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Continental-Scale Dynamics Of Avian Influenza In U.S. Waterfowl Are Driven By Demography, Migration, And Temperature, Erin E. Gorsich, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kerri Pedersen, Alan B. Franklin, Robert G. McLean, Kenneth R. Wilson, Paul Doherty 2021 Colorado State University & University of Warwick

Continental-Scale Dynamics Of Avian Influenza In U.S. Waterfowl Are Driven By Demography, Migration, And Temperature, Erin E. Gorsich, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. Deliberto, Kerri Pedersen, Alan B. Franklin, Robert G. Mclean, Kenneth R. Wilson, Paul Doherty

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Emerging diseases of wildlife origin are increasingly spilling over into humans and domestic animals. Surveillance and risk assessments for transmission between these populations are informed by a mechanistic understanding of the pathogens in wildlife reservoirs. For avian influenza viruses (AIV), much observational and experimental work in wildlife has been conducted at local scales, yet fully understanding their spread and distribution requires assessing the mechanisms acting at both local, (e.g., intrinsic epidemic dynamics), and continental scales, (e.g., long-distance migration). Here, we combined a large, continental-scale data set on low pathogenic, Type A AIV in the United States with a ...


A Framework For Surveillance Of Emerging Pathogens At The Human-Animal Interface: Pigs And Coronaviruses As A Case Study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, Mark Q. Wilber 2021 USA National Wildlife Research Center, USDA-APHIS

A Framework For Surveillance Of Emerging Pathogens At The Human-Animal Interface: Pigs And Coronaviruses As A Case Study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, Mark Q. Wilber

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose ...


Serological Responses Of Raccoons And Striped Skunks To Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait In West Virginia During 2012–2016, Shylo R. Johnson, Dennis Slate, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Samual A. Mills, John T. Forbes, Kurt VerCauteren, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Serological Responses Of Raccoons And Striped Skunks To Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait In West Virginia During 2012–2016, Shylo R. Johnson, Dennis Slate, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Samual A. Mills, John T. Forbes, Kurt Vercauteren, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Since the 1990s, oral rabies vaccination (ORV) has been used successfully to halt the westward spread of the raccoon rabies virus (RV) variant from the eastern continental USA. Elimination of raccoon RV from the eastern USA has proven challenging across targeted raccoon (Procyon lotor) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) populations impacted by raccoon RV. Field trial evaluations of the Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) were initiated to expand ORV products available to meet the rabies management goal of raccoon RV elimination. This study describes the continuation of a 2011 trial inWest Virginia. Our objective was to evaluate raccoon and skunk ...


European Starling Nest‐Site Selection Given Enhanced Direct Nest Predation Risk, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bruce N. Buckingham 2021 APHIS

European Starling Nest‐Site Selection Given Enhanced Direct Nest Predation Risk, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bruce N. Buckingham

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is recognized, outside its native range, as an invasive species, and efforts to deter its nesting have generally been unsuccessful. Enhancing perceived risk at the nest site is a little‐explored route in developing a nest deterrent. Specifically, nest predation risk affects site selection, reproduction, antipredator behavior, and fitness in nesting birds. We questioned whether perceived predation risk as related to a snake model positioned inside a nest box, in striking form, moving, and present throughout the period of cavity site selection would induce European starlings to avoid or delay nest construction. We conducted our ...


Principal Economic Effects Of Cormorant Predation On Catfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly 2021 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Principal Economic Effects Of Cormorant Predation On Catfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Substantial economic losses of farmed catfish to fish-eating birds such as the double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, continue to be reported on U.S. catfish farms. An economic analysis was conducted of the on-farm effects of both the increased expenditures to scare fish-eating birds from catfish farms and of the value of the catfish that were consumed by cormorants. A survey was conducted of U.S. catfish farmers in the Delta region of Mississippi and Arkansas, to obtain farm-level data on expenditures to scare birds. Estimations of the lost revenue from catfish consumed by cormorants were developed from a concurrent study ...


Avian Use Of Exotic Street Treescapes In Metropolitan Areas Of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, David L. Bergman 2021 APHIS

Avian Use Of Exotic Street Treescapes In Metropolitan Areas Of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, David L. Bergman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Urban areas are highly modified environments that are strongly influenced by a variety of anthropogenic factors. Consequently, these areas contain unique wildlife communities typically dominated by species that are generalist in nature or highly adaptable. We examined the use of five species of exotic treescapes by exotic and native birds in metropolitan areas of Phoenix, Arizona. House Sparrows [Passer domesticus (37%)], European Starlings [Sturnus vulagris (27%)], Mourning Doves [Zenaida macroura (11%)], and Great-tailed Grackles [Quiscalus mexicanus (7%)] were the most frequently observed species during the study. Approximately two-thirds (67%) of the birds observed during the study were exotic species. Avian ...


