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Microcystis Sp. Co-Producing Microcystin And Saxitoxin From Songkhla Lake Basin, Thailand, Ampapan Naknaen, Waraporn Ratsameepakai, Oramas Suttinun, Yaowapa Sukpondma, Eakalak Khan, Rattanaruji Pomwised 2021 Prince of Songkla University

Microcystis Sp. Co-Producing Microcystin And Saxitoxin From Songkhla Lake Basin, Thailand, Ampapan Naknaen, Waraporn Ratsameepakai, Oramas Suttinun, Yaowapa Sukpondma, Eakalak Khan, Rattanaruji Pomwised

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

The Songkhla Lake Basin (SLB) located in Southern Thailand, has been increasingly polluted by urban and industrial wastewater, while the lake water has been intensively used. Here, we aimed to investigate cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in the SLB. Ten cyanobacteria isolates were identified as Microcystis genus based on16S rDNA analysis. All isolates harbored microcystin genes, while five of them carried saxitoxin genes. On day 15 of culturing, the specific growth rate and Chl-a content were 0.2–0.3 per day and 4 µg/mL. The total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content was 0.37–0.49 µg/mL. The concentration of soluble EPS (sEPS) was 2 times higher …


Editorial: Pathogens, Pathobionts, And Autoimmunity, Linda A. Spatz, Gregg J. Silverman, Judith A. James 2021 CUNY City College

Editorial: Pathogens, Pathobionts, And Autoimmunity, Linda A. Spatz, Gregg J. Silverman, Judith A. James

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Mara Repression Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lauren Daugherty, Lon Chubiz PhD 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Mara Repression Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lauren Daugherty, Lon Chubiz Phd

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a bacteria most commonly known for causing the eponymous food-related illness. Due to their rapid reproduction rate and their ability to be propogated and maintained in a lab setting, they are commonly used in lab studies so that we can better understand how Salmonella causes disease in organisms that are more difficult to study. One area of interest is analyzing how Salmonella controls expression of the mechanisms that actually cause disease, called virulence traits, in response to the environment. In this study, antibiotic stress was used to analyze virulence gene expression. MarA is a gene that regulates ampicillin …


Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond 2021 University of Texas at Tyler

Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond

Biology Theses

Increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections by antimicrobial resistant pathogens resulting in higher mortality rates and financial burden is of great concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents one of six highly virulent “ESKAPE” pathogens that exhibit considerable intrinsic drug resistance as well as mechanisms for acquiring further resistance. As many of these mechanisms are regulated through gene expression, we sought to identify regulatory strategies and patterns at play in 23 clinical isolates collected from Baku, Azerbaijan and Tyler, Texas, USA. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on six gene targets implicated in resistance and contrasted with antibiotic phenotypes. We found AmpC cephalosporinase …


Biocontrol Of Foodborne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages, Dzhuliya Ignatova, Erion Hogan, Simone Dakare, Jean Lu 2021 Kennesaw State University

Biocontrol Of Foodborne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages, Dzhuliya Ignatova, Erion Hogan, Simone Dakare, Jean Lu

Symposium of Student Scholars

Biocontrol of Foodborne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages

Dzhuliya Ignatova, Erion Hogan, Simone Dakare, and Jean Lu

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology

Abstract

Salmonella and Shigella are two important groups of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Salmonella cause an illness called salmonellosis while Shigella cause shigellosis (bacillary dysentery). The most common symptoms of these illnesses are abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and fever. Shigella can also cause bloody diarrhea. It was estimated that each year Salmonella cause 93.8 million cases of gastroenteritis and 155,000 deaths globally. Shigella causes 164.7 million cases and 1.1 million deaths throughout the world yearly. People get these illnesses mainly by …


Examining Effects Of The Dna Regulator Lrp On Quorum Sensing Gene Expression In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Bradley Lumsden 2021 Kennesaw State University

