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Annual Faculty Research Symposium 2022, Oakwood University 2022 Oakwood University

Annual Faculty Research Symposium 2022, Oakwood University

Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Evades Predation By Myxococcus Xanthus, Sarah Joie Beauvais 2022 Kennesaw State University

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Evades Predation By Myxococcus Xanthus, Sarah Joie Beauvais

Symposium of Student Scholars

Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes an estimated 32,600 hospital-acquired-infections and 2,700 estimated deaths in the US in 2017(CDC). Myxococcus xanthus is a strain of myxobacteria that preys on Pseudomonas sp, through the production of antibiotics and digestive enzymes. In previous experiments, P. aeruginosa evaded predation, through an unknown mechanism. Using confocal microscopy, this research investigates if quorum sensing, a cell density-dependent signaling pathway, could be a factor in motility and evasion of M. xanthus. Liquid suspensions of log-phase PA01 were dyed with two fluorescent dyes: SYTO 9 for marking live cells and Propidium iodide (PI) for marking dead cells. …


Microbial Diversity And Community Structure In Sediments Associated With The Seagrass (Thallassia Testudinum) In Apalachicola Bay, Florida, Rahma Ahmed, Thomas McElroy, Troy Mutchler 2022 Kennesaw State University

Microbial Diversity And Community Structure In Sediments Associated With The Seagrass (Thallassia Testudinum) In Apalachicola Bay, Florida, Rahma Ahmed, Thomas Mcelroy, Troy Mutchler

Symposium of Student Scholars

Seagrass is an angiosperm which provides many ecosystem services in coastal areas, such as providing food, shelter and nurseries for many species, and decreasing the impact of waves on shorelines. A global assessment reported that 29% of known seagrass meadows are in a state of decline due to the effects of human activity. Seagrass is commonly found in shallow marine waters where they form meadows containing a microbiome that plays an important role in providing nutrients for seagrass growth, though little is known about the microorganisms within the seagrass meadow sediments. Our project collected sediments from seagrass meadows and adjacent …


Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti 2022 University of Lynchburg

Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti

Student Scholar Showcase

Widespread antibiotic resistance has quickly become one of the most concerning crises affecting modern medicine, especially in cases of Staphylococcal infections, which have become resistant to all ��-lactam antibiotics. As a result, research into alternative forms of treatment for bacterial infections is a top priority. Bacteriophage therapy is a popular candidate for replacing antibiotics, due to the way the viruses interact with the bacteria. The 80�� prophage integrates its DNA into Staphylococcus aureus strain 10616 via the lysogenic cycle, and replicates with the bacterial cell. When stressed, the bacteria stop replicating and the prophage stimulates the lytic cycle, activating transcription …


Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig 2022 Liberty University

Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig

Senior Honors Theses

Bioweapons programs have existed since their development during the Cold War. These biowarfare programs initially utilized naturally occurring pathogens capable of infecting crops, livestock populations, and human populations. Anthrax is a widely exploited bioagent responsible for attacks ranging from the Germans’ deployment in World War I to the mailing of anthrax through the postal service in attempts on U.S. senators’ lives. With the development of genetic manipulations, the Soviet Union began modifying anthrax to resist detection and treatment. With the continued advancement of science and technology, a new bioagent has entered the scene – the man-made chimeric virus. Chimeric viruses …


Isolation And Identification Of Bacillus Spp. From Syrian Soils And Testing Their Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis Cinerea In Vitro (In Vitro) في ظروف المخبر (Botrytis Cinerea)من ترب سورية واختبار فعاليتها التضادية تجاه الفطر (Bacillus) عزل وتعريف أنواع من الجنس, Naffaa Walid 2022 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, 30621 Damascus, Syria

Isolation And Identification Of Bacillus Spp. From Syrian Soils And Testing Their Antifungal Activity Against Botrytis Cinerea In Vitro (In Vitro) في ظروف المخبر (Botrytis Cinerea)من ترب سورية واختبار فعاليتها التضادية تجاه الفطر (Bacillus) عزل وتعريف أنواع من الجنس, Naffaa Walid