Impacts Of A Large Invasive Mammal On Water Quality In Riparian Ecosystems, Sara Bolds, B. Graeme Lockaby, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Mark D. Smith, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2021 Auburn University

Impacts Of A Large Invasive Mammal On Water Quality In Riparian Ecosystems, Sara Bolds, B. Graeme Lockaby, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Mark D. Smith, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a highly invasive species in many regions of the world and can act as ecosystem engineers in areas where they are established. In riparian ecosystems, wild pigs may affect water quality parameters and introduce fecal bacteria, although previous studies have reported conflicting results. We propose four conditions that we believe are needed for an accurate assessment of wild pig impacts on water quality and address each one in our study. Water samples were collected between May 2018 and June 2019 in riparian watersheds on a privately owned property in Alabama that was densely populated by ...


Variation In Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Infection In Definitive And Intermediate Hosts In Hawaii, A Global Hotspot Of Rat Lungworm Disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, Susan I. Jarvi 2021 USDA, APHIS, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center

Variation In Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Infection In Definitive And Intermediate Hosts In Hawaii, A Global Hotspot Of Rat Lungworm Disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, Susan I. Jarvi

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) is a tropical and subtropical parasitic nematode, with infections in humans causing angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Hawaii has been identified as a global hotspot of infection, with recent reports of high infection rates in humans, as well as rat definitive and snail intermediate hosts. This study investigated variation in A. cantonensis infection, both prevalence and intensity, in wild populations of two species of rats (Rattus exulans and R. rattus) and one species of snail (Parmarion martensi). An overall infection prevalence of 86.2% was observed in P. martensi and 63.8% in ...


Inefficiency Of Anthraquinone-Based Avian Repellents When Applied To Sunflower: The Importance Of Crop Vegetative And Floral Characteristics In Field Applications, Brandon Kaiser, Burton L. Johnson, Mike Ostlie, Scott J. Werner, Page E. Klug 2021 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Inefficiency Of Anthraquinone-Based Avian Repellents When Applied To Sunflower: The Importance Of Crop Vegetative And Floral Characteristics In Field Applications, Brandon Kaiser, Burton L. Johnson, Mike Ostlie, Scott J. Werner, Page E. Klug

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Blackbirds (Icteridae) cause significant damage to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) prompting the need for effective management tools. Anthraquinone-based repellents can reduce feeding by > 80% in laboratory settings, but require birds to learn the negative association through repellent ingestion. We evaluated an anthraquinone-based repellent applied directly to mature sunflower plants for its ability to reduce bird damage. We used captive male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) to evaluate efficacy of two anthraquinone-based formulations in varying concentrations and applied in a manner attainable by sunflower producers. We also assessed field application methods for repellent coverage and anthraquinone residues when using ground-rigs equipped ...


Behavioral State Resource Selection In Invasive Wild Pigs In The Southeastern United States, Lindsay M. Clontz, Kim M. Pepin, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley 2021 University of Georgia

Behavioral State Resource Selection In Invasive Wild Pigs In The Southeastern United States, Lindsay M. Clontz, Kim M. Pepin, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Elucidating correlations between wild pig (Sus scrofa) behavior and landscape attributes can aid in the advancement of management strategies for controlling populations. Using GPS data from 49 wild pigs in the southeastern U.S., we used hidden Markov models to define movement path characteristics and assign behaviors (e.g., resting, foraging, travelling). We then explored the connection between these behaviors and resource selection for both sexes between two distinct seasons based on forage availability (i.e., low forage, high forage). Females demonstrated a crepuscular activity pattern in the high-forage season and a variable pattern in the low-forage season, while males ...


A Framework To Evaluate Whether To Pool Or Separate Behaviors In A Multilayer Network, Annemarie van der Marel, Sanjay Prasher, Chelsea Carminito, Claire L. O'Connell, Alexa Phillips, Bryan M. Kluever, Elizabeth A. Hobson 2021 University of Cincinnati

A Framework To Evaluate Whether To Pool Or Separate Behaviors In A Multilayer Network, Annemarie Van Der Marel, Sanjay Prasher, Chelsea Carminito, Claire L. O'Connell, Alexa Phillips, Bryan M. Kluever, Elizabeth A. Hobson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

A multilayer network approach combines different network layers, which are connected by interlayer edges, to create a single mathematical object. These networks can contain a variety of information types and represent different aspects of a system. However, the process for selecting which information to include is not always straightforward. Using data on 2 agonistic behaviors in a captive population of monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus), we developed a framework for investigating how pooling or splitting behaviors at the scale of dyadic relationships (between 2 individuals) affects individual- and group-level social properties. We designed 2 reference models to test whether randomizing the ...


