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Microbial, Chemical, And Functional Components In Kefir, Natto, And Feed Ingredients, Dana McCurdy 2022 Clemson University

Microbial, Chemical, And Functional Components In Kefir, Natto, And Feed Ingredients, Dana Mccurdy

All Dissertations

Kefir grains were purchased from online, home kitchen vendors in the United States (n = 22), inoculated into UHT milk, and incubated at 25°C for 22 hours. Results indicated lactobacilli, lactococci and yeast in all samples. Six out of 11 samples contained coliform, and all samples contained pseudomonal and staphylococcal species. Using targeted genome sequencing (16S) of kefir grain samples 1, 2, and 3 revealed that lactobacilli were the predominant genera of bacteria. ITS sequencing revealed different fungal species in each grain. Results indicated potential presence of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 by UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

The fermentation of whole and ground soybeans, …


Jatropha Tanjorensis A Flora Of Southeast Nigeria: Isolation And Characterization Of Naringenin And Validation Of Bio-Enhanced Synergistical Activity Of Α- Tocopherol Toward Clinical Isolates Of Resistant Bacterial, Ikechukwu Kingsley Ijoma, Vincent Ishmael Egbulefu Ajiwe 2022 Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State 420007, Nigeria

Jatropha Tanjorensis A Flora Of Southeast Nigeria: Isolation And Characterization Of Naringenin And Validation Of Bio-Enhanced Synergistical Activity Of Α- Tocopherol Toward Clinical Isolates Of Resistant Bacterial, Ikechukwu Kingsley Ijoma, Vincent Ishmael Egbulefu Ajiwe

Makara Journal of Science

Jatropha tanjorensis is among the rich floras of Southeast Nigeria and used by ethnic people to treat infections and manage health conditions. Ethnomedicine has long been employed in the treatment of ailments caused by bacterial pathogens. Studies showed that the incorporation of synthetic α-tocopherol to an antibacterial agent improves its activity. However, knowledge about the antibacterial-enhanced activity of plant-based α-tocopherols, especially those isolated from Jatropha tanjorensis, is limited because of the different bioactivities of synthetic and natural α-tocopherols. To determine the phytochemicals in J. tanjorensis, we carried out the structural elucidation of its leaf extracts. Naringenin and α-tocopherol …


Presence Of Blaper-1 And Blaveb-1 Beta-Lactamase Genes Among Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa From Burn And Trauma Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, Suleman khan, Samiyah Tasleem, AlFarah Rehmat ullah,, Sarwat Moon, Saad Alghamdi, Raina Saad Suliman, Muhammad Ateeq, Muhmmad Salman, Anas S. Dablool,, Banan Atwah, Farkad Bantun 2022 Department of Health and Biological Sciences Abasyn University Peshawar, Pakistan.

Presence Of Blaper-1 And Blaveb-1 Beta-Lactamase Genes Among Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa From Burn And Trauma Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, Suleman Khan, Samiyah Tasleem, Alfarah Rehmat Ullah,, Sarwat Moon, Saad Alghamdi, Raina Saad Suliman, Muhammad Ateeq, Muhmmad Salman, Anas S. Dablool,, Banan Atwah, Farkad Bantun

Journal of Bioresource Management

Pseudomonas aeruginosa spp are the most prevalent bacteria that cause nosocomial infections in hospitals. Most antibiotics, including novel new β-lactams, are already resistant to them, and they can become resistant during treatment, which can make the treatment fail. P. aeruginosa isolates from ICU patients who had Per-1 and VEB-1 were the main focus of this study. These two ESBLs are the two most common in ICU patients who had them. 50 isolates were gathered from Peshawar's LRH ICU facilities in the year 2021. The antibiotic susceptibility test was conducted in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute's standards (CLSI). …


Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of sublethal concentrations of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on biofilm formation in 57 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (UPEC).

The MIC of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was determined for 57 UPEC isolates. Biofilm formation for each isolate with and without sub-lethal concentrations of each antibiotic was then quantified, and the statistical significance of changes in biofilm formation was ascertained by way of a Dunnett's test.

The effects of sub-MIC antibiotics on biofilm formation of UPEC were variable. A total of 22.8% of strains were induced to form biofilm by nitrofurantoin, …


Investigation Of The Urobiome For The Production Of Novel Antimicrobials Against Uropathogenic E. Coli (Upec), Jennifer Jones 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Investigation Of The Urobiome For The Production Of Novel Antimicrobials Against Uropathogenic E. Coli (Upec), Jennifer Jones

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections globally with antibiotic treatment becoming increasingly less effective. The urobiome remains a relatively understudied niche as a source of potentially novel antimicrobials (e.g., bacteriocins). Improvements to bacterial culturing and sequencing techniques have highlighted the potentially rich source of alternative treatments and control strategies to target uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: (a) BAGEL 4 was used for bioinformatic screening of the genomes of urobiome isolates to identify bacteriocin gene clusters (BGC).

