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Non-B Dna-Forming Motifs Promote Mfd-Dependent Stationary-Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilis, Tatiana Ermi, Carmen Vallin, Ana Gabriela Regalado García, Moises Bravo, Ismaray Fernandez Cordero, Holly Anne Martin, Mario Pedraza-Reyes, Eduardo Robleto 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Non-B Dna-Forming Motifs Promote Mfd-Dependent Stationary-Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilis, Tatiana Ermi, Carmen Vallin, Ana Gabriela Regalado García, Moises Bravo, Ismaray Fernandez Cordero, Holly Anne Martin, Mario Pedraza-Reyes, Eduardo Robleto

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Transcription-induced mutagenic mechanisms limit genetic changes to times when expression happens and to coding DNA. It has been hypothesized that intrinsic sequences that have the potential to form alternate DNA structures, such as non-B DNA structures, influence these mechanisms. Non-B DNA structures are promoted by transcription and induce genome instability in eukaryotic cells, but their impact in bacterial genomes is less known. Here, we investigated if G4 DNA-and hairpin-forming motifs influence stationary-phase mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis. We developed a system to measure the influence of non-B DNA on B. subtilis stationary-phase mutagenesis by deleting the wild-type argF at its chromosomal …


Draft Genome Sequences Of 13 Vibrio Cholerae Strains From The Rio Grande Delta, Jeffrey W. Turner, Jorge Duran-Gonzalez, David A. Laughlin, Daniel Unterweger, David Silva, Boris Ermolinsky, Stefan Pukatzki, Daniele Provenzano 2021 Texas A&M Corpus Christi

Draft Genome Sequences Of 13 Vibrio Cholerae Strains From The Rio Grande Delta, Jeffrey W. Turner, Jorge Duran-Gonzalez, David A. Laughlin, Daniel Unterweger, David Silva, Boris Ermolinsky, Stefan Pukatzki, Daniele Provenzano

Publications and Research

Vibrio cholerae is the etiologic agent of cholera, an acute and often fatal diarrheal disease that affects millions globally. We report the draft genome sequences of 13 non-O1/O139 V. cholerae strains isolated from the Rio Grande Delta in Texas. These genomes will aid future analyses of environmental serovars.


Antibiotic Resistance In Mucosal Bacteria From High Arctic Migratory Salmonids, Kristy Moniz, Virginia K. Walker, Vishal Shah 2021 Queens University - Kingston, ON

Antibiotic Resistance In Mucosal Bacteria From High Arctic Migratory Salmonids, Kristy Moniz, Virginia K. Walker, Vishal Shah

Biology Faculty Publications

Two related salmonids, Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) sampled from the high Arctic region of Nunavut, Canada are anadromous fish, migrating annually from the same ice-covered freshwater waterbodies to spend summers in the marine waters of the Arctic Ocean. Microbiota associated with the skin-associated mucus undergo community change coincident with migration, and irrespective of this turnover, antibiotic resistance was detected in mixed bacterial cultures initiated with mucus samples. Although as expected most bacteria were unculturable, however, 5/7 isolates showed susceptibility to a panel of five common antibiotics. The fish were sampled under severe conditions and at …


Investigating Distribution Of Legionella Pneumophila In Urban And Suburban Watersheds, Azlan Maqbool 2021 CUNY Queens College

Investigating Distribution Of Legionella Pneumophila In Urban And Suburban Watersheds, Azlan Maqbool

Student Theses

The presence of Legionella pneumophila was assessed using a cultivation-based approach in New York City waterways, a freshwater portion of the lower Hudson River Estuary near Kingston NY, and in urban and suburban street water. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 51% of brackish New York City Estuary samples, most with concentrations near minimum detection (=>1 organism/ mL). In contrast, it was detected in 22% of suburban freshwater Hudson River Estuary samples. Levels of the bacterium were found to be higher during wet weather compared to dry weather in the highly dense urban setting, but not in the less dense …