Arab Journal of Arid Environments المجلة العربية للبيئات الجافة

Three hundred seventy eight isolates of Bacillus spp. from Syrian soils were screened in vitro for their ability to inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea, agent of gray mold disease. The B307 isolate showed the highest antagonism activity with growth inhibition of 68%. In addition, B307 had chitinolytic activity, and the fraction from the isolate with more than 50KDa of its cell free crude extract showed the highest chitinolytic and antagonism activity against B. cinerea. This isolate was identified as Bacillus licheniformis according to the 16S DNA gene sequencing data with homology of 99%. The results of this …


Antibacterial, Hemagglutination, And Insecticidal Activity Studies On The Solvent Extracts Of The Roots Of Olea Ferruginea, Muhammad Yaseen, Muhammad Kamran, Arshad Farid, Salmah Ismail, Muhammad Muzammal, Kamal Abdul Amir, Muhammad Hashim Khan, Sohail Ahmad, Sheikh Abdur Rashid 2022 Center of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan 29220, Pakistan

Antibacterial, Hemagglutination, And Insecticidal Activity Studies On The Solvent Extracts Of The Roots Of Olea Ferruginea, Muhammad Yaseen, Muhammad Kamran, Arshad Farid, Salmah Ismail, Muhammad Muzammal, Kamal Abdul Amir, Muhammad Hashim Khan, Sohail Ahmad, Sheikh Abdur Rashid

Makara Journal of Science

Olea ferruginea has been used to treat skin ailments, as well as kidney and ocular problems for a long time. The current study was designed with the aim of investigating and scientifically validating its widespread use. Chloroform, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate were used to assess the antibacterial, hemagglutination, and insecticidal properties of O. ferruginea roots. Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the bacterial strains selected for assessing antibacterial activity. The results showed that ethyl-acetate (EtOAc) extract (56%) and chloroform (CHCl3) extract (56%) showed the widest zone of inhibition against …


The Role Of Cd5 In The Periodontal Disease: Insights Into Chronic Inflammation, Ellie Bybee 2022 Roseman University of Health Sciences

The Role Of Cd5 In The Periodontal Disease: Insights Into Chronic Inflammation, Ellie Bybee

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Combination Of Amphiphilic Cyclic Peptide [R4W4] And Levofloxacin Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Sandeep Lohan, Shun Kato, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari 2022 Chapman University

Combination Of Amphiphilic Cyclic Peptide [R4W4] And Levofloxacin Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Sandeep Lohan, Shun Kato, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Bacterial resistance is a growing global concern necessitating the discovery and development of antibiotics effective against the drug-resistant bacterial strain. Previously, we reported a cyclic antimicrobial peptide [R4W4] containing arginine (R) and tryptophan (W) with a MIC of 2.67 µg/mL (1.95 µM) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Herein, we investigated the cyclic peptides [R4W4] or linear (R4W4) and their conjugates (covalent or noncovalent) with levofloxacin (Levo) with the intent to improve their potency to target drug-resistant bacteria. The physical mixture of the Levo with the cyclic [R4 …


Characterization Of Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis Sp. Nov., And Its Taxonomic Relatedness To Other Polyhydroxybutyrate-Degrading Streptomycetes, Gary R. Hix, Muhammad S. Khan, Mikayla T. Miller, Elisha C. Napier, Allison L. O'Brien, Roger P. White, Stephen F. Baron Ph.D. 2022 Bridgewater College

Characterization Of Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis Sp. Nov., And Its Taxonomic Relatedness To Other Polyhydroxybutyrate-Degrading Streptomycetes, Gary R. Hix, Muhammad S. Khan, Mikayla T. Miller, Elisha C. Napier, Allison L. O'Brien, Roger P. White, Stephen F. Baron Ph.D.