(b) Expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) was used to culture mid-stream urine samples to isolate …


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial cells. The proteins encoded …


The Interaction Of Sulfate And Perchlorate And Its Implications On Bacterial Survival On Mars, Jack M. Richardson, Dylan Clark, Karly Kenny 2022 Eastern Washington University

The Interaction Of Sulfate And Perchlorate And Its Implications On Bacterial Survival On Mars, Jack M. Richardson, Dylan Clark, Karly Kenny

2022 Symposium

Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus are all known spacecraft contaminants. This makes their viability to arrive and survive on Mars feasible, however, this could prove to be a great risk to the Martian environment. In order to test this possibility, all three species were grown within brines containing differing salts and salt concentrations. These salts and their corresponding concentrations are based on known data regarding Martian soil. Growth was measured over a course of 20 hours in solutions containing MgSO4 at concentrations of 4.6% and 9.2%, Mg(ClO4)2 at concentrations of 0.6% and …


Implications Of Antibiotic And Bacteriophage Resistance In Environmentally Isolated E. Coli, Michael Connolly 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Implications Of Antibiotic And Bacteriophage Resistance In Environmentally Isolated E. Coli, Michael Connolly

Honors Theses

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is an emerging problem for humans. Clinical misuse, overuse in agricultural and food settings, and limited numbers of new antibiotics have accelerated the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To confront this threat, scientists must develop new therapeutics that kill these antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, we used Escherichia coli to analyze antibiotic and bacteriophage susceptibility. E. coli is a common, mostly benign, enteric, gram-negative bacteria. We isolated three E. coli strains from the Hans Groot Kill, a stream that runs through Union College’s campus. We sought to assess various E. coli strains’ antibiotic resistance, susceptibility …


Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski 2022 Florida State University

Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of A Helicobacter Pylori Small Rna By Rt-Pcr, Roxanne McPeck, Andrea Castillo 2022 Eastern Washington University

Characterization Of A Helicobacter Pylori Small Rna By Rt-Pcr, Roxanne Mcpeck, Andrea Castillo

2022 Symposium

Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial gastric pathogen infecting approximately 50% of the human population, produces gastritis, ulcers, and gastric cancers. Colonizing the inhospitable and fluctuating environment in the stomach requires tight genetic control. However, H. pylori lacks many genetic regulatory elements present in other bacteria to control gene expression. Instead, over 200 small RNAs (sRNAs; noncoding RNAs shorter than 300 nucleotides) have been found in this bacterium, but few have been fully characterized. Of those, many are antisense to virulence genes. Characterizing these sRNAs is important in understanding the mechanisms of molecular genetics and potentially supporting medical management of this …


Eskape Pathogens: The Clinical Prevalence And Molecular Mechanisms Of Antibiotic Resistance, Anusha Attre 2022 University of Connecticut

Eskape Pathogens: The Clinical Prevalence And Molecular Mechanisms Of Antibiotic Resistance, Anusha Attre

Honors Scholar Theses

The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are the leading cause of all nosocomial, or healthcare-associated (HAI), infections (Navidinia, 2016). The purpose of this research study is to determine the burden of ESKAPE infections on healthcare and study the antibiotic resistance in these high-risk pathogens to provide direction for researchers to develop new antimicrobial innovations to reduce ESKAPE infectivity and improve patient outcomes. To study the burden of ESKAPE infections, this review analyzes the current statistics explaining the clinical prevalence of each pathogen in causing HAIs. Additionally, each pathogen is …


Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria In Freshwater Crayfish, Colby Finch 2022 University of Mississippi

Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria In Freshwater Crayfish, Colby Finch

Honors Theses

The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is increasing in natural aquatic environments. Alongside this, organisms that live in these ecosystems are increasingly harboring antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, I analyzed the capacity for the crayfish species Procambarus vioscai paynei to harbor antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Crayfish, as well as water and sediment, were sampled from a pond at the University of Mississippi Field Station. The guts of crayfish were plated on TSA agar, as well as agar containing vancomycin, erythromycin, penicillin, tetracycline, or ciprofloxacin. Following incubation, counts of bacteria were determined. Selected bacterial isolates were tested for multiple antibiotic-resistance. Bacterial isolates were also …


Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci

Doctoral Dissertations

Nearly all organisms exist in proximity to microbes. These microbes perform most of the essential metabolic processes necessary for homeostasis, forming the nearly hidden support system of Earth. Microbial symbiosis, which is defined as the long-term physical association between host and microbes, relies on communication between the microbial community and their host organism. These interactions among higher order organisms (such as animals, plants, and fungi) and their bacteria links metabolic processes between interkingdom consortia. Many questions on microbial behavior within a host remain poorly understood, such as the colonization efficiency among different microbial species, or how environmental context changes their …


