Interactive Effects Of Soil And Browsing On Big Sagebrush: Implications For Restoration Success, 2021 Utah State University
Interactive Effects Of Soil And Browsing On Big Sagebrush: Implications For Restoration Success, Kyle Nehring
All Graduate Plan B and other Reports
Heterogeneity in landscape conditions (e.g., soil types) precludes a “one size fits all” management strategy across large landscapes. New management approaches that explicitly account for heterogeneous landscapes (and the variable conditions therein) will be required to maintain habitat quality. In particular, we require an improved mechanistic understanding of how the outcomes of conservation and restoration actions are contingent upon a) contextual abiotic factors (e.g., moisture availability mediated by soils and precipitation) and b) their interactions with biotic factors (e.g., browsing wildlife).
We propose to answer fundamental questions about how big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the foundational species for ...
Anthropogenic And Climatic Factors Interact To Influence Reproductive Timing And Effort, 2021 Utah State University
Anthropogenic And Climatic Factors Interact To Influence Reproductive Timing And Effort, Susannah S. French, Geoffrey Smith
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Reproduction, although absolutely essential to a species’ persistence, is in itself challenging. As anthropogenic change increasingly affects every landscape on Earth, it is critical to understand how specific pressures impact the reproductive efforts of individuals, which directly contribute to the success or failure of populations. However, organisms rarely encounter a single burden at a time, and the interactions of environmental challenges can have compounding effects. Disentangling environmental and physiological pressures is difficult because they are often context-dependent and not generalizable, but long-term monitoring across variable landscapes and weather patterns can improve our understanding of these complex interactions. We tested the ...
Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson
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Wounding events (predation attempts, competitive combat) result in injuries and/or infections that induce integrated immune responses for the recovery process. Despite the survival benefits of immunity in this context, the costs incurred may require investment to be diverted from traits contributing to immediate and/or future survival, such as locomotor performance and oxidative status. Yet, whether trait constraints manifest likely depends on wound severity and the implications for energy budget. For this study, food intake, body mass, sprint speed, and oxidative indices (reactive oxygen metabolites, antioxidant capacity) were monitored in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) healing from cutaneous wounds ...
Diversity, Ecology And Therapeutic Properties Of The Medicinal Plants In Ziban Region (Algeria), 2021 Department of Natural and Life Sciences, University of M’Sila, Algeria
Diversity, Ecology And Therapeutic Properties Of The Medicinal Plants In Ziban Region (Algeria), Nouidjem Yassine, Hadjab Ramzi, Khammar Hichem, Merouani Sakina, Bensaci Etayeb
Journal of Bioresource Management
With the aim to assess the floristic population diversity, distribution and therapeutic properties in the Ziban region (Algeria), a survey was conducted along two successive study years in the main area. The objective of this study was to contribute to the knowledge and description of this plant groups with exhaustive inventory spontaneous vegetation. In order to study the dynamics of medicinal plants, we used a quantitative method based essentially on the classic technique of linear surveys and floristic inventory using the minimum area method. The results showed that the floristic procession of medicinal plants is represented by 21 species belonging ...
A Historical Ecology Of Aridland Springs In Desert National Wildlife Refuge, Nuwu/Nuwuvi (Southern Paiute/Chemehuevi) Ancestral Territory, Nevada, Yarrow Sarah Valentine Geggus
Dissertations and Theses
Aridland springs are among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. Vital to desert ecologies and Indigenous cultures, these complex and individualistic ecosystems have layered histories. To inform management in the changing landscape of Desert National Wildlife Refuge, a 1.6 million acre protected area in Southern Nevada, I conducted a historical ecology study of a sample of ten upland springs. Through a six-part interdisciplinary methodology including interviews, archaeological survey, botanical survey, and archival research, I summarize findings into three broad eras: the Nuwu/Nuwuvi pre-Contact Era, the Settler Era, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Era.
