harvesting area waters at Huntington Beach State Park (SC) over a two month …


The Impact Of Processing Body Proteins On An Adenovirus Infection, La`Quita Randolph 2022 Georgia College

The Impact Of Processing Body Proteins On An Adenovirus Infection, La`Quita Randolph

Biology Theses

Adenovirus is a nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that contains a 36 Kbp genome. The E4 ORF3 region of its genome consists of an E4 11k protein that can reorganize host cell components by relocalizing cellular proteins. One such cellular component is the cytoplasmic processing body, which consists of proteins involved in translational repression of mRNA and mRNA degradation. During an adenovirus infection, processing body proteins Ddx6 and Pat1b have been shown to colocalize and form aggresomes. Aggresomes induced by E4 11k are specific to the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad 5). In this study, cytoplasmic Pat1b foci were observed and quantified …


Effect Of Mycorrhizae Inoculation On The Growth And Success Of Three Taxodium Distichum Hybrids In Saline - Impacted Coastal Soils, Elif ilhan 2022 Stephen F. Austin State University

Effect Of Mycorrhizae Inoculation On The Growth And Success Of Three Taxodium Distichum Hybrids In Saline - Impacted Coastal Soils, Elif Ilhan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In 2008, Galveston Island was severely impacted by Hurricane Ike, resulting in high salt deposition in the soil and groundwater. This caused a loss of many native plant species. A study was initiated to determine effective ways to promote the growth conditions of three bald cypress genotypes (Taxodium distichum var distichum and Taxodium distichum var mexicanum crosses) in salt-affected soils. The treatments applied were mycorrhizae inoculation, fertilizer application, and a combination of mycorrhizae inoculation and fertilizer application. A total of sixty (60) trees planted in plots of three rows and divided into five randomized replication blocks of four treatments …


Comparative Transcriptomic Study Between Cyanobacteria That Contain Chlorophyll D And Those That Lack Chlorophyll D, Fernanda Montoya 2022 Northern Illinois University

Comparative Transcriptomic Study Between Cyanobacteria That Contain Chlorophyll D And Those That Lack Chlorophyll D, Fernanda Montoya

Honors Capstones

All cyanobacteria, which perform oxygenic photosynthesis on Earth, contain the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll a (Chl a) that absorbs light in the violet and red region of the visible spectrum. Cyanobacteria of the Acaryochloris species, however, contain the rare photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll d (Chl d) that absorbs light in the far-red region. Chl d’s ability to absorb light in this region allows it to avoid competing with other photosynthetic organisms for light. Creating a photosystem that uses Chl d in plants would be of great use for agricultural land optimization, but requires knowledge of the biosynthetic pathways of …


Cdk8 Kinase Module Modifies Expression Of Specific Translation-Related Proteins Before And After Stress, Brittany Friedson, Katrina Cooper 2022 Rowan University

Cdk8 Kinase Module Modifies Expression Of Specific Translation-Related Proteins Before And After Stress, Brittany Friedson, Katrina Cooper

Stratford Campus Research Day

Translation is tightly coupled to growth status. Efficient protein synthesis is necessary for cell growth in nutrient rich environments, while global translation inhibition combined with selective translation of stress-responsive mRNAs helps limit growth in times of stress. Environmental stress cues which inhibit the nutrient-sensing complex TORC1 are known to reduce general translation, but how does the cell alter protein synthesis machinery to adapt to these conditions? A few mechanisms to promote cell survival in nitrogen starvation include post-translational modification and selective degradation of specific mRNA-binding translation factors, as well as inhibition of activators of genes whose products are required for …


Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock

Doctoral Dissertations

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen infecting most humans worldwide. CMV infection within immunocompromised individuals can cause severe morbidity and potential mortality. Disease during CMV infection is due to virus dissemination and subsequent inflammation. Host immune cells lie at the intersection potentially mediating both. The CMV-encoded viral chemokine vCXCL-1 is a proposed virulence factor in mouse models increasing immune cell recruitment and disease. However, the primary immune cell mediator is undetermined. To identify targets, Chapter 2 examines CXCR2 expression (receptor for vCXCL-1) among various mouse tissues and human peripheral blood under steady-state conditions. In vitro, isoforms of HCMV’s vCXCL-1 …