Studying The Lysine Acetylation Of Aconitase Isozymes In E. Coli, Sara Ottinger 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Studying The Lysine Acetylation Of Aconitase Isozymes In E. Coli, Sara Ottinger

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The contents of this thesis have been modified from the publication “Araujo J, Ottinger S, Venkat S, Gan Q and Fan C (2022) Studying Acetylation of Aconitase Isozymes by Genetic Code Expansion. Front. Chem. 10:862483”. Though studies have found multiple lysine sites in which acetylation takes place in Escherichia Coli aconitase, acetylation’s effects on the enzyme’s activity have yet to be studied. Aconitase is the dehydratase-hydratase found in the citric acid and glyoxylate cycles responsible for the reversible isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate intermediate. There are two isoforms of aconitase in E. coli: AcnA and AcnB. In …


Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans Exploits And Modulates The Immune Response By Human Neutrophils For Survival In The Anaerobic Environment., Hazel Ozuna 2022 University of Louisville

Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans Exploits And Modulates The Immune Response By Human Neutrophils For Survival In The Anaerobic Environment., Hazel Ozuna

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe and an opportunistic oral pathogen, strongly associated with localized periodontitis and other inflammatory diseases. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation of the periodontium resulting from the inflammatory response of the host towards the dysbiotic microbial community present at the gingival crevice. The host immune response creates a hostile environment for microorganisms; therefore, it is important for Aa to be able to regulate the necessary genes to survive and thrive in such an environment. Aaexpresses several virulence factors such as a cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and leukotoxin A (LtxA), …


Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff 2022 Ouachita Baptist University

Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff

Honors Theses

Bacteriophages are a possible solution to antibiotic resistance, which is predicted to be detrimental world-wide by the year 2050. Personal field research was also conducted for a project studying the characteristics of two bacteriophages on a single bacterial host.


Diversity Of Bacteriophage In Burkholderia Species, Abigail Price 2022 Bowling Green State University

Diversity Of Bacteriophage In Burkholderia Species, Abigail Price

Honors Projects

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria and offer the potential of a therapeutic alternative to chronic infections that do not respond to antibiotic-based therapies. B. vietnamiensis is one of a number of Burkholderia species involved with chronic drug resistant infections in the lungs of individuals with compromised respiratory systems, as found in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, most especially, are of particular significance in patients with cystic fibrosis. The diversity of the Burkholderia species is explored by using online databases and looking at bacteriophage or phage-encoding viruses found in B. vietnamiensis. The open reading frames …


Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From People That Use Antibacterial Soap Have A Higher Percentage Of Penicillin Resistance, Xou Xiong 2022 Concordia University, St. Paul

Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From People That Use Antibacterial Soap Have A Higher Percentage Of Penicillin Resistance, Xou Xiong

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

The Staph Study at CSP aims to identify bacteria from voluntary students. Swabs of bacteria were collected and cultured. Then, a series of tests were performed to identify the type of bacteria present. It was found that 8 of 12 strains collected were Staphylococcus aureus because of the presence of bubbles, light halos, purple clustered bacteria, dark purple halos, and agglutination.


Examining Bacteriophage Reliance On The Tola Protein Of Escherichia Coli, Ellen Davis 2022 Bowling Green State University

Examining Bacteriophage Reliance On The Tola Protein Of Escherichia Coli, Ellen Davis

Honors Projects

With the ever-growing crisis of antibiotic resistant bacteria, bacteriophage provide an important potential alternative therapy to treat infections when antibiotics are ineffective. For this reason, it is important to understand the mechanisms bacteriophage use to enter their bacterial host cell. The cellular envelope of the gram-negative bacterium E. coli contains a protein system known as Tol-Pal, which utilizes energy from the Proton Motive Force to carry out several cellular functions, including some associated with cellular division and outer-membrane stability. Certain bacteriophage take advantage of the energy produced by this system to cross the bacterial cell membrane. One important protein of …


Computational Analysis Of Myxococcus Xanthus Gliding Motility With Varying Cellular Growth Rate, Laura Batista, Akeisha Belgrave 2022 Harrisburg University of Science and Technology

Computational Analysis Of Myxococcus Xanthus Gliding Motility With Varying Cellular Growth Rate, Laura Batista, Akeisha Belgrave

Harrisburg University Research Symposium

This project focuses on determining the effects of varying growth rates on bacteria motility. Cell growth has been shown to affect peptidoglycan biosynthesis, interacting indirectly with the motility complex that spans across the bacteria. This complex adheres to the external surface via focal adhesion complexes that exert a mechanical force to push the cell forward. Affecting bacteria growth rate, affects peptidoglycan biosynthesis, & should therefore affect M. xanthus motility. (Independent Research)


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