Species Distribution Modeling For Arid Adapted Habitat Specialists In Zion National Park, 2020 Stephen F Austin State University
Species Distribution Modeling For Arid Adapted Habitat Specialists In Zion National Park, Sam Driver, Chris M. Schalk, Daniel Unger, David Kulhavy
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The Arizona toad (Anaxyrus microscaphus) and Jones’ waxy dogbane (Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii) are habitat specialists with historical ranges in the desert southwest and specifically, Zion National Park (ZION). The machine learning method, MaxEnt, constructed species distribution models (SDMs) in ZION for the two study species at 30 m and 900 m spatial resolutions using climate, topographic, and remotely sensed data. Additionally, 900 m forecasting models were constructed to observe the shifts in suitable habitat for the years 2050 and 2070, based off two representative concentration pathway scenarios. Results indicate promising predictive power for both high resolution models (30m) for ...
Population Structure Of A Federally Endangered Plant (Astragalus Jaegerianus Munz, Fabaceae) With Limited Range Using Microsatellites, 2020 California State University, San Bernardino
Population Structure Of A Federally Endangered Plant (Astragalus Jaegerianus Munz, Fabaceae) With Limited Range Using Microsatellites, Sueann Neal
Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations
Studies on population genetics examine the relationship and effects of population structure, migration, gene flow and demographic history, and are therefore important in the conservation of endangered species. Astragalus jaegerianus, a critically federally endangered species found in a geographically restricted range is investigated to determine population structure and genetic variation. Previous research on A. jaegerianus focused on DNA sequence data for cpDNA and nrDNA showed no variation. Further research on A. jaegerianus utilizing AFLP’s on the whole genome indicated substantial gene diversity and population structure consistent with geographically widespread species. AFLP research is a cost-effective process to identify levels ...
The Birds Of The Nebraska Sandhills, 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
The Birds Of The Nebraska Sandhills, Paul A. Johnsgard, Josef Kren
This book provides basic information on all the species of birds that have been reliably reported from the Nebraska Sandhills region as of 2020. They include 46 permanent residents, 125 summer breeders, 125 migrants, and 102 rare or accidental species, totaling 398 species. Information on status, migration, and habitats is provided for all but the very rare and accidental species. There are also descriptions of 46 refuges, preserves, and other public-access natural areas in the region and seven suggested birding routes. The text contains more than 90,000 words and over 250 literature references along with more than 20 drawings ...
Resilience And Alternative Stable States After Desert Wildfires, 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Resilience And Alternative Stable States After Desert Wildfires, Scott R. Abella, Dominic M. Gentilcore, Lindsay P. Chiquoine
Life Sciences Faculty Publications
Improving models of community change is a fundamental goal in ecology and has renewed importance during global change and increasing human disturbance of the biosphere. Using the Mojave Desert (southwestern United States) as a model system, invaded by nonnative plants and subject to wildfire disturbances, we examined models of resilience, alternative stable states, and convergent-divergent trajectories for 36 yr of plant community change after 31 wildfires in communities dominated by the native shrubs Larrea tridentata or Coleogyne ramosissima. Perennial species richness on average was fully resilient within 23 yr after disturbance in both community types. Perennial cover was fully resilient ...
Plant Litter Decomposition Differs With Species And Soil Resources In A Chihuahuan Desert Grassland, 2020 University of New Mexico
Plant Litter Decomposition Differs With Species And Soil Resources In A Chihuahuan Desert Grassland, Andrea Lopez
Uncertainties surround the extent to which diversity can mitigate the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activity on ecosystem functions. In desert grasslands, changes to water availability and soil nitrogen, two primary resources that limit ecosystem processes, can have lasting impacts on nutrient cycling. We used grass litter from Bouteloua eriopoda, Bouteloua gracilis, Pleuraphis jamesii, and Sporobolus spp. to assess the effects of soil resources on single- and multi-species decomposition in a Chihuahuan Desert grassland in central New Mexico, USA. Litterbags were deployed in a factorial experiment that manipulated rain pulse size (5- vs. 20-mm) and frequency (weekly vs. monthly ...
