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Gut Check: Exploring The Role Of Acinetobacter In Intestinal Inflammation, Janiece Glover 2024 Medical University of South Carolina

Gut Check: Exploring The Role Of Acinetobacter In Intestinal Inflammation, Janiece Glover

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic disorder characterized by excessive intestinal inflammation. Alterations in the gut microbiota have been consistently observed in individuals with IBD, but it is unclear which bacteria participate in driving inflammation. A comprehensive survey of publicly available RNA-sequencing datasets revealed that Acinetobacter species are elevated in the gastrointestinal tract of IBD patients. We found that A. calcoaceticus was particularly elevated in Crohn’s Disease patients; a subset of IBD. It is well documented that Acinetobacter species are resistant to several antibiotics, but there is very little information on the effects of Acinetobacter in the gut and …


Effect Of Assay Medium Ph On Inhibitory Ability Of Streptomyces, Trevor Swan, Miriam Gieske 2024 University of Minnesota - Morris

Effect Of Assay Medium Ph On Inhibitory Ability Of Streptomyces, Trevor Swan, Miriam Gieske

Undergraduate Research Symposium 2024

Streptomyces bacteria from soil often produce antibiotics which inhibit growth of other microbes. When comparing Streptomyces’ inhibitory ability between different soils, it may be important to match the pH of the medium used in assays to the pH of the soil they came from. We assayed Streptomyces isolates collected from a long-term agricultural experiment with nitrogen-fertilized and non-fertilized treatments to determine their ability to inhibit growth of other bacteria by producing antibiotics. Average soil pH was 6.8 in fertilized soil and 7.2 in non-fertilized soil. We dotted isolates on a glucose-asparagine agar medium adjusted to different pH values and overlaid …


Ammonium Chemotaxis In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Gabela Nelson 2024 Louisiana State University

Ammonium Chemotaxis In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Gabela Nelson

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Analysis of ammonium chemotaxis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is largely hindered, compared to that of phototaxis, despite equal importance on flagellated microalgal physiology. A major contribution of this shortfall is the lack of proper assay method. We developed a simple Petri dish assay method in which light is homogenously exposed while patterns of the cellular migration are tracked with a function of time. Using the method, new findings were revealed. First, this research presented that a strain lacking the eyespot organelle required for light gradient-sensing exhibits similar chemotactic behavior compared to a wild-type strain, suggesting Chlamydomonas sense an ammonium gradient not …


Hgs-3 The Influence Of A Tandem Cycling Program In The Community On Physical And Functional Health, Therapeutic Bonds, And Quality Of Life For Individuals And Care Partners Coping With Parkinson’S Disease, Leila Djerdjour, Jennifer L. Trilk 2024 university of south carolina school of medicine greenville

Hgs-3 The Influence Of A Tandem Cycling Program In The Community On Physical And Functional Health, Therapeutic Bonds, And Quality Of Life For Individuals And Care Partners Coping With Parkinson’S Disease, Leila Djerdjour, Jennifer L. Trilk

SC Upstate Research Symposium

Purpose Statement: Several studies have shown that aerobic exercise can have a positive impact on alleviating symptoms experienced by individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite this evidence, the potential benefits of exercise for both PD patients and their care partners (PD dyad) remain unexplored. This research project investigates the effectiveness, therapeutic collaborations, and physical outcomes of a virtual reality (VR) tandem cycling program specifically designed for PD dyads.

Methods: Following approval from the Prisma Health Institutional Review Board, individuals with PD were identified and screened by clinical neurologists. The pre-testing measures for PD dyads (N=9) included emotional and cognitive status …


Screening Environmental Soil Samples For Antibiotic Production, Paige Mattick 2024 Fort Hays State University

Screening Environmental Soil Samples For Antibiotic Production, Paige Mattick

SACAD: John Heinrichs Scholarly and Creative Activity Days

Antibiotic resistance is a detrimental worldwide challenge, producing bacterial infections that are progressively more difficult to treat and cure. To attempt to help alleviate this issue, we screened soil samples for the presence of antibiotic-producing microorganisms. Soil samples were collected and diluted to 1:100 and 1:1000 ratios of soil and distilled water. These soil mixtures were then streaked onto tryptic soy agar (TSA) plates and incubated at 30℃ until colonies developed. These colonies were then selected and plated on a lawn of Serratia marcescens, which was utilized as the target organism.