Lipoxin A 4 (Lxa 4 ) Promotes Reduction And Antibiotic Efficacy Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm, Julianne M. Thornton, Jean Walker, Prem Y.K. Sundarasivarao, Bernd Spur, Ana Rodriguez, Kingsley Yin 2021 Rowan University

Lipoxin A 4 (Lxa 4 ) Promotes Reduction And Antibiotic Efficacy Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm, Julianne M. Thornton, Jean Walker, Prem Y.K. Sundarasivarao, Bernd Spur, Ana Rodriguez, Kingsley Yin

Stratford Campus Research Day

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P aeruginosa) is an opportunistic bacterium commonly found in wound infections and airways of cystic fibrosis patients P aeruginosa readily forms biofilms which can reduce the efficacy of antibiotics used to eradicate the pathogen We have previously shown that a Specialized Pro resolving Mediator ( Lipoxin A 4 (LxA 4 is a quorum sensing inhibitor which can reduce P aeruginosa virulence In this study, we examined the direct actions of LxA 4 and RvD 2 on P aeruginosa biofilm formation and virulence gene expression The influence of LxA 4 on antibiotic efficacy and the combined effects on biofilm …


Sickness Behaviors Across Vertebrate Taxa: Proximate And Ultimate Mechanisms, Patricia C. Lopes, Susannah S. French, Douglas C. Woodhams, Sandra A. Binning 2021 Chapman University

Sickness Behaviors Across Vertebrate Taxa: Proximate And Ultimate Mechanisms, Patricia C. Lopes, Susannah S. French, Douglas C. Woodhams, Sandra A. Binning

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

There is nothing like a pandemic to get the world thinking about how infectious diseases affect individual behavior. In this respect, sick animals can behave in ways that are dramatically different from healthy animals: altered social interactions and changes to patterns of eating and drinking are all hallmarks of sickness. As a result, behavioral changes associated with inflammatory responses (i.e. sickness behaviors) have important implications for disease spread by affecting contacts with others and with common resources, including water and/or sleeping sites. In this Review, we summarize the behavioral modifications, including changes to thermoregulatory behaviors, known to occur in vertebrates …


Genomics, Exometabolomics, And Metabolic Probing Reveal Conserved Proteolytic Metabolism Of Thermoflexus Hugenholtzii And Three Candidate Species From China And Japan, Scott C. Thomas, Devon Payne, Kevin O. Tamadonfar, Cale O. Seymour, Jian Yu Jiao, Senthil K. Murugapiran, Dengxun Lai, Rebecca Lau, Benjamin P. Bowen, Leslie P. Silva, Katherine B. Louie, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Alex Spunde, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, I. Min Chen, Dimitrios Stamatis, T. B.K. Reddy, Ronan O’Malley, Chris Daum, Nicole Shapiro, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos C. Kyrpides, Tanja Woyke, Emiley Eloe-Fadrosh, Trinity L. Hamilton, Paul Dijkstra, Brian P. Hedlund 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Genomics, Exometabolomics, And Metabolic Probing Reveal Conserved Proteolytic Metabolism Of Thermoflexus Hugenholtzii And Three Candidate Species From China And Japan, Scott C. Thomas, Devon Payne, Kevin O. Tamadonfar, Cale O. Seymour, Jian Yu Jiao, Senthil K. Murugapiran, Dengxun Lai, Rebecca Lau, Benjamin P. Bowen, Leslie P. Silva, Katherine B. Louie, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Alex Spunde, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, I. Min Chen, Dimitrios Stamatis, T. B.K. Reddy, Ronan O’Malley, Chris Daum, Nicole Shapiro, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos C. Kyrpides, Tanja Woyke, Emiley Eloe-Fadrosh, Trinity L. Hamilton, Paul Dijkstra, Brian P. Hedlund