Metabolism In The Colonocyte: Where Bacteria And Diet Meet, Bohye Park 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Metabolism In The Colonocyte: Where Bacteria And Diet Meet, Bohye Park

Doctoral Dissertations

The host-microbiome interaction and the functions of microbial-derived metabolites, including butyrate, are important in colon health. Butyrate is the preferred energy source in colonocytes and has multiple physiological functions in the colon. A metabolic shift in colonocytes toward increased glucose utilization from butyrate oxidation is followed by several critical genetic modifications in cancerous colonocytes. Moreover, it has been suggested that the gut-microbiota composition is influenced by environmental factors, such as diets and the host's physiological status. Therefore, an understanding of the role of colonocyte metabolism toward impacting the host-microbiota commensal relationship would be an important step in understanding the functional …


Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci

Doctoral Dissertations

Nearly all organisms exist in proximity to microbes. These microbes perform most of the essential metabolic processes necessary for homeostasis, forming the nearly hidden support system of Earth. Microbial symbiosis, which is defined as the long-term physical association between host and microbes, relies on communication between the microbial community and their host organism. These interactions among higher order organisms (such as animals, plants, and fungi) and their bacteria links metabolic processes between interkingdom consortia. Many questions on microbial behavior within a host remain poorly understood, such as the colonization efficiency among different microbial species, or how environmental context changes their …


Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

Systems biology offers the opportunity to understand the complex mechanisms of various biological phenomena. The wealth of data that is produced, at an increasing rate, provides the potential to meet this opportunity. Here we take an applied approach to integrate multiple omic level data sources in order to generate biologically relevant hypotheses. We apply a novel analysis pipeline to model both, in concert, the microbial and transcriptomic signature from COVID-19 positive patients. We show patients may suffer from an increased microbial burden, with an increased pathogen potential. Gene expression evidence further shows patients may exhibit a compromised barrier immunity, owing …


Making Sense Of Soil Microbiome Complexity For Plant And Ecosystem Function In A Changing World, Kendall K. Beals 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Making Sense Of Soil Microbiome Complexity For Plant And Ecosystem Function In A Changing World, Kendall K. Beals

Doctoral Dissertations

Soils contain the highest biodiversity on Earth. While the importance of the soil microbiome for larger-scale ecological phenomena such as nutrient and carbon cycling, plant growth and plant community dynamics is well-established, the fundamental question of the ecological and evolutionary function of this immense belowground microbial diversity for plant and ecosystem function still remains a great challenge in microbial ecology research. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how the importance of soil microbial community composition for plant and ecosystem function and how changes to soil microbial community composition from climate change-induced disturbance events, specifically fire, influence plant and …


The Spatial, Temporal, And Ecological Constraints Of Plant-Host Associated Microbial Communities, Jonathan Dickey 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Spatial, Temporal, And Ecological Constraints Of Plant-Host Associated Microbial Communities, Jonathan Dickey

Doctoral Dissertations

With the development of next generation sequencing technology, ecologists have recently been able to describe microbial communities across a wide array of niches at an accelerated pace. De-novo-based patterns in richness and relative abundance have been described for bacterial and fungal communities in terrestrial, aquatic, and host-associated microhabitats. A recent synthesis has shown that these communities exhibit similar geographical patterns that have been traditionally described for plant and animals. Yet, there is a lack of hypothesis-based research for host-associated microbial communities. Throughout this dissertation, I will address how spatial scale, sequencing resolution, and manipulative rainfall exclusion govern host-associated microbial communities …


Novel Ultraviolet Light Technologies For The Inactivation Of Murine Hepatitis Virus, A Sars-Cov-2 Surrogate, Alexia E. Angelos, Doris H. D'Souza 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Novel Ultraviolet Light Technologies For The Inactivation Of Murine Hepatitis Virus, A Sars-Cov-2 Surrogate, Alexia E. Angelos, Doris H. D'Souza