Examining Effects Of The Dna Regulator Lrp On Quorum Sensing Gene Expression In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Bradley Lumsden

Symposium of Student Scholars

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that has the capacity to express multiple virulence factors that are regulated through an extensive quorum sensing network. Three major quorum sensing systems have been identified in Pseudomonas species: the acyl homoserine lactones of las and rhl, and the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS). We seek to investigate the involvement of a global regulator, Lrp with the expression of these three networks. Specifically, we will compare expression levels of las, rhl, and pqs in wild type P. aeruginosa (MPAO1) with an lrp transposon insertion mutant using quantitative PCR. Through this comparative …


Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol 2021 American University in Cairo

Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersaline environments are extreme habitats that can be exploited as biotechnological resources. Here, we characterized a nitrilase (NitraS-ATII) isolated from Atlantis II Deep brine pool. It showed higher thermal stability and heavy metal tolerance compared to a closely related nitrilase.

We also studied integrons in halophiles and hypersaline environments. Integrons are genetic platforms in which an integron integrase (IntI) mediates the excision and integration of gene cassettes at specific recombination sites. In order to search for integrons in halophiles and hypersaline metagenomes, we used a PCR-based approach, in addition to different bioinformatics tools, mainly IntegronFinder.

We found that integrons and …


Fishing For The Right Probiotic: Investigating The Mechanism Of Mucosal-Bacterial Interactions At The Interface Of Health And Productivity In Salmonid Aquaculture, Luana Langlois 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Fishing For The Right Probiotic: Investigating The Mechanism Of Mucosal-Bacterial Interactions At The Interface Of Health And Productivity In Salmonid Aquaculture, Luana Langlois

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Aquaculture is vital for the global food supply, but the high incidence of infectious diseases threatens the industry’s productivity. The intestinal mucosa is a key port of entry for pathogens and provides an extensive interface for host-microbe interactions. Tight junctions are at the core of gut barrier function and the mucosal health of finfish. Disruption of these complexes gives rise to sepsis, which leads to systemic inflammation and death. The present study employs a combinatorial approach that integrates in vitro and in vivo analyses to gain actionable insights into the mechanism of microbial-mediated modulation of host health. The experiments outlined …


Assessing Selective Plasmids For Bradyrhizobium Sp. Doa9 And Mesorhizobium Loti, Aiden J. Wilcox, Rebecca Meaney, Bogumil Karas 2021 Western University

Assessing Selective Plasmids For Bradyrhizobium Sp. Doa9 And Mesorhizobium Loti, Aiden J. Wilcox, Rebecca Meaney, Bogumil Karas

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Role Of Prophages On Whib7 Expression And Antibiotic Resistance In Mycobacterium Chelonae, Jaycee J. Cushman 2021 University of Maine

Characterizing The Role Of Prophages On Whib7 Expression And Antibiotic Resistance In Mycobacterium Chelonae, Jaycee J. Cushman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mycobacterial pathogens are responsible for an ongoing public health crisis. Mycobacterium abscessus is the causative agent of lung infections that disproportionately affect immunocompromised individuals and is the most intrinsically antibiotic-resistant bacterial species known. These characteristics make M. abscessus infections difficult to treat, with a success rate of only 45%. While some extensively resistant isolates are caused by mutations in drug targets, others appear to be a result of increased intrinsic drug resistance. Common among these strains is the presence of integrated viral genomes (prophage) that are known to contribute to fitness and antibiotic resistance in other pathogens but whose roles …


Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa de Alda, Ignacio Luque 2021 Universidad de Sevilla

Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa De Alda, Ignacio Luque

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

As compared to eukaryotes, bacteria have a reduced tRNA gene set encoding between 30 and 220 tRNAs. Although in most bacterial phyla tRNA genes are dispersed in the genome, many species from distinct phyla also show genes forming arrays. Here, we show that two types of arrays with distinct evolutionary origins exist. This work focuses on long tRNA gene arrays (L-arrays) that encompass up to 43 genes, which disseminate by horizontal gene transfer and contribute supernumerary tRNA genes to the host. Although in the few cases previously studied these arrays were reported to be poorly transcribed, here we show that …


