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Genistein-Enriched Pig Gut Microbiota Library As A Potential Probiotic Consortium, Theresah Amponsah 2022 South Dakota State University

Genistein-Enriched Pig Gut Microbiota Library As A Potential Probiotic Consortium, Theresah Amponsah

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plant-based diets contain numerous flavonoid compounds that produce antibacterial effects and gut health improvement. Genistein is among the most abundant isoflavones present in a plant-based diet and can be found in high amounts in soy products (up to 1g Kg-1). We describe here a robust method to identify genistein tolerant and metabolizing bacteria in swine gut microbiota and to screen the strains that have antibacterial and immunestimulatory properties. Such strains could be developed as non-antibiotic alternatives to prevent enteric infections in pigs and improve gut immunity. To this end, a mini bioreactorbased system was used to enrich genistein metabolizing bacteria …


Evaluate The Efficacy Of A Mixture Of Peroxyacetic Acid And H2o2 Against The Survival And Cross-Contamination Of The Salmonella Surrogate Enterococcus Faecium On Tomatoes During Triple-Wash, Corey Waitman Coe 2022 West Virginia University

Evaluate The Efficacy Of A Mixture Of Peroxyacetic Acid And H2o2 Against The Survival And Cross-Contamination Of The Salmonella Surrogate Enterococcus Faecium On Tomatoes During Triple-Wash, Corey Waitman Coe

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Triple-wash with a mixture of peroxyacetic acid and H2O2 (SaniDate-5.0) during post-harvest processing of fresh produce has been recommended by West Virginia Small Farm Center to improve microbial safety. It has been well recognized that the washing of produce is more important for preventing cross-contamination than reducing foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, it may help improve public confidence in that the produce they obtain from locally grown farmers is safe for their consumption. determine the efficacy of SaniDate-5.0 for reducing the survival and preventing cross-contamination of the Salmonella surrogate Enterococcus faecium on tomatoes during triple-wash.

E. faecium ATCC-8459 (resistant to 100-ppm nalidixic-acid) …


Isolation And Characterization Of Novel B. Subtilis Bacteriophages, Johnson Phung, Rebecca Adams 2022 Teaching Center Faculty

Isolation And Characterization Of Novel B. Subtilis Bacteriophages, Johnson Phung, Rebecca Adams

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria cells. Bacteria, being the most abundant form of life on the planet, have an estimated ten to a hundred different types of bacteriophages that infect each species. Bacteriophages are everywhere on Earth, but the number of phages that have been identified is only a fraction of what are thought to exist. This project focuses on isolating and identifying phages that infect the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. B subtilis is a decomposition microbe commonly found in the soil. Our first goal was to determine whether the 3 samples of Bacillus subtilis phages that were previously …


An Antimicrobial Polydopamine Surface Coating To Reduce Biofouling On Telemetry Tags Used In Marine Conservation Practices, Ariana Smies 2022 Michigan Technological University

An Antimicrobial Polydopamine Surface Coating To Reduce Biofouling On Telemetry Tags Used In Marine Conservation Practices, Ariana Smies

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Satellite telemetry tags are used to track the migration patterns of large cetaceans. These tags penetrate the dermis and remain embedded in the underlying blubber tissue. As the dermis of cetaceans is host to a diverse microbiome, and it is impossible to clean the skin before implanting the devices, the potential for infection is increased when the tags penetrate through the skin. H2O2 is a potential antimicrobial agent that, in addition to showing broad-spectrum efficacy against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, can promote wound healing outcomes by promoting proliferative factors and peptides that protect against oxidative stress. However, …


An Optimal Lysis Time Maximizes Bacteriophage Fitness In Quasi-Continuous Culture, Sherin Kannoly, Abhyudai Singh, John J. Dennehy 2022 CUNY Queens College

An Optimal Lysis Time Maximizes Bacteriophage Fitness In Quasi-Continuous Culture, Sherin Kannoly, Abhyudai Singh, John J. Dennehy

Publications and Research

Optimality models have a checkered history in evolutionary biology. While optimality models have been successful in providing valuable insight into the evolution of a wide variety of biological traits, a common objection is that optimality models are overly simplistic and ignore organismal genetics. We revisit evolutionary optimization in the context of a major bacteriophage life history trait, lysis time. Lysis time refers to the period spanning phage infection of a host cell and its lysis, whereupon phage progenies are released. Lysis time, therefore, directly determines phage fecundity assuming progeny assembly does not exhaust host resources prior to lysis. Noting that …


Analysis And Identification Of Lipolytic Bacterial Species For The Degradation Of Wastewater Lipids, Lindsay C. Smoak 2022 Georgia Southern University