Serratia marcescens was selected due to its known resistance …


Presence Of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus C In Domestic Pigs In Kansas, Avery Welton, Eric T. Gillock 2024 Fort Hays State University

Presence Of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus C In Domestic Pigs In Kansas, Avery Welton, Eric T. Gillock

SACAD: John Heinrichs Scholarly and Creative Activity Days

There is currently a shortage of organs available to perform allotransplants in humans, prompting the exploration of xenotransplantation as an alternative. Xenotransplantation is the transplantation of living tissues between different species, with porcine tissues being a promising option. However, concerns arise regarding cross-species transmission, particularly in relation to Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs). PERVs are retroviruses that are integrated into the germ-line cells of pigs and are permanently embedded in the host cell’s DNA, allowing for vertical transmission. Of significant concern is the infectious nature of two PERV subtypes, A and B, to humans, which can potentially recombine with the third …


Ty4 Retrotransposon Presence In Yeast Strains, Maria P. Walters, Eric T. Gillock 2024 Fort Hays State University

Ty4 Retrotransposon Presence In Yeast Strains, Maria P. Walters, Eric T. Gillock

SACAD: John Heinrichs Scholarly and Creative Activity Days

Yeast is used in everyday life. It is important to understand the genetic components of yeast. In various laboratory yeast strains, there are findings of TY1, TY2, and TY3. TY1 through TY3 have been well studied, while TY4 and TY5 are retroelements that have yet to be thoroughly studied. It is known that TY4 is found at only one to three copies per haploid genome.

TY4 is a retrotransposon, which shares similarities with retroviruses, making it essential to study its presence in

yeast. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of TY4 among lab strains, brewing strains, and baking strains …


Adherent-Invasive Escherichia Coli (Aiec) Promotes Mild Colitis In The C57bl/6 Il-10 Ko Mouse Model Of Crohn's Disease, Sarah SM Zaw 2024 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Adherent-Invasive Escherichia Coli (Aiec) Promotes Mild Colitis In The C57bl/6 Il-10 Ko Mouse Model Of Crohn's Disease, Sarah Sm Zaw

Senior Theses

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10 KO) mice are crucial in CD research. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) is a subgroup of E. coli. In one study, IL-10 KO mice colonized with AIEC developed colitis in the distal colon compared to wild-type (WT) mice. I investigated how AIEC NC101 WT affects colitis severity in IL-10 KO mice of the C57BL/6 genetic background. Similar results in both genotypes would enhance mouse strain accessibility. Germ-free C57BL6 IL-10 KO mice were divided into groups: colonized with AIEC NC101 for 12, 15, or 18 weeks, or kept germ-free. Histopathological …


Monophosphoryl Lipid A-Based Adjuvant To Promote The Immunogenicity Of Multivalent Meningococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccines, Kishore Alugupalli 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

Monophosphoryl Lipid A-Based Adjuvant To Promote The Immunogenicity Of Multivalent Meningococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccines, Kishore Alugupalli

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Activation of the adaptive immune system requires the engagement of costimulatory pathways in addition to B and T cell Ag receptor signaling, and adjuvants play a central role in this process. Many Gram-negative bacterial polysaccharide vaccines, including the tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (MCV4) and typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccines, do not incorporate adjuvants. The immunogenicity of typhoid vaccines is due to the presence of associated TLR4 ligands in these vaccines. Because the immunogenicity of MCV4 is poor and requires boosters, I hypothesized that TLR4 ligands are absent in MCV4 and that incorporation of a TLR4 ligand-based adjuvant would improve their immunogenicity. …


Rainwater Harvesting Systems Metagenomics, Jade Riddle, Julia Parsons 2024 Longwood University

Rainwater Harvesting Systems Metagenomics, Jade Riddle, Julia Parsons

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

Climate change induced water scarcity has led to an increasing interest in non-traditional water sources such as rainwater. However, there are lingering health and safety concerns due to the lack of research into the microbial communities contained within collection systems. To address this gap, water samples were collected from rain barrels around northern Virginia for microbial analysis. Each microbe within the sample has a unique genome subject to DNA testing. Environmental DNA was prepared from the collected water samples. To characterize the microbial community, both targeted sequencing and whole genome sequencing approaches were used. Using targeted sequencing of the 16s …


Turbidimetric Bioassays: A Solution To Antimicrobial Activity Detection In Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Isolates Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Ciara Kenneally, Craig P. Murphy, Roy D. Sleator, Eamonn P. Culligan 2024 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland

Turbidimetric Bioassays: A Solution To Antimicrobial Activity Detection In Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Isolates Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Ciara Kenneally, Craig P. Murphy, Roy D. Sleator, Eamonn P. Culligan

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Traditional bacteriocin screening methods often face limitations due to diffusion-related challenges in agar matrices, which can prevent the peptides from reaching their target organism. Turbidimetric techniques offer a solution to these issues, eliminating diffusion-related problems and providing an initial quantification of bacteriocin efficacy in producer organisms. This study involved screening the cell-free supernatant (CFS) from eight uncharacterized asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) isolates and Escherichia coli 83972 for antimicrobial activity against clinical uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains using turbidimetric growth methods. ABU isolates exhibiting activity against five or more UPEC strains were further characterized (PUTS 37, PUTS 58, PUTS 59, S-07-4, and …


A Review On Bioremediation Of Heavy Metals And Hydrocarbons Through Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria And Composting, Hafsa Saleem, Hadia Farooq, Rimsha Mazhar, Sadaf Shakil, Sahar Fazal 2024 Department of Bioinformatics and Biosciences, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

A Review On Bioremediation Of Heavy Metals And Hydrocarbons Through Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria And Composting, Hafsa Saleem, Hadia Farooq, Rimsha Mazhar, Sadaf Shakil, Sahar Fazal

Journal of Bioresource Management

Soil is an important ecosystem component; it serves as a habitat for many microscopic organisms that play an important role in the ecosystem's maintenance and crops grown in soil. Unfortunately, human activities have adversely affected not only the environment but also the soil health. Soil has been contaminated with heavy metals hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-based products that are affecting soil health and the growth of plants. In this review two methods of heavy metal remediation are discussed; one is the role of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) in the enhancement of phytoremediation and the other is composting. PGPB help plants to grow …


An Antiviral Response Unleashed: Deciphering The Relationship Between Shiftless And Rna Granules During Kshv Infection, David C. Hatfield 2024 University of Massachusetts Amherst

An Antiviral Response Unleashed: Deciphering The Relationship Between Shiftless And Rna Granules During Kshv Infection, David C. Hatfield

Masters Theses

Herpesviruses persist as a parasitic actor among many species. These viral agents can rapidly seize control over host cells by influencing global gene expression. Through a process known as host shutoff, herpesviruses cause a widespread degradation event of host transcripts within the cytoplasm. Specifically, Kaposi Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes for an endoribonuclease, termed SOX, that orchestrates this manipulation of gene expression. We and others have discovered certain transcripts that escape this fate; we suggest that this is an active escape, where transcripts have 3’ UTR elements that disallow SOX cleavage. One of the escapees that has been found is …


Synthesis, Molecular Characteristics, And Antibacterial Assessment Of Marine Hydroid Aqueous Extract-Based Silver Bio-Nanoparticles, Fredryk Mandey, Aulia Rhamdani Arfan, Rugaiyah Andi Arfah 2024 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Hasanuddin, Sulawesi Selatan 90245, Indonesia

Synthesis, Molecular Characteristics, And Antibacterial Assessment Of Marine Hydroid Aqueous Extract-Based Silver Bio-Nanoparticles, Fredryk Mandey, Aulia Rhamdani Arfan, Rugaiyah Andi Arfah

Makara Journal of Science

This investigation aims to synthesize, analyze the molecularity, and test the ability of bacterial inhibition capability of silver nanoparticles that have been synthesized by simply mixing silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of marine natural products with and without the addition of amylum as a stabilizing agent. This research, with and without the addition of amylum as a stabilizing agent, obtained 39.0 and 55.2 mg of solids of round-shaped morphology silver nanoparticles with diameters of 87.9 and 103.0 nm., respectively. In addition, the antibacterial testing assay against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli showed some considerably good results. S. aureus with the …


Molecular Detection Of Human And Dog Fecal Pollution In Pensacola, Florida, Logan McCullers, Jodel Nicholas, Dave Bachoon 2024 Georgia College & State University

Molecular Detection Of Human And Dog Fecal Pollution In Pensacola, Florida, Logan Mccullers, Jodel Nicholas, Dave Bachoon

Graduate Research Showcase

Pensacola, Florida (USA), has a thriving coastal community that depends on its coastal areas for recreation, shellfish harvesting, and fisheries. However, increasing levels of fecal pollution pose a potential threat to the water quality of these coastal systems. Identifying the source and abundance of contaminants in these environments is critical to controlling fecal pollution in these areas. This study aimed to use Microbial Source Tracking techniques to determine the source of pollution in five sites (Bayou Texar Lower, Willard Norris Road Creek, Clear Creek Boat Ramp @ 87, Quinette River Boat Ramp and Pensacola Bay Bridge) in the Pensacola area. …