Best Management Practices For Trapping Furbearers In The United States, H. Bryant White, Gordon R. Batcheller, Edward K. Boggess, Clifford L. Brown, Joseph W. Butfiloski, Thomas A. Decker, John D. Erb, Michael W. Fall, David A. Hamilton, Tim L. Hiller, George F. Hubert Jr., Matthew J. Lovallo, John F. Olson, Nathan M. Roberts 2021 Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies

Best Management Practices For Trapping Furbearers In The United States, H. Bryant White, Gordon R. Batcheller, Edward K. Boggess, Clifford L. Brown, Joseph W. Butfiloski, Thomas A. Decker, John D. Erb, Michael W. Fall, David A. Hamilton, Tim L. Hiller, George F. Hubert Jr., Matthew J. Lovallo, John F. Olson, Nathan M. Roberts

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Humans have used wild furbearers for various purposes for thousands of years. Today, furbearers are sustainably used by the public for their pelts, leather, bones, glands, meat, or other purposes. In North America, contemporary harvest of furbearers has evolved along with trap technologies and societal concerns, and is now highly regulated and more closely coupled with harvest analysis and population monitoring. Traps and regulated trapping programs provide personal or cultural rewards that can also support conservation, and can assist with advancing ecological knowledge through research, protecting endangered species, restoring populations or habitats, protecting personal property, and enhancing public health and ...


Jaguars And Pumas Exhibit Distinct Spatiotemporal Responses To Human Disturbances In Colombia’S Most Imperiled Ecoregion, Joe J. Figel, Sebastián Botero-Cañola, Juan David Sánchez-Londoño, Javier Racero-Casarrubia 2021 University of Central Florida

Jaguars And Pumas Exhibit Distinct Spatiotemporal Responses To Human Disturbances In Colombia’S Most Imperiled Ecoregion, Joe J. Figel, Sebastián Botero-Cañola, Juan David Sánchez-Londoño, Javier Racero-Casarrubia

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Abstract

Coexistence of sympatric felids is facilitated by mutual avoidance and the partitioning of habitats, prey, and time. Anthropogenic disturbances disrupt this coexistence in fragmented landscapes, potentially triggering cascading influences in ecological communities. We used photographic data from 8,717 trap nights (November 2014–June 2016) at 87 camera trap sites in Colombia’s middle Magdalena River basin to compare spatiotemporal overlap among jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), their prey, and humans, at sites of high and low disturbance, as determined by the human influence index. Human disturbance events (e.g. domestic dogs, livestock, and humans, including armed hunters ...


Comparing Semi-Urban And Forest Populations Of The Jalisco Mud Turtle (Kinosternon Chimalhuaca), Jose Garrido 2021 Central Washington University

Comparing Semi-Urban And Forest Populations Of The Jalisco Mud Turtle (Kinosternon Chimalhuaca), Jose Garrido

All Master's Theses

Mud turtles (family Kinosternidae) are primarily threatened by climate change, overexploitation, and land development. To survive in increasingly urbanized and arid regions, mud turtles often inhabit man-made water sources such as cattle troughs and irrigation ditches. These bodies of water are critical in urban habitat where they may offer some of the last remaining refugia; however, the effect of these conditions on population structure is poorly understood. The Jalisco mud turtle (Kinosternon chimalhuaca) was described in 1997 from a small range south of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. Since its description, critical ecological research has remained largely nonexistent, hindering effective conservation and ...


A Field Study Of Mimulus Alatus And Its Visitors, Joshua Stefan, Nathan Stefan 2021 The University of Akron

A Field Study Of Mimulus Alatus And Its Visitors, Joshua Stefan, Nathan Stefan

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this field study was to determine the flower characteristics of Mimulus alatus and observe the behaviors of visitors to the plant. Members of M. alatus were observed in their natural habitat to ascertain the flowering period for the plants and the lifespan of a single bloom; nectar and pollen levels were also periodically measured. Behavioral patterns of visitors to the flowers were recorded and the species identified. Statistical analysis was performed to deduce the relationships between time of day and nectar and pollen levels, as well as visitor behavior. The blooming period occurred from early July to ...