Analysis And Identification Of Lipolytic Bacterial Species For The Degradation Of Wastewater Lipids, Lindsay C. Smoak

Honors College Theses

The aim of this study was to isolate native bacterial strains from the wastewater treatment facilities of Statesboro, GA to identify their lipolytic activities. Obtained bacterial strains were further assessed via morphological and biochemical methods to determine their enzymatic capabilities. Use of the detergent Tween-20 in growth mediums was the first criteria to assess lipase activity, and these isolates were further investigated to quantitatively measure lipase presence and activity. Lipase protein was precipitated and dialyzed to perform a lipase activity assay, followed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate–Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to confirm the presence of the lipolytic enzymes. Sanger sequencing was …


Defining The Realized Niche Of The Two Major Clades Of Trichodesmium: A Study On The West Florida Shelf, Kristina A. Confesor, Corday R. Selden, Kimberly E. Powell, Laura A. Donahue, Travis Mellett, Salvatore Caprara, Angela N. Knapp, Kristen N. Buck, P. Dreux Chappell 2022 Old Dominion University

Defining The Realized Niche Of The Two Major Clades Of Trichodesmium: A Study On The West Florida Shelf, Kristina A. Confesor, Corday R. Selden, Kimberly E. Powell, Laura A. Donahue, Travis Mellett, Salvatore Caprara, Angela N. Knapp, Kristen N. Buck, P. Dreux Chappell

OES Faculty Publications

The cyanobacterium Trichodesmium plays an essential role supporting ocean productivity by relieving nitrogen limitation via dinitrogen (N-2) fixation. The two common Trichodesmium clades, T. erythraeum and T. thiebautii, are both observed in waters along the West Florida Shelf (WFS). We hypothesized that these taxa occupy distinct realized niches, where T. thiebautii is the more oceanic clade. Samples for DNA and water chemistry analyses were collected on three separate WFS expeditions (2015, 2018, and 2019) spanning multiple seasons; abundances of the single copy housekeeping gene rnpB from both clades were enumerated via quantitative PCR. We conducted a suite of statistical …


The Role Of The Skin Microbiome In Amphibian Pathogen Susceptibility In Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge, Krista S. Dodd 2022 Eastern Washington University

The Role Of The Skin Microbiome In Amphibian Pathogen Susceptibility In Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge, Krista S. Dodd

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has led to the decline and extinction of many amphibian populations, but some bacteria in the skin microbiome can inhibit its growth. In Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge (TNWR) in eastern Washington, Bd is highly prevalent, but the role of the skin microbiome in Bd infection dynamics have not been examined in this region. We hypothesized that frogs with lower Bd infection intensities would have higher skin bacterial diversity and more abundant anti-Bd bacteria, indicative of a more protective function. Our study combined cultureindependent and culture-dependent methods to assess the relationship between Bd and the …


An Investigation Into The Prevalence Of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Within An Irish Hospital, Dylan Casey 2021 Munster Technological University, Cork

An Investigation Into The Prevalence Of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Within An Irish Hospital, Dylan Casey

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are well-recognised nosocomial pathogens that pose a significant threat to public health. Associated with poorer clinical outcomes than their vancomycin-sensitive counterparts, the prevalence of VRE in Ireland has increased in recent times, with the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network reporting that out of 29 countries, Ireland demonstrated the highest rates of vancomycin resistance among invasive Enterococcus faecium isolates between 2011 and 2014 (2011; 34.9%, 2012; 44.0%, 2013; 42.7%, 2014; 45.1%). Herein, we investigate VRE prevalence in the Mercy University Hospital (MUH) – an acute care hospital in southern Ireland. A total of 21 first-time VRE infections were …


Analysis Of Spore Shape Determination In Streptomyces, Ning Sun 2021 Duquesne University

Analysis Of Spore Shape Determination In Streptomyces, Ning Sun

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Streptomycetes are Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacteria that possess a complex life cycle with the alternation of vegetative mycelium, aerial mycelium, and spores. Streptomyces. coelicolor spore maturation is a complex process that involves spore shape metamorphosis from cylindrical pre-spores into ellipsoid spores, but the details of this process have remained enigmatic. Previously, our lab identified a novel gene ssdA that might play a role in spore shape determination using a transposon-based insertion mutagenesis in S. coelicolor. In this study, I isolated a S. coelicolor ssdA-null mutant that showed increased colony hydrophobicity and misshapen spores in sizes and shapes, confirming the …


Metabolic Heterogeneity And The Roles Of Cody And Ccpa In Central Metabolism And S. Aureus Biofilm Formation., Logan L. Bulock 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Metabolic Heterogeneity And The Roles Of Cody And Ccpa In Central Metabolism And S. Aureus Biofilm Formation., Logan L. Bulock

Theses & Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a metabolically versatile human pathogen, causing disease in many areas of the body. Its versatility can be attributed to the fact that it utilizes a variety of tools to adapt to many different environments, including toxins to scavenge from the host and multiple transporters to compete for its preferred carbon sources. S. aureus can also survive in harsh conditions through biofilm development, which are notoriously recalcitrant to antibiotics and immune defenses. Biofilms exhibit marked heterogeneity, with division of labor for production of matrix components and differential gene expression among various niches within the biofilm.