Vitro Bacteriophage Treatment For A Staphylococcus Aureus And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Co-Culture, Alexis Perry 2024 Ouachita Baptist University

Vitro Bacteriophage Treatment For A Staphylococcus Aureus And Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Co-Culture, Alexis Perry

Arkansas Women in STEM Conference

Recent studies show that up 27-36% of all infections are polymicrobial, involving more than one bacteria species. In all categories, polymicrobial infections are often more virulent and harmful to the patient. Since different types of bacteria can communicate with each other through quorum-sensing when in the presence of each other, they can display different genomic characteristics. Further research into polymicrobial infections needs to be done because these changing characteristics can prevent treatment from working, such as antibiotics or bacteriophage therapy. This experiment focused on the co-culture between the two bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which can be found co-existing …


Investigating The Escape Mechanism Of Sre Bearing Mrna Transcripts During Viral Host Shutoff, Daniel MacVeigh-Fierro 2024 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Investigating The Escape Mechanism Of Sre Bearing Mrna Transcripts During Viral Host Shutoff, Daniel Macveigh-Fierro

Doctoral Dissertations

During viral infection, the virus and host clash for control over gene expression in an evolutionarily arms race that has raged for thousands of years. During lytic replication, Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) triggers a massive RNA decay event known as host shut off. This causes over 70% of all RNA to be degraded suppressing the host antiviral response while freeing resources for viral replication. Our lab focuses on a subset of transcripts that escape from this viral degradation event using a cis acting 3’ UTR element known as a “SOX resistant element” or SRE. Although we have identified a …


The Impacts Of Environment And Host Evolutionary Relationships On Lemur Microbiota, Rachel B. Burten 2024 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Impacts Of Environment And Host Evolutionary Relationships On Lemur Microbiota, Rachel B. Burten

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent studies have shown that the mammal microbiome is modified by environmental conditions, and that reduced microbiome functionality is associated with host health issues. Microbiome data in wild and captive primate populations can therefore be used to assess their health as they encounter a variety of environments. Comparative studies of the microbiome can also inform disease ecology, conservation, and captive management strategies tailored to different primate species. Therefore, this study examines how the hair, oral, and gut microbiota of nine wild and captive lemur species are determined by host phylogenetic relationships and host environment. I found that host species identity …


Methionyl-Trna Synthetase Synthetic And Proofreading Activities Are Determinants Of Antibiotic Persistence, Whitney N. Wood, Miguel Angel Rubio, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Gregory J. Phillips, Michael Ibba 2024 The Ohio State University

Methionyl-Trna Synthetase Synthetic And Proofreading Activities Are Determinants Of Antibiotic Persistence, Whitney N. Wood, Miguel Angel Rubio, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Gregory J. Phillips, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Bacterial antibiotic persistence is a phenomenon where bacteria are exposed to an antibiotic and the majority of the population dies while a small subset enters a low metabolic, persistent, state and are able to survive. Once the antibiotic is removed the persistent population can resuscitate and continue growing. Several different molecular mechanisms and pathways have been implicated in this phenomenon. A common mechanism that may underly bacterial antibiotic persistence is perturbations in protein synthesis. To investigate this mechanism, we characterized four distinct metG mutants for their ability to increase antibiotic persistence. Two metG mutants encode changes near the catalytic site …


Targeting Mycobacterial Efflux System For Combating Anti-Microbial Resistance, Arathi Radhakrishnan, Raj Kishor Kapardar, Rajpal Srivastav 2024 Amity University Uttar Pradesh

Targeting Mycobacterial Efflux System For Combating Anti-Microbial Resistance, Arathi Radhakrishnan, Raj Kishor Kapardar, Rajpal Srivastav

Research Symposium

Background: The drug resistance in the microbes is a serious concern in medicine. Along with intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors like unprescribed usage of drugs are the contributing factors. The drug tolerance has led to the emergence of superbugs. Mycobacterial species utilize an array of multidrug efflux mechanisms linked to intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance. Understanding molecular mechanisms regulating efflux could reveal new therapeutic targets and strategies. Our study is aimed to target regulators of efflux Mycobacterial transporter.

Methods: Using the reference mycobacterial strain, antibiotic sensitivity was first profiled by minimal inhibitory concentration assays across a panel of antimicrobials, followed by …


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