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Enhancing Lovastatin Biosynthesis In Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus Ostreatus) Using Phytohormones, Fransisca Astrid Mustafa, Mamat Kandar, I Nyoman Pugeg Aryantha 2023 Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

Enhancing Lovastatin Biosynthesis In Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus Ostreatus) Using Phytohormones, Fransisca Astrid Mustafa, Mamat Kandar, I Nyoman Pugeg Aryantha

Makara Journal of Science

The biosynthesis of lovastatin, the anti-cholesterol compound, in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), has the potential to be enhanced by utilizing phytohormones, which activate the expression of certain genes. This research aimed to determine the best type and concentration of phytohormone among auxin, gibberellin, and cytokinin, as well as the best mycelial colonization percentage in F2 medium to realize the greatest increase in lovastatin biosynthesis in oyster mushrooms. Lovastatin was extracted from the fruiting bodies and mycelia and analyzed by spectrophotometry. The analysis of CYP450 linked to lovastatin biosynthesis was conducted by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using samples containing …


Symbiotic Ucyn-A Strains Co-Occurred With El Niño, Relaxed Upwelling, And Varied Eukaryotes Over 10 Years Off Southern California, Colette Fletcher-Hoppe, Yi-Chun Yeh, Yubin Raut, J. L. Weissman, Jed A. Fuhrman 2023 University of Southern California

Symbiotic Ucyn-A Strains Co-Occurred With El Niño, Relaxed Upwelling, And Varied Eukaryotes Over 10 Years Off Southern California, Colette Fletcher-Hoppe, Yi-Chun Yeh, Yubin Raut, J. L. Weissman, Jed A. Fuhrman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Biological nitrogen fixation, the conversion of N2 gas into a bioavailable form, is vital to sustaining marine primary production. Studies have shifted beyond traditionally studied tropical diazotrophs. Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (or UCYN-A) has emerged as a focal point due to its streamlined metabolism, intimate partnership with a haptophyte host, and broad distribution. Here, we explore the environmental parameters that govern UCYN-A’s presence at the San Pedro Ocean Time-series (SPOT), its host specificity, and statistically significant interactions with non-host eukaryotes from 2008-2018. 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences were amplified by “universal primers” from monthly samples and resolved into Amplicon …


Wildfires Disturb The Natural Skin Microbiota Of Terrestrial Salamanders, Lubna Mulla, Obed Hernandez-Gomez 2023 Dominican University of California

Wildfires Disturb The Natural Skin Microbiota Of Terrestrial Salamanders, Lubna Mulla, Obed Hernandez-Gomez

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship

Environmental change can disturb natural associations between wildlife and microbial symbionts, in many cases to the detriment of host health. We used a North American terrestrial salamander system to assess how the skin microbiota of amphibians responds to wildfires. In northern California's redwood/oak forests, we assessed how recent wildfires affected the skin microbiota of three different salamander species (Taricha sp., Batrachoseps attenuatus, and Ensatina eschscholtzii) over two different sampling seasons in 2018 and 2021. We found species-specific responses to wildfire disturbance on the alpha diversity of the skin microbiota of terrestrial salamanders, although burning in general altered the composition of …


Viral Dna Accumulation Regulates Replication Efficiency Of Chlorovirus Osy-Ne5 In Two Closely Related Chlorella Variabilis Strains, Ahmed Esmael, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan, You Zhou, James L. Van Etten 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln, Benha University

Viral Dna Accumulation Regulates Replication Efficiency Of Chlorovirus Osy-Ne5 In Two Closely Related Chlorella Variabilis Strains, Ahmed Esmael, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan, You Zhou, James L. Van Etten

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Many chloroviruses replicate in Chlorella variabilis algal strains that are ex-endosymbionts isolated from the protozoan Paramecium bursaria, including the NC64A and Syngen 2-3 strains. We noticed that indigenous water samples produced a higher number of plaque-forming viruses on C. variabilis Syngen 2-3 lawns than on C. variabilis NC64A lawns. These observed differences led to the discovery of viruses that replicate exclusively in Syngen 2-3 cells, named Only Syngen (OSy) viruses. Here, we demonstrate that OSy viruses initiate infection in the restricted host NC64A by synthesizing some early virus gene products and that approximately 20% of the cells produce a …


The Influence Of Microorganisms On Human Health, Tiffany Bui 2023 Portland State University

