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Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Innate Immunity Against Herpesviridae Infection: A Current Perspective On Viral Infection Signaling Pathways, Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar, Zhijun Liu 2020 Weifang Medical University

Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Innate Immunity Against Herpesviridae Infection: A Current Perspective On Viral Infection Signaling Pathways, Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar, Zhijun Liu

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: In the past decades, researchers have demonstrated the critical role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune system. They recognize viral components and trigger immune signal cascades to subsequently promote the activation of the immune system.

MAIN BODY: Herpesviridae family members trigger TLRs to elicit cytokines in the process of infection to activate antiviral innate immune responses in host cells. This review aims to clarify the role of TLRs in the innate immunity defense against herpesviridae, and systematically describes the processes of TLR actions and herpesviridae recognition as well as the signal transduction pathways involved.

CONCLUSIONS: Future studies ...


Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel 2020 Bowling Green State University

Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel

Honors Projects

Building on field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project analyzes environmental and endangered animal protection policies, rights, and practices in Central America and the Caribbean, and assesses the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. Informed by the recent surge in awareness regarding zoonoses and zoonotic disease transmission, prevention and control, resulting from the current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the project assesses the need for new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving conservation biologists, environmental scientists, public health experts, law and policy makers, and global trade and ...


Climate Warming’S Alteration Of Host-Parasite Dynamics, Ting-Hsuan Wu 2020 Binghamton University

Climate Warming’S Alteration Of Host-Parasite Dynamics, Ting-Hsuan Wu

Alpenglow: Binghamton University Undergraduate Journal of Research and Creative Activity

Parasites and pathogens have significant roles in host population control, and thus host-parasite interactions affect biodiversity. The important question reviewed in this paper is how changes in temperature due to climate change affect host-parasite interactions. There is mounting evidence that elevated temperatures have both beneficial and detrimental effects on parasites and independently on hosts. These independent changes result in altered host-parasite dynamics through various mechanisms. If elevated temperatures enhance parasite survival, risk of disease transmission among hosts is enhanced as well. This enhancement is dependent on temperature-induced shifts in the host lifecycle, as asynchrony in host and parasite development can ...


A Pharmacological Strategy Against African Sleeping Sickness, Wahaj Zuberi 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

A Pharmacological Strategy Against African Sleeping Sickness, Wahaj Zuberi

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Trypanosoma brucei is a parasitic eukaryote and is the causal agent of the disease known as African sleeping sickness, transmitted via the bite of a tsetse fly. If left untreated, the parasite ultimately crosses the blood-brain eventually leading to death. Currently there are 5 approved drugs used to treat it, each with toxic side effects and effective at specific disease stages. A more effective and less toxic drug candidate is highly sought after. The essential enzyme, dUTPase, is an excellent drug target in the parasite while utilizing S. cerevisiae as a model system.

dUTPase is essential in T. brucei (tbdUTPase ...


Assessment Of Grain Safety In Developing Nations, Jose R. Mendoza 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Assessment Of Grain Safety In Developing Nations, Jose R. Mendoza

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Grains are the most widely consumed foods worldwide, with maize (Zea mays) being frequently consumed in developing countries where it feeds approximately 900 million people under the poverty line of 2 USD per day. While grain handling practices are acceptable in most developed nations, many developing nations still face challenges such as inadequate field management, drying, and storage. Faulty grain handling along with unavoidably humid climates result in recurrent fungal growth and spoilage, which compromises both the end-quality and safety of the harvest. This becomes particularly problematic where there is little awareness about health risks associated with poor quality grain ...


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


Incidence Of Antibiotic Resistance And Plasmid Content In Freshwater Beach Sand And Water And Clinical Urinary Tract Infection Escherichia Coli Isolates, Robert F. White 2020 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Incidence Of Antibiotic Resistance And Plasmid Content In Freshwater Beach Sand And Water And Clinical Urinary Tract Infection Escherichia Coli Isolates, Robert F. White

Biology Theses

Antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria have been found in environmental ecosystems including beach sand and water, and pose a serious threat to the mitigation of human and animal disease. The presence of antibiotic residues in the environment, fueled by wastewater effluent and agricultural runoff, may produce selective pressure on introduced microbes such as Escherichia coli, leading to the production of AR populations. This study characterized and compared the antibiotic resistance patterns and plasmid content of E. coli isolated from a freshwater beach and clinical urinary tract infection (UTI) samples. A higher level of antibiotic resistance was expected in clinical (UTI) Escherichia coli ...