In this study, …


Skin Bacterial Metacommunities Of San Francisco Bay Area Salamanders Are Structured By Host Genus And Habitat Quality., Shannon Buttimer, Obed Hernandez-Gomez, Erica Bree Rosenblum 2021 University of California - Berkeley

Skin Bacterial Metacommunities Of San Francisco Bay Area Salamanders Are Structured By Host Genus And Habitat Quality., Shannon Buttimer, Obed Hernandez-Gomez, Erica Bree Rosenblum

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship

Host-associated microbial communities can influence physiological processes of macroorganisms, including contributing to infectious disease resistance. For instance, some bacteria that live on amphibian skin produce antifungal compounds that inhibit two lethal fungal pathogens, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Therefore, differences in microbiome composition among host species or populations within a species can contribute to variation in susceptibility to Bd/Bsal. This study applies 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the skin bacterial microbiomes of three widespread terrestrial salamander genera native to the western United States. Using a metacommunity structure analysis, we identified dispersal barriers for these influential bacteria between salamander …


Investigating Antimicrobial Properties Of Snake Venoms Against B. Cereus, B. Subtilis, E. Coli, And P. Vulgaris, Savannah Berger 2021 St. Mary's University

Investigating Antimicrobial Properties Of Snake Venoms Against B. Cereus, B. Subtilis, E. Coli, And P. Vulgaris, Savannah Berger

St. Mary's University Honors Theses and Projects

The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections has provoked the attention of health officials and scientists as a major threat to global public health. Antibiotic resistance is the product of overprescription by doctors, ineffective or shortened dosing by the patient, and more. When a bacterial infection is ineffectively treated as such, persistent pathogenic cells are given the opportunity to proliferate and spread their resistance to other cells. With bacteria utilizing such tools to fight and ultimately resist our current treatment methods, investigation towards the next novel mechanism of inhibition is essential. Venom is of particular interest to many scientists …


Enzymatic Degradation Of Microcystin-Lr By Microcystinase (Mlra), Faisal Alqhtani 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Enzymatic Degradation Of Microcystin-Lr By Microcystinase (Mlra), Faisal Alqhtani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is affecting the water supply worldwide. Hence, a way to eliminate this toxin is an essential target. In this study, successful cloning of the mlrA gene and producing MlrA enzyme that can degrade the cyclic MC-LR to linearized MC-LR was done. MlrA protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21 (E. coli). Also, enhancing the MlrA yield by adding nickel to LB media was a success in producing more MlrA enzyme from the same volume. Even though the enzyme showed no activity after adding Ni, the enzyme was expressed at a higher yield. Furthermore, it was to investigate adding …


Lyme Arthritis: A Primer For Primary Care, Ganesh Arun, Farhan Ali, Sowmya Srinivas, Justin Nistico, Pranav Nair 2021 Arnot Ogden Medical Center

Lyme Arthritis: A Primer For Primary Care, Ganesh Arun, Farhan Ali, Sowmya Srinivas, Justin Nistico, Pranav Nair

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Lyme disease is caused by a bacteria belonging to the Borreliaceae family. Wooded forests and terrains are affected, including those in the Northeastern United States. Teenage ticks are most commonly discovered on humans as those ticks need to satisfy their nutritional requirements for growth. They bite warm, moist areas of the body and take 24 to 48 hours to transmit the Borrelia Burgdorferi infection. Lyme disease manifests as a multisystem disorder in humans, and is known for its dermatological, neurological and rheumatological findings. For the primary care provider, Lyme disease should be on the differential in multisystem diseases. Our case …


Type Vi Secretion System Mutations Reduced Competitive Fitness Of Classical Vibrio Cholerae Biotype, Benjamin Kostiuk, Francis J. Santoriello, Laura Diaz-Satizabal, Fabiana Bisaro, Kyung-Jo Lee, Anna N. Dhody, Daniele Provenzano, Daniel Unterweger, Stefan Pukatzki 2021 University of Alberta

Type Vi Secretion System Mutations Reduced Competitive Fitness Of Classical Vibrio Cholerae Biotype, Benjamin Kostiuk, Francis J. Santoriello, Laura Diaz-Satizabal, Fabiana Bisaro, Kyung-Jo Lee, Anna N. Dhody, Daniele Provenzano, Daniel Unterweger, Stefan Pukatzki