You Are What You Eat — Exploring The Microbiome Through Inquiry-Based Labs. Microbiome Lesson Plans, Karla S. Fuller 2021 CUNY Guttman Community College

You Are What You Eat — Exploring The Microbiome Through Inquiry-Based Labs. Microbiome Lesson Plans, Karla S. Fuller

Open Educational Resources

If these commonly used spices have the ability to inhibit pathogenic bacterial growth, could they also potentially inhibit the growth of normal, harmless bacteria that live in your body? In this lab, we will test common bacteria for resistance to food additives.


Antibacterial Properties Of Citric Acid/Β-Alanine Carbon Dots Against Gram-Negative Bacteria, Anju Pandey, Asmita Devkota, Zeinab Yadegari, C. Korsi Dumenyo, Ali Taheri 2021 Tennessee State University

Antibacterial Properties Of Citric Acid/Β-Alanine Carbon Dots Against Gram-Negative Bacteria, Anju Pandey, Asmita Devkota, Zeinab Yadegari, C. Korsi Dumenyo, Ali Taheri

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

While multi-drug resistance in bacteria is an emerging concern in public health, using carbon dots (CDs) as a new source of antimicrobial activity is gaining popularity due to their antimicrobial and non-toxic properties. Here we prepared carbon dots from citric acid and β-alanine and demonstrated their ability to inhibit the growth of diverse groups of Gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, and Pectobacterium species. Carbon dots were prepared using a one-pot, three-minute synthesis process in a commercial microwave oven (700 W). The antibacterial activity of these CDs was studied using the well-diffusion method, and their minimal inhibitory concentration …


The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Cell Wall Integrity And Programmed Cell Death During Biofilm Development, Bibek G C 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Cell Wall Integrity And Programmed Cell Death During Biofilm Development, Bibek G C

Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen in both community and health care settings. Biggest challenges with S. aureus as a pathogen is its ability to acquire antibiotic resistance and produce robust biofilms. In this work, we investigated the nature of the cell wall defect in the msaABCR operon mutant in the Mu50 (VISA) and USA300 LAC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Results showed that msaABCR-mutant cells had decreased cell wall thickness and cell wall crosslinking in both strains. These defects are most likely due to increased murein hydrolase activity and/or nonspecific processing of murein hydrolases mediated by increased …


Calibration Study Of A Bacterial Quantification Technique Using Transport Swabs And Line Inoculations On Agar Growth Medium, Seth LaRue 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Calibration Study Of A Bacterial Quantification Technique Using Transport Swabs And Line Inoculations On Agar Growth Medium, Seth Larue

Honors Theses

Enumeration of bacteria has been the subject of research for over a century. Some of the techniques that have been developed include viable plate counts, the most probable number assessment, and more modern molecular techniques. Many of the newer molecular-based techniques provide little or no information about the viability of the cells being counted, and are generally not quantitative. Having quantitative data for potentially pathogenic bacteria on surfaces can be very useful in many settings, particularly in healthcare facilities. Knowing the numbers of bacterial cells present on surfaces within healthcare facilities may be important to attempt to study the cause …


Insights Into Steinernema Carpocapsae-Xenorhabdus Nematophila Specificity And The Role Of Adult Nematode Colonization, Erin Mans 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Insights Into Steinernema Carpocapsae-Xenorhabdus Nematophila Specificity And The Role Of Adult Nematode Colonization, Erin Mans

Doctoral Dissertations

The gut microbiota can provide the host with several benefits such as the production of secondary metabolites, essential amino acids, as well as the breakdown of food or protection from pathogens. The host in turn provides the microbiota with shelter and nutrients. Given the benefits that the host and microbiota receive from their association, humans and the microbiota have evolved mechanisms of selection and specificity to assure the proper symbionts colonize a host with high fidelity. Chapter two will explore mechanisms by which Xenorhabdus nematophila nematode intestinal localization (nil) genes interact with and adhere to the nematode intestinal …


Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) is a debilitating infection that negatively impacts animal welfare and costs the broiler industry billions of dollars annually. We have previously isolated Staphylococcus agnetis 908 from BCO samples obtained from broilers at the University of Arkansas research farm. This isolate can induce BCO lameness at greater than 50% in broilers exposed to the pathogen in drinking water. We found that S. agnetis 908 is capable of surviving and escaping macrophages compared to a closely related cattle isolate,1379. Through Directed Genome Evolution (DGE) we identified that this difference is at least partially associated with an alanine …


A Bacterial Inflammation Sensor Regulates C-Di-Gmp Signaling, Adhesion, And Biofilm Formation, Arden Perkins, Dan A. Tudorica, Raphael D. Teixeira, Tilman Schirmer, Lindsay Zumwalt, O. Maduka Ogba, C. Keith Cassidy, Phillip J. Stansfeld, Karen Guillemin 2021 University of Oregon

A Bacterial Inflammation Sensor Regulates C-Di-Gmp Signaling, Adhesion, And Biofilm Formation, Arden Perkins, Dan A. Tudorica, Raphael D. Teixeira, Tilman Schirmer, Lindsay Zumwalt, O. Maduka Ogba, C. Keith Cassidy, Phillip J. Stansfeld, Karen Guillemin

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Bacteria that colonize animals must overcome, or coexist, with the reactive oxygen species products of inflammation, a front-line defense of innate immunity. Among these is the neutrophilic oxidant bleach, hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent antimicrobial that plays a primary role in killing bacteria through nonspecific oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA. Here, we report that in response to increasing HOCl levels, Escherichia coli regulates biofilm production via activation of the diguanylate cyclase DgcZ. We identify the mechanism of DgcZ sensing of HOCl to be direct oxidation of its regulatory chemoreceptor zinc-binding (CZB) domain. Dissection of CZB signal transduction reveals that …


Deacylated Trna Accumulation Is A Trigger For Bacterial Antibiotic Persistence Independent Of The Stringent Response, Whitney N. Wood, Kyle Mohler, Jesse Rinehart, Michael Ibba 2021 The Ohio State University

Deacylated Trna Accumulation Is A Trigger For Bacterial Antibiotic Persistence Independent Of The Stringent Response, Whitney N. Wood, Kyle Mohler, Jesse Rinehart, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Bacterial antibiotic persistence occurs when bacteria are treated with an antibiotic and the majority of the population rapidly dies off, but a small subpopulation enters into a dormant, persistent state and evades death. Diverse pathways leading to nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) depletion and restricted translation have been implicated in persistence, suggesting alternative redundant routes may exist to initiate persister formation. To investigate the molecular mechanism of one such pathway, functional variants of an essential component of translation (phenylalanyltRNA synthetase [PheRS]) were used to study the effects of quality control on antibiotic persistence. Upon amino acid limitation, elevated PheRS quality control led …


Prophylactic Phage Therapy In Infant Rabbits Model Of Cholera, sadeq AG Kaabi Asst Prof Dr 2021 Mustansiriyah University - College of Science- Biology Dept.

Prophylactic Phage Therapy In Infant Rabbits Model Of Cholera, Sadeq Ag Kaabi Asst Prof Dr

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

A number of 8 phages lytic of V. cholerae O1- biotype-EI-Tor, serotype Inaba were selected for the formulation of a phage cocktail. A phage cocktail composed of 8 phages was prepared and showed 100% inhibition of V. cholerae isolates comparing with a percentage ranged from 0-75% for every single phage in growth inhibition assay. The potential activity of phage cocktail of prophylactic therapy for infant rabbits model of cholera was evaluated through phage retention time and length of phage prophylaxis studies. Results have been showed that phage cocktail was potent in the prevention of development of cholera in infant rabbits …


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