The Influence Of Microorganisms On Human Health, Tiffany Bui

University Honors Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to explore the interplay between the environment, lifestyle, and composition of human microbiomes across different communities, with a specific focus on immune and digestive health. This literature review investigates three distinct types of communities: isolated/traditional, transitional, and urban/industrialized communities, each characterized by unique environments, societal structures, and interactions. These factors contribute to the distinct microbial populations and compositions within each community. It is impossible to avoid contact with microorganisms as they are present in every aspect of our lives, from the air we breathe, the water we drink, the soil we walk on, the …


Reproduction, Early Development, And Larval Rearing Of The Climbing Perch Anabas Testudineus (Teleostei: Anabantidae) In Captivity, Frolan A. Aya, Reylan C. Gutierrez, Luis Maria B. Garcia 2023 Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Binangonan Freshwater Station, Binangonan, Rizal 1940, Philippines

Reproduction, Early Development, And Larval Rearing Of The Climbing Perch Anabas Testudineus (Teleostei: Anabantidae) In Captivity, Frolan A. Aya, Reylan C. Gutierrez, Luis Maria B. Garcia

The Philippine Agricultural Scientist

Induced spawning, early development, and larval rearing of the climbing perch Anabas testudineus were examined under captive conditions. Five female climbing perch [125.33 ± 3.27 mm SL; 70.67 ± 5.59 g BW] were paired with apparently mature males (108.50 ± 3.97 mm SL; 39.27 ± 4.70 g BW) and induced to spawn with 5,000 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) + 0.5 mL Ovaprim kg BW-1. All hCG + Ovaprim-injected fish spawned 9 – 11 h after hormone administration but saline-injected fish (control group) failed to spawn. Mean egg production per female, fertilization and hatching rates, and larval production …


Effects Of Climate Change On Human Health, Sara El Houzaly, Richa Gupta 2023 CUNY La Guardia Community College

Effects Of Climate Change On Human Health, Sara El Houzaly, Richa Gupta

Publications and Research

The effects of climate change are evident worldwide as average global land and air temperatures have been rising, glaciers and ice sheets are shrinking with the concomitant rise in sea levels, extreme weather events have become more frequent, and oceans are warming and acidifying. Humanity is facing a big environmental challenge which not only impacts our habitat but will also have ramifications on our health. The present review describes a detailed examination of the scientific evidence proving the relationship between climate change and various fatal human diseases in different geographical regions. Our findings indicate that variations in the patterns of …


The Influence Of Sampling Frequency On Bee Species Richness, Courtney Caccamo 2023 Providence College

The Influence Of Sampling Frequency On Bee Species Richness, Courtney Caccamo

Biology Student Scholarship

As one of Earth’s most valuable pollinators, bees provide important pollination services to wild plant species and crops alike (Winfree 2010). But, in recent years, bee populations appear to be declining due to a variety of anthropogenic drivers (Potts et al. 2010). Quantifying the extent of bee population decline is difficult because there is currently a lack of a standardized protocol for how best to survey bee populations (Tepedino & Portman 2021). One of the commonly used survey methods is pan trapping, which involves leaving out yellow, white, and blue bowls filled with soapy water to passively sample the species …


Considerations For The Use Of Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculants In Coal Mine Reclamation And Reforestation In Appalachia: A Guide Of Best Practices And Management Recommendations, Cole Hansen Reistrup 2023 University of San Francisco

Considerations For The Use Of Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculants In Coal Mine Reclamation And Reforestation In Appalachia: A Guide Of Best Practices And Management Recommendations, Cole Hansen Reistrup

Master's Projects and Capstones

Nearly all terrestrial plants form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. These beneficial soil microbes support plant health by increasing plants’ access to nutrients and water, protecting them from pathogens, improving soil properties, and more. A challenge to restoring forests on coal mined land in Appalachia is that mine soils are often degraded in a number of ways, including lacking mycorrhizal fungi, which makes mine soils difficult for trees to grow upon. Substantial improvements to coal mine reforestation success have been made since the development of the Forestry Reclamation Approach in 2005 that provides guidelines for how to create a suitable …


Overexpressing Two Helicobacter Pylori Small Rnas From A Bacterial Pathogenicity-Related Chromosomal Region To Investigate Their Regulation Of Virulence Genes, Roxanne N. McPeck, Olivia F. Morgan, Andrea R. Castillo PhD 2023 Eastern Washington University