Two Hundred And Fifty-Four Metagenome-Assembled Bacterial Genomes From The Bank Vole Gut Microbiota, Anton Lavrinienko, Eugene Tukalenko, Timothy A. Mousseau, Luke R. Thompson, Rob Knight, Tapio Mappes, Phillip C. Watts 2020 University of Jyvaskyla

Two Hundred And Fifty-Four Metagenome-Assembled Bacterial Genomes From The Bank Vole Gut Microbiota, Anton Lavrinienko, Eugene Tukalenko, Timothy A. Mousseau, Luke R. Thompson, Rob Knight, Tapio Mappes, Phillip C. Watts

Faculty Publications

Vertebrate gut microbiota provide many essential services to their host. To better understand the diversity of such services provided by gut microbiota in wild rodents, we assembled metagenome shotgun sequence data from a small mammal, the bank vole Myodes glareolus (Rodentia, Cricetidae). We were able to identify 254 metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) that were at least 50% (n = 133 MAGs), 80% (n = 77 MAGs) or 95% (n = 44 MAGs) complete. As typical for a rodent gut microbiota, these MAGs are dominated by taxa assigned to the phyla Bacteroidetes (n = 132 MAGs) and Firmicutes (n = 80), with some Spirochaetes (n = 15 ...


An Impedimetric Aptasensing System For The Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium, America Sotero 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Impedimetric Aptasensing System For The Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium, America Sotero

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen associated with raw and undercooked eggs, poultry, beef, fruits, and vegetables. In the United States, Salmonella is responsible for approximately 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalizations, and 450 deaths annually. For many years, conventional detection methods such as culture-dependent and PCR-based methods have been the “golden standards” for the detection of this pathogen due to their high sensitivity and reliability. However, they still have some disadvantages such as long enrichment steps and high costs that need to be overcome. The development of a rapid and reliable method for the detection of S. Typhimurium ...


Host-Pathogen Genetic Interactions Underlie Tuberculosis Susceptibility In Genetically Diverse Mice [Preprint], Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Megan K. Proulx, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jarukit E. Long, Michael C. Kiritsy, Michelle Bellerose, Andrew J. Olive, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Frederick Boehm, Charlotte Reames, Christopher M. Sassetti 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Host-Pathogen Genetic Interactions Underlie Tuberculosis Susceptibility In Genetically Diverse Mice [Preprint], Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Megan K. Proulx, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jarukit E. Long, Michael C. Kiritsy, Michelle Bellerose, Andrew J. Olive, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Frederick Boehm, Charlotte Reames, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The outcome of an encounter with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on the pathogen’s ability to adapt to the heterogeneous immune response of the host. Understanding this interplay has proven difficult, largely because experimentally tractable small animal models do not recapitulate the heterogenous disease observed in natural infections. We leveraged the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse panel in conjunction with a library of Mtb mutants to associate bacterial genetic requirements with host genetics and immunity. We report that CC strains vary dramatically in their susceptibility to infection and represent reproducible models of qualitatively distinct immune states. Global analysis of ...


A Mechanistic Investigation Of Cytochrome C Nitrite Reductase Catalyzed Reduction Of Nitrite To Ammonia: The Search For Catalytic Intermediates, SHAHID SHAHID 2020 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

A Mechanistic Investigation Of Cytochrome C Nitrite Reductase Catalyzed Reduction Of Nitrite To Ammonia: The Search For Catalytic Intermediates, Shahid Shahid

Theses and Dissertations

Cytochrome c Nitrite Reductase (ccNiR) is a periplasmic homodimeric decaheme enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in a process that involves six electrons and eight protons. Under standard assay conditions, which use a strong reducing agent as an electron source, catalysis takes place rapidly without producing detectable intermediates. However, intermediates do accumulate when weaker reducing agents are employed, allowing the ccNiR mechanism to be studied. Herein, the early stages of Shewanella oneidensis ccNiR-catalyzed nitrite reduction were investigated in isolation by using the weak reducing agents N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) and the 2-electron reduced form of ...