Biology Faculty Scholarship

A polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-degrading actinomycete, strain SFB5AT, was identified as a species of Streptomyces based on its membrane fatty acid profile and the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. It formed sporulating mycelia on most agar media, but flat or wrinkled, moist colonies on trypticase soy agar. Spores were smooth, cylindrical, and borne on long, straight to flexuous chains. It produced a light brown diffusible pigment, but not melanin. Comparison of genomic digital DNA–DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values indicated that strain SFB5AT was related to Streptomyces litmocidini JCM 4394T , Streptomyces …


Escherichia Coli Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Maintains Proofreading Activity And Translational Accuracy Under Oxidative Stress, Arundhati Kavoor, Paul Kelly, Michael Ibba 2022 The Ohio State University

Escherichia Coli Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Maintains Proofreading Activity And Translational Accuracy Under Oxidative Stress, Arundhati Kavoor, Paul Kelly, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are enzymes that synthesize aminoacyl-tRNAs to facilitate translation of the genetic code. Quality control by aaRS proofreading and other mechanisms maintains translational accuracy, which promotes cellular viability. Systematic disruption of proofreading, as recently demonstrated for alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS), leads to dysregulation of the proteome and reduced viability. Recent studies showed that environmental challenges such as exposure to reactive oxygen species can also alter aaRS synthetic and proofreading functions, prompting us to investigate if oxidation might positively or negatively affect AlaRS activity. We found that while oxidation leads to modification of several residues in Escherichia coli AlaRS, unlike …


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life …


Characterizing The Amino Acid Activation Center Of The Naturally Editing-Deficient Aminoacyl-Trna Synthetase Phers In Mycoplasma Mobile, Nien-Ching Han, Arundhati Kavoor, Michael Ibba 2022 The Ohio State University

Characterizing The Amino Acid Activation Center Of The Naturally Editing-Deficient Aminoacyl-Trna Synthetase Phers In Mycoplasma Mobile, Nien-Ching Han, Arundhati Kavoor, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

To ensure correct amino acids are incorporated during protein synthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) employ proofreading mechanisms collectively referred to as editing. Although editing is important for viability, editing-deficient aaRSs have been identified in host-dependent organisms. In Mycoplasma mobile, editing-deficient PheRS and LeuRS have been identified. We characterized the amino acid activation site of MmPheRS and identified a previously unknown hyperaccurate mutation, L287F. Additionally, we report that m-Tyr, an oxidation byproduct of Phe which is toxic to editing-deficient cells, is poorly discriminated by MmPheRS activation and is not subjected to editing. Furthermore, expressing MmPheRS and the hyperaccurate variants renders …


Complete Genome Sequences Of Four Putatively Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Isolated From Soil In Arkansas, Usa, Ruth Plymale, Griffin Hopkins, Taylor Johnson, Taylor Savage, Danielle Schaal 2022 Ouachita Baptist University

Complete Genome Sequences Of Four Putatively Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Isolated From Soil In Arkansas, Usa, Ruth Plymale, Griffin Hopkins, Taylor Johnson, Taylor Savage, Danielle Schaal

Articles

Soil bacteria can be a valuable source of antimicrobial compounds. Here, we report the complete genomes of four soil bacteria that were isolated by undergraduate microbiology students as part of a course-based research experience. These genomes were assembled using a hybrid approach combining paired-end Illumina reads with Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION reads.


E. Coli Persister Cell Survival And Rhizobia Attachment To Soybean Roots, Tanim Islam 2022 South Dakota State University

E. Coli Persister Cell Survival And Rhizobia Attachment To Soybean Roots, Tanim Islam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The theme of this thesis revolves around how bacteria respond and thrive during stress. Chapters 1-3 are about how bacteria deal with life-threatening antibiotics. Chapter 4 covers new research on how bacteria can move from a stressful individual lifestyle (free-living bacteria) to initiating a symbiotic relationship with a plant (a less stressful lifestyle). In Chapter 1, I briefly summarize the current state of knowledge in the field of antibiotic resistance and persistence. In Chapter 2, I add to this knowledge by providing new insights into several antibiotics' potency and exploring the antibiotic Eagle effect. In Chapter 3, I use pyruvate …


Characterization Of Porcine Respiratory Epithelial Cells And Their Innate Immune Responses To Bacterial And Viral Ligands, Yam Prasad Gautam 2022 South Dakota State University