Overexpressing Two Helicobacter Pylori Small Rnas From A Bacterial Pathogenicity-Related Chromosomal Region To Investigate Their Regulation Of Virulence Genes, Roxanne N. Mcpeck, Olivia F. Morgan, Andrea R. Castillo Phd

2023 Symposium

The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori infects the stomachs of approximately 50% of humanity, causing symptomatic disease (e.g., stomach ulcers, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma) in 10-15% of the infected. Colonizing the acidic, inhospitable stomach requires H. pylori to tightly regulate gene expression despite lacking many common bacterial genetic regulatory elements. The pathogen may compensate by using abundant non-protein-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) to regulate gene expression, including of infection-intensifying virulence genes. Additionally, severe disease and cancer correlate with infection by H. pylori strains that contain a nonessential chromosomal region, the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cagPAI). This encodes powerful virulence …


Influenza C And D Viruses Demonstrated A Differential Respiratory Tissue Tropism In A Comparative Pathogenesis Study In Guinea Pigs, Chithra C. Sreenivasan, Runxia Liu, Rongyuan Gao, Yicheng Guo, Ben M. Hause, Milton Thomas, Ahsan Naveed, Travis Clement, Dana Rausch, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Julian Druce, Miaoyun Zhao, Radhey S. Kaushik, Qingsheng Li, Zizhang Sheng, Dan Dan, Feng Li 2023 University of Kentucky

Influenza C And D Viruses Demonstrated A Differential Respiratory Tissue Tropism In A Comparative Pathogenesis Study In Guinea Pigs, Chithra C. Sreenivasan, Runxia Liu, Rongyuan Gao, Yicheng Guo, Ben M. Hause, Milton Thomas, Ahsan Naveed, Travis Clement, Dana Rausch, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Julian Druce, Miaoyun Zhao, Radhey S. Kaushik, Qingsheng Li, Zizhang Sheng, Dan Dan, Feng Li

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Influenza C virus (ICV) is increasingly associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and its disease severity is worse than the influenza B virus, but similar to influenza A virus associated CAP. Despite the ubiquitous infection landscape of ICV in humans, little is known about its replication and pathobiology in animals. The goal of this study was to understand the replication kinetics, tissue tropism, and pathogenesis of human ICV (huICV) in comparison to the swine influenza D virus (swIDV) in guinea pigs. Intranasal inoculation of both viruses did not cause clinical signs, however, the infected animals shed virus in nasal …


Exploring The Dynamics Of Bacterial Populations In The Gut Microbiota, Shaikh Obaidullah 2023 Florida State University

Exploring The Dynamics Of Bacterial Populations In The Gut Microbiota, Shaikh Obaidullah

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Helices In Fluids And Their Applications, Eva M. Strawbridge 2023 James Madison University

Helices In Fluids And Their Applications, Eva M. Strawbridge

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Adenoviral-Vectored Epigraph Vaccine Elicits Robust, Durable, And Protective Immunity Against H3 Influenza A Virus In Swine, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Matthew J. Pekarek, Nicholas Jeanjaquet, Cedric Wooledge, David J. Steffen, Hiep Vu, Eric A. Weaver 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Adenoviral-Vectored Epigraph Vaccine Elicits Robust, Durable, And Protective Immunity Against H3 Influenza A Virus In Swine, Erika M. Petro-Turnquist, Matthew J. Pekarek, Nicholas Jeanjaquet, Cedric Wooledge, David J. Steffen, Hiep Vu, Eric A. Weaver

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Current methods of vaccination against swine Influenza A Virus (IAV-S) in pigs are infrequently updated, induce strain-specific responses, and have a limited duration of protection. Here, we characterize the onset and duration of adaptive immune responses after vaccination with an adenoviral-vectored Epigraph vaccine. In this longitudinal study we observed robust and durable antibody responses that remained above protective titers six months after vaccination. We further identified stable levels of antigen-specific T cell responses that remained detectable in the absence of antigen stimulation. Antibody isotyping revealed robust class switching from IgM to IgG induced by Epigraph vaccination, while the commercial comparator …


Characterization Of Lps As A Virulence Factor In Burkholderia Cepacia During Plant And Human Infection, Jack Klahr, Elizabeth Danka 2023 St. Norbert College