Differential Effects Of Nematode Infection On Pollinating And Non‐Pollinating Fig Wasps: Can Shared Antagonism Provide Net Benefits To A Mutualism?, Justin Van Goor, Finn Piatscheck, Derek D. Houston, John D. Nason 2021 Iowa State University

Differential Effects Of Nematode Infection On Pollinating And Non‐Pollinating Fig Wasps: Can Shared Antagonism Provide Net Benefits To A Mutualism?, Justin Van Goor, Finn Piatscheck, Derek D. Houston, John D. Nason

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

  1. Species pairs that form mutualistic associations are also components of broader organismal community networks. These interaction networks have shaped the evolution of individual mutualisms through interspecific interactions ranging from secondarily mutualistic to intensely antagonistic. Our understanding of this complex context remains limited because characterizing the impacts of species interacting with focal mutualists is often difficult. How is the fitness of mutualists impacted by the co‐occurring interactive network of community associates?
  2. We investigated this context using a model interaction network comprised of a fig and fig wasp mutualist, eight non‐pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) antagonists/commensals and a nematode previously ...


Genetic Diversity & Connectivity Of Chasmanthium Latifolium (Poaceae) In Pennsylvania & The Effect On Conservation Status Of A Rare Species, Jonathan D. Hayes 2021 Bucknell University

Genetic Diversity & Connectivity Of Chasmanthium Latifolium (Poaceae) In Pennsylvania & The Effect On Conservation Status Of A Rare Species, Jonathan D. Hayes

Honors Theses

Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) Yates (Poaceae) is a loosely colonial, rhizomatous, perennial grass species that lives in riparian habitats, making it fittingly referred to as river oats. Native to the southern Midwest and the eastern half of the United States, C. latifolium reaches the northeastern edge of its range in Pennsylvania. Within Pennsylvania, eleven extant C. latifolium populations are found along four waterways: the Monongahela River, the Susquehanna River, and two tributaries to the Susquehanna River. This limited state distribution exhibits an east-west disjunct distribution, where western populations are largely separated from eastern populations with one centrally located population. Between the ...


Assessing Habitat Suitability Of Ribbed Mussels (Geukensia Demissa) In Georgia Salt Marshes By Examining Predicted Mussel Densities And Mussel Population Parameters, William K. Annis Jr 2021 Georgia Southern University

Assessing Habitat Suitability Of Ribbed Mussels (Geukensia Demissa) In Georgia Salt Marshes By Examining Predicted Mussel Densities And Mussel Population Parameters, William K. Annis Jr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Geukensia demissa (ribbed mussel) is an ecology important bivalve that has the potential to contribute to salt marsh restoration. Understanding the factors that contribute to the distribution of mussels can help inform managers on choosing locations to optimize the survivorship of mussels in restoration projects. This study sought to model mussel densities across the coast of Georgia and to compare predicted mussel densities with mussel population parameters as means to gauge habitat suitability. Mussel densities were collected through field surveys across a range of salt marshes along the coast of Georgia and were compared with spatial data such as distance ...


Comparative Conservation Genomics Of A Suite Of Imperiled Freshwater Mussels, Scott C. Meyer 2021 Georgia Southern University

Comparative Conservation Genomics Of A Suite Of Imperiled Freshwater Mussels, Scott C. Meyer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Maintenance of genetic diversity is a critical component to the management and recovery of imperiled species. By ensuring that a species’ genetic diversity is maintained, issues like inbreeding depression and loss of local adaptation can be prevented. However, the genetic diversity of many species are not well-characterized, and the factors that influence a species’ genetic diversity are often not well understood. In the case of imperiled unionid freshwater mussels, it is important to conduct conservation genetic assessments to aid in their management and preserve genetic diversity. This is the first study to conduct a comparative conservation genomic assessment for eight ...


Use Of Lymesim 2.0 To Assess The Potential For Single And Integrated Management Methods To Control Blacklegged Ticks (Ixodes Scapularis; Acari: Ixodidae) And Transmission Of Lyme Disease Spirochetes, Shravani Chitineni, Elizabeth R. Gleim, Holly D. Gaff 2021 Hollins University

Use Of Lymesim 2.0 To Assess The Potential For Single And Integrated Management Methods To Control Blacklegged Ticks (Ixodes Scapularis; Acari: Ixodidae) And Transmission Of Lyme Disease Spirochetes, Shravani Chitineni, Elizabeth R. Gleim, Holly D. Gaff

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Annual Lyme disease cases continue to rise in the U.S. making it the most reported vector-borne illness in the country. The pathogen (Borrelia burgdorferi) and primary vector (Ixodes scapularis; blacklegged tick) dynamics of Lyme disease are complicated by the multitude of vertebrate hosts and varying environmental factors, making models an ideal tool for exploring disease dynamics in a time- and cost-effective way. In the current study, LYMESIM 2.0, a mechanistic model, was used to explore the effectiveness of three commonly used tick control methods: habitat-targeted acaricide (spraying), rodent-targeted acaricide (bait boxes), and white-tailed deer targeted acaricide (4-poster devices ...


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