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Thermoflexus hugenholtzii JAD2 , the only cultured representative of the Chloroflexota order Thermoflexales, is abundant in Great Boiling Spring (GBS), NV, United States, and close relatives inhabit geothermal systems globally. However, no defined medium exists for T. hugenholtzii JAD2 and no single carbon source is known to support its growth, leaving key knowledge gaps in its metabolism and nutritional needs. Here, we report comparative genomic analysis of the draft genome of T. hugenholtzii JAD2 and eight closely related metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from geothermal sites in China, Japan, and the United States, representing “Candidatus Thermoflexus japonica,” “Candidatus Thermoflexus tengchongensis,” and “Candidatus …


Purification Of Pcbp2 And Its Effect On The Formation Of Dna I-Motifs And Secondary Structures, Nathan Redden 2021 University of Mississippi

Purification Of Pcbp2 And Its Effect On The Formation Of Dna I-Motifs And Secondary Structures, Nathan Redden

Honors Theses

Several secondary, non-B forms of DNA are associated with the promoter regions of many oncogenes, including the intensely studied c-MYC gene that codes for a transcription factor. Two such secondary structures, G-quadruplexes, and i-motifs, have become topics of interest due to their prevalence within oncogenic promoters, as well as their potential accessibility for drug targeting. B-form DNA can adopt alternative structures under certain conditions. These alternative structures are favored when there is an asymmetric distribution of guanosine and cytosine on complimentary DNA strands. The strand rich in guanosine is able to form a quadruple stranded DNA complex termed a G-quadruplex. …


Applications Of Comparative Genomics And Data Science To Agricultural And Clinical Research, Katrina A. Schlum 2021 University of Tennessee

Applications Of Comparative Genomics And Data Science To Agricultural And Clinical Research, Katrina A. Schlum

Doctoral Dissertations

The advent of inexpensive, high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies has led to the generation of thousands of related genomes, even from a single study. Large-scale genome analysis has resulted in hypothesis-generating approaches in the fields of clinical, human and agriculture genomics. Additionally, population-level genomic sampling has resulted in a decrease in false positives in genotype-phenotype associations and an increase in understanding of the basis of disease, antibiotic and pesticide resistance. Deeper understanding of migration, genetic divergence and evolution has also been made possible due to WGS. This research applies comparative genomics, population genomics and data science approaches to whole …


Elucidating The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Persister Cells Formation And Stress Response In Staphylococcus Aureus, Shanti Pandey 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Elucidating The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Persister Cells Formation And Stress Response In Staphylococcus Aureus, Shanti Pandey

Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes lethal systemic conditions such as infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, sepsis and pneumonia. Chronic in nature, these diseases are often refractory to the antibiotic treatment. Such recalcitrance is mainly caused due to the presence of persister cells, which are a bacterial subpopulation that exhibits extreme, yet transient antibiotic tolerance accompanied by a transient halt in the growth. However, upon cessation of antibiotic treatment, resumption in growth of persister cells causes recurrence of infections and treatment failure, displaying tremendous clinical significance. In this study, we show the involvement of the msaABCR operon in persister …


Phosphodiesterase D Is Involved In Bile Resistance In Listeria Monocytogenes, Sophia A. Ali 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Phosphodiesterase D Is Involved In Bile Resistance In Listeria Monocytogenes, Sophia A. Ali

Honors Theses

Listeria monocytogenes is a deadly foodborne bacterium that is responsible for almost 20% of food-related deaths in the United States. Listeria monocytogenes contaminates ready-to-eat products such as cheese, deli meat, and ice cream. Once ingested, it invades the intestinal lining and can enter the bloodstream, causing listeriosis. There is a gap in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes in how it is able to survive in the gastrointestinal tract in the presence of bile, which has bactericidal properties. Previous studies have suggested that the second messenger cyclic-dimeric-GMP may be involved in the regulation of virulence factors of Listeria. …


Partial Expression Of The Vbss Gene In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479 And In-Silico Analysis Of The Vbs Gene Cluster In Various Microorganisms, Afreen Siddiqui 2021 East Tennessee State University