Characterization Of Porcine Respiratory Epithelial Cells And Their Innate Immune Responses To Bacterial And Viral Ligands, Yam Prasad Gautam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In response to a pathogenic attack, the host produces a series of defense mechanisms through various intracellular signaling pathways. The byproduct of these signaling pathways helps tackle the invading pathogen and protects the body from getting into a diseased state. This system is called the immune system. The immune system can be divided into two branches namely the innate immune system and adaptive immune system. The groups of immune cells that provide protection regardless of the pathogen specificity constitute the innate immune system. The system that acts according to the pathogen specificity is called the adaptive immune response. The production …


Ozonized Biochar Filtrate Effects On The Growth Of Pseudomonas Putida And Cyanobacteria Synechococcus Elongatus Pcc 7942, Oumar Sacko, Nancy L. Engle, Timothy J. Tschaplinski, Sandeep Kumar, James Weifu Lee 2022 Old Dominion University

Ozonized Biochar Filtrate Effects On The Growth Of Pseudomonas Putida And Cyanobacteria Synechococcus Elongatus Pcc 7942, Oumar Sacko, Nancy L. Engle, Timothy J. Tschaplinski, Sandeep Kumar, James Weifu Lee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Background

Biochar ozonization was previously shown to dramatically increase its cation exchange capacity, thus improving its nutrient retention capacity. The potential soil application of ozonized biochar warrants the need for a toxicity study that investigates its effects on microorganisms.

Results

In the study presented here, we found that the filtrates collected from ozonized pine 400 biochar and ozonized rogue biochar did not have any inhibitory effects on the soil environmental bacteria Pseudomonas putida, even at high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 300 ppm. However, the growth of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 was inhibited by the ozonized biochar filtrates at …


Effect Of Metal-Containing Nanoparticles On Bacterial Biofilms And On The Microbiome Of Girardia Tigrina, Azar Saikali 2022 West Chester University

Effect Of Metal-Containing Nanoparticles On Bacterial Biofilms And On The Microbiome Of Girardia Tigrina, Azar Saikali

West Chester University Master’s Theses

Anthropogenically-produced nanoparticles are a form of nanotechnology being used in industries including food and textiles. Humans and livestock are frequently exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles (MCNPs), that have been washed into streams and rivers, have been deliberately used in food packaging as antimicrobials, preservatives or for supplementation. The animal microbiome, which consists of a diverse community of microorganisms, provides a number of benefits to the host in terms of nutrition availability, immune support, and can influence behavior. Biofilms of diverse microbes may cause detrimental effects, for instance by causing dental diseases in humans. However, the scientific community has not reached consensus …


Biodegradation Of Rubber Particles In Soil: Using Acclimated Bacteria Isolated From Kansas Soil To Degrade Cryogrinds In Slurry, Shane Graham 2022 The University of Akron

Biodegradation Of Rubber Particles In Soil: Using Acclimated Bacteria Isolated From Kansas Soil To Degrade Cryogrinds In Slurry, Shane Graham

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This study investigated the viability of bioremediating rubber cryogrind using enriched indigenous bacteria. To begin the experiment, soils from three highway roadside locations in Kansas, KS 96 and West, KS 400 and 143rd, and 199th, were collected and transported to the lab to be studied. An initial soil characterization was run on the soil samples using distilled (DI) water mixture and 0.01 M CaCl2 to assess conductivity. The soils were tested to gather a baseline of the relationship between pH and conductivity and the impact of its distance from the roadside. Bacteria were isolated from …


Degradation And Nitrogen Cycling In The Context Of Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function Relationships In The Inquiline Bacterial Community Of Darlingtonia Californica, Megan Teigen 2022 Humboldt State University

Degradation And Nitrogen Cycling In The Context Of Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function Relationships In The Inquiline Bacterial Community Of Darlingtonia Californica, Megan Teigen

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Biodiversity-ecosystem function (BEF) research aims to explain how species and their environments interact with each other. Microbial communities engage in vital biogeochemical pathways in a variety of natural ecosystems, and yet there are large knowledge gaps about the specific metabolic pathways in which they are involved. Degradation specifically contributes to nitrogen cycling globally through the breakdown of large organic nitrogen compounds into small inorganic nitrogen that is necessary for the survival of many other organisms. In this study, I focused on the degradative function of the inquiline microbial communities found within the carnivorous pitcher plant, Darlingtonia californica. Darlingtonia grows in …


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