Publications and Research

The gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera and is responsible for seven recorded pandemics. Several factors are postulated to have led to the decline of 6th pandemic classical strains and the rise of El Tor biotype V. cholerae, establishing the current 7th pandemic. We investigated the ability of classical V. cholerae of the 2nd and 6th pandemics to engage their type six secretion system (T6SS) in microbial competition against non-pandemic and 7th pandemic strains. We report that classical V. cholerae underwent sequential mutations in T6SS genetic determinants that initially exposed 2nd pandemic strains …


Prevalence And Multidrug Resistance Pattern Of E. Coli Among Urinary Tract Infection Patients In Tertiary Care Hospital Of Multan, Hubza Ruatt Khan, Mehvish Javeed, Asghar Javed, Nisma Farooq 2021 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Women University, Multan, Pakistan.

Prevalence And Multidrug Resistance Pattern Of E. Coli Among Urinary Tract Infection Patients In Tertiary Care Hospital Of Multan, Hubza Ruatt Khan, Mehvish Javeed, Asghar Javed, Nisma Farooq

Journal of Bioresource Management

Urinary Tract Infection is alarming problem worldwide due to the intensity of antimicrobial resistance. Escherichia coli is the most predominant organism in UTI. This study was planned to evaluate demographic parameters, the prevalence of E. coli, and antimicrobial resistance patterns among E. coli isolates from UTI patients in Nishtar Hospital of Multan from January to June 2018. A total of 350 mid-stream urine samples were collected from different patients having age group from 25 to 60 years and processed by standard laboratory procedures. Out of 350 samples, 100 samples were observed as critical bacteremia. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella …


A Conserved Structural Role For The Walker-A Lysine In P-Loop Containing Kinases, Fatlum Hajredini, Ranajeet Ghose 2021 CUNY City College

A Conserved Structural Role For The Walker-A Lysine In P-Loop Containing Kinases, Fatlum Hajredini, Ranajeet Ghose

Publications and Research

Bacterial tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) and shikimate kinases (SKs) comprise two structurally divergent P-loop containing enzyme families that share similar catalytic site geometries, most notably with respect to their Walker-A, Walker-B, and DxD motifs. We had previously demonstrated that in BY-kinases, a specific interaction between the Walker-A and Walker-B motifs, driven by the conserved “catalytic” lysine housed on the former, leads to a conformation that is unable to efficiently coordinate Mg2+•ATP and is therefore incapable of chemistry. Here, using enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that structurally similar interactions between the Walker-A and Walker-B motifs, also mediated by …


Oxidation Alters The Architecture Of The Phenylalanyl-Trna Synthetase Editing Domain To Confer Hyperaccuracy, Pooja Srinivas, Rebecca E. Steiner, Ian J. Pavelich, Ricardo Guerrera-Ferreira, Puneet Juneja, Michael Ibba, Christine M. Dunham 2021 Emory University

Oxidation Alters The Architecture Of The Phenylalanyl-Trna Synthetase Editing Domain To Confer Hyperaccuracy, Pooja Srinivas, Rebecca E. Steiner, Ian J. Pavelich, Ricardo Guerrera-Ferreira, Puneet Juneja, Michael Ibba, Christine M. Dunham

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

High fidelity during protein synthesis is accomplished by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). These enzymes ligate an amino acid to a cognate tRNA and have proofreading and editing capabilities that ensure high fidelity. Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) preferentially ligates a phenylalanine to a tRNAPhe over the chemically similar tyrosine, which differs from phenylalanine by a single hydroxyl group. In bacteria that undergo exposure to oxidative stress such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, tyrosine isomer levels increase due to phenylalanine oxidation. Several residues are oxidized in PheRS and contribute to hyperactive editing, including against mischarged Tyr-tRNAPhe, despite these oxidized residues not …


The Sterilization Of Escherichia Coli With Black Diamond-Coated Silicon, Sarah M. Cawthon, Jesse L. Rozsa, Mark P. Running 2021 University of Louisville

The Sterilization Of Escherichia Coli With Black Diamond-Coated Silicon, Sarah M. Cawthon, Jesse L. Rozsa, Mark P. Running

The Cardinal Edge

In order to combat increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance, new antimicrobials are needed to successfully kill microbes. Silicon coated in black diamond is a material that is hypothesized to have antimicrobial properties. To test this hypothesis, Escherichia coli cells were placed on different black diamond-coated silicon surfaces and allowed to rest on each surface for 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 1 hour. Cells were collected, and growth was assessed by counting colonies on plates or spectrophotometry growth curves. The results of this study indicated that the experimental samples have some antimicrobial or growth inhibition properties, but they may not be …


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