Partial Expression Of The Vbss Gene In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479 And In-Silico Analysis Of The Vbs Gene Cluster In Various Microorganisms, Afreen Siddiqui

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Iron is extremely important for many organisms. Despite its abundancy, it exists in insoluble forms that makes its usability difficult. Some organisms secrete siderophores, low molecular weight compounds, that can chelate iron and convert it into usable forms for cells. One such organism, Rhizobium leguminosarum, is a nitrogen fixing symbiont proteobacteria that infects leguminous plants. The genome of Rhizobium leguminosarum ATCC 14479, which infects the red clover, Trifoli pratense, has previously been completely sequenced in our lab. Our lab has identified several genes in this strain involved in the biosynthesis of a siderophore, vicibactin. The protein product of one of …


Pathogenicity Of Staphylococcus Agnetis Associated With Lame Broilers With Osteomyelitis, Sura Faris Salih Zaki 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pathogenicity Of Staphylococcus Agnetis Associated With Lame Broilers With Osteomyelitis, Sura Faris Salih Zaki

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We developed High Resolution Melt Analysis (HERMA) as a rapid and reliable molecular diagnostic assay for the detection and identification of the main bacterial species recovered from the blood and lesions of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) from the lame broilers at the University of Arkansas poultry research farm. Also, the present study confirms that raising young birds on suspended wire flooring has been proved to successfully induce lameness attributable to BCO with birds being more susceptible to bacteraemia than those that were raised on litter flooring. The newly described pathogen, Staphylococcus agnetis, has been reported to be overrepresented in …


The Role Of Accessory Domain In Cpsa Function And Capsule Production In Group B Streptococcus, Gina DiFederico 2021 University of Maine - Main

The Role Of Accessory Domain In Cpsa Function And Capsule Production In Group B Streptococcus, Gina Difederico

Honors College

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can be found in the vaginal and genitourinary tract of females, as well as the genitourinary tract of males, where it behaves as a commensal organism. However, as an opportunistic pathogen, GBS has the capability to infect the immunocompromised, making it a major threat to neonates and fetuses. The pathogen can be passed from mother to baby either in utero or during birth. The capsule, which is a polysaccharide coating on the outside of the cell, is considered the most important virulence factor in GBS.Expression of capsule plays a role in evasion of the host immune …


Characterizing The Diversity Of Cluster R Prophage In Mycobacterium Abscessus, Colin Welch 2021 University of Maine - Main

Characterizing The Diversity Of Cluster R Prophage In Mycobacterium Abscessus, Colin Welch

Honors College

Mycobacterium abscessus is a mycobacterial pathogen responsible for pulmonary and disseminated infections in susceptible individuals and often is resistant to all antibiotic therapies, with cure rates ranging from 25% to 58% (Degiacomi et al., 2019).Investigating the mechanisms of extensive resistance in M. abscessus lends opportunities to develop more effective treatments. Prophage, viral sequences integrated into bacterial genomes, contribute to virulence and fitness in many bacterial pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Vibrio cholerae (Fortier & Sekulovic, 2013). Yet, prophage in pathogenic mycobacteria are not well understood or studied. Recent work has demonstrated that the Mycobacterium chelonae prophage, McProf can function …


Project Alien, Rebecca McCallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer 2021 Duquesne University

Project Alien, Rebecca Mccallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Project ALIEN is a comprehensive plan to send humans to Mars to look for life on the Martian surface while exploring the viability and adaptability of terrestrial microbes in Martian atmospheric conditions. ALIEN will use a ballistic capture trajectory to get to Mars and stay in aerostationary orbit for a 30-day surface mission, during which two surface crewmembers will perform a variety of experiments to achieve the mission’s goals of Martian microbial discovery within brines of the Gale Crater and terrestrial microbe adaptability and viability to Martian conditions. Experimentation is based on the presumption that Martian microbes are metabolically similar …


B12: The T Cell Co-Receptor Cd5 Alters Mouse Behavior And Gut Microbiome Composition, Kyle Reaveley 2021 Brigham Young University