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Nutrients And The Native On E. Coli Survival In The Beach Environment, Brigid Meyers 2022 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Influence Of Nutrients And The Native On E. Coli Survival In The Beach Environment, Brigid Meyers

Theses and Dissertations

E. coli is used as an indicator for water quality to determine if water poses a health risk for pathogens. Past research has shown that E. coli is present in high numbers in freshwater beach sands distinct from fecal pollution events, yet the precise mechanism for their persistence in not well understood. Persistent E. coli populations in sand can resuspend into adjacent water and lead to increased beach closures when no threat is present. This work identifies factors that influence the survival of E. coli in sand using laboratory microcosms to replicate beach conditions. Microcosms were deployed to examine the …


Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Exploring Nitrogen Fixation In Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Rylee Cook 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring Nitrogen Fixation In Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Rylee Cook

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

As of 2016, the genomes of over sixty species of methanogenic archaea have been sequenced.4 Research on the genomes of methanogens such as M. acetivorans led to the characterization of numerous genes with unknown functions. Genes similar to those of nitrogenase have been shown to possess functions unrelated to nitrogen fixation, such as F430 biosynthesis genes. 5,6,7 My research focused on the uncharacterized gene clusters ma2032-33 and ma1631-33 (Figure 1). These genes have conserved nitrogenase domains: ma2032 has fused nifH and nifD domains, while ma2033 has a nifD domain. The ma1631-33 gene cluster contains two nitrogenase homologs and one iron …


Studying The Lysine Acetylation Of Aconitase Isozymes In E. Coli, Sara Ottinger 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Studying The Lysine Acetylation Of Aconitase Isozymes In E. Coli, Sara Ottinger

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The contents of this thesis have been modified from the publication “Araujo J, Ottinger S, Venkat S, Gan Q and Fan C (2022) Studying Acetylation of Aconitase Isozymes by Genetic Code Expansion. Front. Chem. 10:862483”. Though studies have found multiple lysine sites in which acetylation takes place in Escherichia Coli aconitase, acetylation’s effects on the enzyme’s activity have yet to be studied. Aconitase is the dehydratase-hydratase found in the citric acid and glyoxylate cycles responsible for the reversible isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate intermediate. There are two isoforms of aconitase in E. coli: AcnA and AcnB. In …


Locked Nucleic Acid Aptamer And 10 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Increases The Sensitivity Of A Prion Protein Detection Assay, Haley Channell 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Locked Nucleic Acid Aptamer And 10 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Increases The Sensitivity Of A Prion Protein Detection Assay, Haley Channell

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Cognitive Status And Residency On Oral Health In Patients With Dementia, Nicole Stephens 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Effect Of Cognitive Status And Residency On Oral Health In Patients With Dementia, Nicole Stephens

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Poor oral health is a predictor of cognitive decline in elderly populations and has been shown to precede dementia. As cognitive decline progresses, patients are likely to move from the community into nursing facilities. We hypothesize that severity of dementia and residency type will impact the oral health of patients with dementia. Fifty-two participants of two dementia levels were recruited from the UTHealth Neurocognitive Disorders Center and two Houston-area nursing homes. A standardized oral health assessment, plaque index, and oral bacteria analysis determined participants’ oral health status. Further, data was collected on participants’ medical history, oral hygiene habits, dietary habits, …


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 …


Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans Exploits And Modulates The Immune Response By Human Neutrophils For Survival In The Anaerobic Environment., Hazel Ozuna 2022 University of Louisville

Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans Exploits And Modulates The Immune Response By Human Neutrophils For Survival In The Anaerobic Environment., Hazel Ozuna

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe and an opportunistic oral pathogen, strongly associated with localized periodontitis and other inflammatory diseases. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation of the periodontium resulting from the inflammatory response of the host towards the dysbiotic microbial community present at the gingival crevice. The host immune response creates a hostile environment for microorganisms; therefore, it is important for Aa to be able to regulate the necessary genes to survive and thrive in such an environment. Aaexpresses several virulence factors such as a cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and leukotoxin A (LtxA), …


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