Characterization Of Lps As A Virulence Factor In Burkholderia Cepacia During Plant And Human Infection, Jack Klahr, Elizabeth Danka

Biology Senior Theses

Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative bacterium first characterized as the causative agent of sour skin in onion crops. More recently, B. cepacia has become a clinical concern as an opportunistic pathogen that can colonize the upper respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients and increase mortality in these patients. Infection is exacerbated by the intrinsic resistance to antibiotics found in this genus of organisms. Additional virulence factors help the bacteria persist in the host during infection. However, few of these factors have been described. In this work, we characterized a putative virulence factor that was first identified through an onion infection …


The Effects Of Aloe Vera On The Human Gut Microbiome, Samantha Leon 2023 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Aloe Vera On The Human Gut Microbiome, Samantha Leon

Honors Theses

The human gut microbiome is a diverse community of bacteria influenced by multiple factors including host age, geographical location, and diet. This study observed the effects of aloe vera juice on the human gut microbiome. Fecal samples were taken every two weeks over a period of one year; the subject consumed aloe vera juice in alternating cycles of consumption “on” and abstaining “off” with each cycle lasting for eight weeks. The bacterial community in each sample was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequences were identified and their relative abundances were used to look for patterns distinguishing “on” and “off” …


Eco-Interoception: What Plants, Fungi And Protista Have Taught My Body, Sara Riley Dotterer 2023 Southern Methodist University

Eco-Interoception: What Plants, Fungi And Protista Have Taught My Body, Sara Riley Dotterer

Art Theses and Dissertations

To me, ecology is the relational, full-body awareness that I am made up of and deeply connected to everything around me; and for better or worse, this is reciprocal. I form ecotones, an ecological transitional zone between two ecosystems, with the world around me. I use this ecotonal lens to blur binaries and dissolve boundaries between me and the world “outside my body.” During my Masters of Fine Arts at Southern Methodist University, I have continuously explored and represented the lives of various more-than-human species outside of my body, including plants, fungi and protista through an ecotonal lens. Although these …


The Development Of A Primer Payload With Microparticles For Uti Pathogen Identification Using Polythymidine- Modified Lamp Primers In Droplet Lamp, Jonas Otoo 2023 Claremont Colleges

The Development Of A Primer Payload With Microparticles For Uti Pathogen Identification Using Polythymidine- Modified Lamp Primers In Droplet Lamp, Jonas Otoo

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are among the diagnostic tests with the highest sensitivity and specificity. However, they are more complex to develop than other diagnostic tests such as biochemical tests and lateral flow immunoassay tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold standard for NAATs. PCR requires thermal cycling to achieve clonal amplification of the target pathogen DNA for diagnosis. Thermal cycling poses a challenge in the development of PCR diagnostics for point-of-care (POC) settings. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) offers an isothermal method for NAATs diagnostics. The advancement of the microfluidics field significantly enhances the development of LAMP diagnostics …


Development Of Recombinant Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccines Expressing Sars-Cov-2 Antigens, Cody Wilson 2023 University of Mississippi

Development Of Recombinant Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccines Expressing Sars-Cov-2 Antigens, Cody Wilson

Honors Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) continues to cause infections and deaths around the globe. Since its emergence, scientists have worked diligently to discover and produce vaccines to battle the virus. While they successfully created and distributed vaccines, the vaccines are not without flaw. These vaccines do not grant long term immunity, require multiple booster shots, and have not prevented the emergence of viral variants. In this study, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD), which is a key part of the spike protein (S), and nucleocapsid (N) genetic sequences were inserted into the live varicella …


Mechanistic Examination Of Protist-Mediated Plant Growth Through The Comparative Development Of Medicago Truncatula, Shane Connolly 2023 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Mechanistic Examination Of Protist-Mediated Plant Growth Through The Comparative Development Of Medicago Truncatula, Shane Connolly

University Scholar Projects

Protists are known to increase plant growth through two main mechanisms: the microbial loop and the alteration of the root microbiome. The microbial loop is a nutrient recycling method in which protists provide inorganic nitrogen ions to the plant. Alteration of root microbiome leads to the removal of plant pathogens and shifting communities towards plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). This study aimed to elicit which mechanism could produce the largest boost in shoot weight for Medicago truncatula. A series of microcosm experiments were explored in which M. truncatula was grown with variable microbiome structures to allow for mechanism differentiation. The …


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