B12: The T Cell Co-Receptor Cd5 Alters Mouse Behavior And Gut Microbiome Composition, Kyle Reaveley

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth 2021 University of South Dakota

Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth

Honors Thesis

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are widely recognized as a vital part of the global ecosystem and the world's food supply due to their pivotal role in the pollination of both natural and agricultural flora. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is an emerging phenomenon characterized by a colony's worker bees deserting the hive and leaving the queen behind. This usually results in colony failure. CCD is a multifactorial issue, with many environmental stressors and pathogens playing a role. Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) has been identified as a leading cause in this phenomenon. Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is another lethal pathogen that is …


Bacterial Cyclic Diguanylate Signaling Networks Sense Temperature, Henrik Almblad, Trevor E. Randall, Fanny Liu, Katherine Leblanc, Ryan A. Groves, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Geoffrey L. Winsor, Nicolas Fournier, Emily Au, Julie Groizeleau, Jacquelyn D. Rich, Yuefei Lou, Elise Granton, Laura K. Jennings, Larissa A. Singletary, Tara M.L. Winstone, Nathan M. Good, Roger E. Bumgarner, Michael F. Hynes, Manu Singh, Maria Silvina Stietz, Fiona S.L. Brinkman, Ayush Kumar, Ann Karen Cornelia Brassinga, Matthew R. Parsek, Boo Shan Tseng, Ian A. Lewis, Bryan G. Yipp, Justin L. MacCallum, Joe Jonathan Harrison 2021 University of Calgary

Bacterial Cyclic Diguanylate Signaling Networks Sense Temperature, Henrik Almblad, Trevor E. Randall, Fanny Liu, Katherine Leblanc, Ryan A. Groves, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Geoffrey L. Winsor, Nicolas Fournier, Emily Au, Julie Groizeleau, Jacquelyn D. Rich, Yuefei Lou, Elise Granton, Laura K. Jennings, Larissa A. Singletary, Tara M.L. Winstone, Nathan M. Good, Roger E. Bumgarner, Michael F. Hynes, Manu Singh, Maria Silvina Stietz, Fiona S.L. Brinkman, Ayush Kumar, Ann Karen Cornelia Brassinga, Matthew R. Parsek, Boo Shan Tseng, Ian A. Lewis, Bryan G. Yipp, Justin L. Maccallum, Joe Jonathan Harrison

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Many bacteria use the second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) to control motility, biofilm production and virulence. Here, we identify a thermosensory diguanylate cyclase (TdcA) that modulates temperature-dependent motility, biofilm development and virulence in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TdcA synthesizes c-di-GMP with catalytic rates that increase more than a hundred-fold over a ten-degree Celsius change. Analyses using protein chimeras indicate that heat-sensing is mediated by a thermosensitive Per-Arnt-SIM (PAS) domain. TdcA homologs are widespread in sequence databases, and a distantly related, heterologously expressed homolog from the Betaproteobacteria order Gallionellales also displayed thermosensitive diguanylate cyclase activity. We propose, therefore, that thermotransduction …


Primer Payload System For Higher-Order Multiplex Lamp: Design And Development Of Unit Processes, Tochukwu Dubem Anyaduba 2021 Claremont Colleges

Primer Payload System For Higher-Order Multiplex Lamp: Design And Development Of Unit Processes, Tochukwu Dubem Anyaduba

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Design and Development of Platforms for the Application of Loop-mediated Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification, LAMP, in the Diagnosis of Polymicrobial Diseases

Tochukwu Dubem Anyaduba, Travis Schlappi (PI)

For the past two decades, several isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies have emerged. These are mostly in response to the need for robust molecular diagnostic tools amenable to point-of-care and limited-resource settings. Of these, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, LAMP, stands out as a highly specific and rapid alternative to the polymerase chain reaction, PCR. One of LAMP's significant characteristics involves using four essential and two loop (rate increasing) primers to recognize six to eight …


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