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Cleaves The Decoding Center Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Ribosomes, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Emiliano P. Ricci, Victor R. Ambros 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Cleaves The Decoding Center Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Ribosomes, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Emiliano P. Ricci, Victor R. Ambros

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa advantageously modify animal host physiology, for example, by inhibiting host protein synthesis. Translational inhibition of insects and mammalian hosts by P. aeruginosa utilizes the well-known exotoxin A effector. However, for the infection of Caenorhabditis elegans by P. aeruginosa, the precise pathways and mechanism(s) of translational inhibition are not well understood. We found that upon exposure to P. aeruginosa PA14, C. elegans undergoes a rapid loss of intact ribosomes accompanied by the accumulation of ribosomes cleaved at helix 69 (H69) of the 26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a key part of ribosome decoding center. H69 cleavage ...


The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Implant-Associated Chronic Osteomyelitis In Staphylococcus Aureus Usa300 Lac, Gyan S. Sahukhal, Michelle Tucci, Hamed Benghuzzi, Gerri Wilson, Mohamed O. Elasri 2020 University of Southern Mississippi

The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Implant-Associated Chronic Osteomyelitis In Staphylococcus Aureus Usa300 Lac, Gyan S. Sahukhal, Michelle Tucci, Hamed Benghuzzi, Gerri Wilson, Mohamed O. Elasri

Faculty Publications

The msaABCR operon regulates several staphylococcal phenotypes such as biofilm formation, capsule production, protease production, pigmentation, antibiotic resistance, and persister cells formation. The msaABCR operon is required for maintaining the cell wall integrity via affecting peptidoglycan cross-linking. The msaABCR operon also plays a role in oxidative stress defense mechanism, which is required to facilitate persistent and recurrent staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent cause of chronic implant-associated osteomyelitis (OM). The CA-MRSA USA300 strains are predominant in the United States and cause severe infections, including bone and joint infections.


Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver 2020 Olivet Nazarene University

Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver

Pence-Boyce STEM Student Scholarship

Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease that is characterized by the hardening of arteries through the formation of cholesterol plaques. Cyclodextrins could potentially treat atherosclerosis by shrinking plaques. These cyclic oligosaccharides can make complexes with cholesterol but have also shown toxic side effects. This study looked for potential negative effects of cyclodextrins and cholesterol on gut bacteria. It was hypothesized that Bacteroides vulgatus will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cholesterol. In contrast, Clostridium bolteae will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cyclodextrins. Due to the fact that these bacteria are anaerobic, Clostridium bolteae and Bacteroides vulgatus ...


Molecular Detection Of Host-Specific Fecal Bacteria In Three Major Watersheds Of Piedmont Georgia, Muhammad Amar 2020 Georgia College

Molecular Detection Of Host-Specific Fecal Bacteria In Three Major Watersheds Of Piedmont Georgia, Muhammad Amar

Biology Theses

Abstract

Fecal pollution is a major concern in creeks and rivers. The aim of this study was to enumerate fecal coliform bacteria and identify the source of contamination using Microbial Source Tracking at three different creeks (Mountain Oak, Long Cane, and Ulcohatchee) in the Piedmont region of Georgia. Data collected in this research will be used to formulate watershed rehabilitation plans to decrease the transfer of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) into these creeks. Samples were collected at several sites along the creeks (4 sites at Mountain Oak, 10 sites at Long Cane, and 5 sites at Ulcohatchee). The site locations ...


The Values And Limitations Of Mathematical Modelling To Covid-19 In The World: A Follow Up Report, Yuanji Tang, Sherry Tang, Shixia Wang 2020 Applied NanoFemto Technologies, LLC

The Values And Limitations Of Mathematical Modelling To Covid-19 In The World: A Follow Up Report, Yuanji Tang, Sherry Tang, Shixia Wang

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

We previously described a mathematical model to simulate the course of the COVID-19 pandemic and try to predict how this outbreak might evolve in the following two months when the pandemic cases will drop significantly. Our original paper prepared in March 2020 analyzed the outbreaks of COVID-19 in the US and its selected states to identify the rise, peak, and decrease of cases within a given geographic population, as well as a rough calculation of accumulated total cases in this population from the beginning to the end of June 2020. The current report will describe how well the later actual ...


Study Of Plants Used Against Infections By California Native American Tribes, Maria J. Rojas 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Study Of Plants Used Against Infections By California Native American Tribes, Maria J. Rojas

Master's Theses

The objectives of this research were to evaluate the antibacterial activity and to determine the chemical composition of a list of medicinal plants used by Native Americans in California. Artemisia californica, Mimulus aurantiacus, Equisetum telmateia, Equisetum hyemale, and Marah fabacea were selected from a list of plants reported as having been used for ailments related to infections by tribes located in California. The extracts obtained through steam distillation from E. telmateia, E. hyemale and M. fabacea were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity against 16 Gram-negative and 6 Gram-positive bacteria using disk diffusion assays and measuring the diameters of inhibition ...


Exploring The Niche Of Rickettsia Montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection Of The American Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae), Using Multiple Species Distribution Model Approaches, Catherine A. Lippi, Holly Gaff, Alexis L. White, Heidi K. St. John, Allen L. Richards, Sadie J. Ryan 2020 Old Dominion University

Exploring The Niche Of Rickettsia Montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection Of The American Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae), Using Multiple Species Distribution Model Approaches, Catherine A. Lippi, Holly Gaff, Alexis L. White, Heidi K. St. John, Allen L. Richards, Sadie J. Ryan

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a vector for several human diseasecausing pathogens such as tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and the understudied spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) infection caused by Rickettsia montanensis. It is important for public health planning and intervention to understand the distribution of this tick and pathogen encounter risk. Risk is often described in terms of vector distribution, but greatest risk may be concentrated where more vectors are positive for a given pathogen. When assessing species distributions, the choice of modeling framework and spatial layers used to make predictions are important. We ...


Investigation Of Sulfur Cycling In Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Spp. From A South Florida Reef, Shelby K. Cain 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Investigation Of Sulfur Cycling In Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Spp. From A South Florida Reef, Shelby K. Cain

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Symbionts within marine sponges are actively participating in the biogeochemical cycles. Among them, the role of symbiont microbes in the sulfur cycle remains a mystery. This study measured the abundance of microbes within the genus Cinachyrella before and after exposure to hydrogen sulfide. A four-part study was conducted: a) five-hour drop experiments, b) vertical distribution experiments, c) five-hour uptake experiments, and d) long-term exposure experiments. The five-hour drop experiment utilized a microsensor to measure sulfide levels, which was lowered 1.0 mm every thirty minutes for a total of 5 hours. Three trials were performed, each with one sponge and ...


In The Margins: Reconsidering The Range And Contribution Of Diazotrophs In Nearshore Environments, Corday R. Selden 2020 Old Dominion University

In The Margins: Reconsidering The Range And Contribution Of Diazotrophs In Nearshore Environments, Corday R. Selden

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Dinitrogen (N2) fixation enables primary production and, consequently, carbon dioxide drawdown in nitrogen (N) limited marine systems, exerting a powerful influence over the coupled carbon and N cycles. Our understanding of the environmental factors regulating its distribution and magnitude are largely based on the range and sensitivity of one genus, Trichodesmium. However, recent work suggests that the niche preferences of distinct diazotrophic (N2 fixing) clades differ due to their metabolic and ecological diversity, hampering efforts to close the N budget and model N2 fixation accurately. Here, I explore the range of N2 fixation across physico-chemical ...


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