Energy Content Of Seeds Of Common Sunflowers (Helianthus Annuus) In The Diet Of Scaled Quail (Callipepla Squamata) In Southeastern New Mexico, 2020 University of Arkansas at Monticello
Energy Content Of Seeds Of Common Sunflowers (Helianthus Annuus) In The Diet Of Scaled Quail (Callipepla Squamata) In Southeastern New Mexico, John L. Hunt, Matthew E. Grilliot, Troy L. Best, Dixie Lozano-Lopez, Emily R. Neilson, Isaac C. Castillo
Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science
We analyzed the energy content of seeds of common sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) obtained from the crops of scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) collected from plains-mesa sand-scrub habitat in Eddy and Lea counties, New Mexico. Seeds were removed from crops and dried for 48 hours at 60°C to remove moisture and to standardize masses. Seeds were then analyzed for gross caloric value (i.e., energy content) in an oxygen bomb calorimeter. Energy content of seeds of common sunflowers from New Mexico was greater than that of many seeds previously reported from the diet of scaled quail and other granivorous birds and ...
A Tale Of Two Cervids: Habitat Selection And Spatial Ecology Of Roosevelt And Tule Elk In California, 2020 Humboldt State University
A Tale Of Two Cervids: Habitat Selection And Spatial Ecology Of Roosevelt And Tule Elk In California, Adam S. Mohr
HSU theses and projects
California’s Roosevelt (Cervus canadensis rooseveltii) and tule elk (C. c. nannodes) populations have experienced a remarkable recovery after over-hunting and habitat loss nearly extirpated them from the state. Greater clarity of Roosevelt and tule elk habitat selection patterns would help managers continue to effectively support the recovery of these two iconic subspecies. As the manner in which elk populations balance their competing resource needs is unique to each population (Skovlin et al. 2002), I have examined Roosevelt and tule elk habitat selection patterns in separate analyses and present these results in independent chapters. In both cases, I examine the ...
Local‐Regional Similarity In Drylands Increases During Multiyear Wet And Dry Periods And In Response To Extreme Events, 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Local‐Regional Similarity In Drylands Increases During Multiyear Wet And Dry Periods And In Response To Extreme Events, Matthew D. Petrie, D. P.C. Peters, N. D. Bruss, W. Ji, H. M. Savoy
Life Sciences Faculty Publications
Climate change is predicted to impact ecosystems through altered precipitation (PPT) regimes. In the Chihuahuan Desert, multiyear wet and dry periods and extreme PPT pulses are the most influential climatic events for vegetation. Vegetation responses are most frequently studied locally, and regional responses are often unclear. We present an approach to quantify correlation of PPT and vegetation responses (as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI]) at the Jornada ARS‐LTER site (JRN; 550 km2 area) and the surrounding dryland region (from 0 to 500 km distance; 400,000 km2 study area) as a way to understand regional similarity to locally observed ...
Soilmates: Identifying Plant And Soil Interactions, 2019 University of North Georgia
Soilmates: Identifying Plant And Soil Interactions, Chloe Cromer
Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)
Author: Chloe Cromer
Co-Author/Mentor: Tim Ohlert
Presentation Type: Oral/Powerpoint
Field of Study: Desert Ecology
This research project was part of a 10-week long REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) program funded through the NSF and hosted by the University of New Mexico.
The effect that vegetation change has on our soils remains a relatively understudied topic. Currently, in New Mexico and in many arid biomes around the world, grasslands are being encroached upon by woody shrubs like the Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). The impacts of woody shrub encroachment on grassland ...
Responses Of Bouteloua Eriopoda And Soil Stability To Precipitation Extremes In Chihuahuan Desert Grassland, 2019 Humboldt State University
Responses Of Bouteloua Eriopoda And Soil Stability To Precipitation Extremes In Chihuahuan Desert Grassland, Laura Kay Sadorf
IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Humboldt State University
No abstract provided.
Persistence And Turnover In Desert Plant Communities During A 37-Yr Period Of Land Use And Climate Change, 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Persistence And Turnover In Desert Plant Communities During A 37-Yr Period Of Land Use And Climate Change, Scott R. Abella, Ross J. Guida, Chris L. Roberts, Carrie M. Norman, James S. Holland
Life Sciences Faculty Publications
Understanding long‐term changes in ecological communities during global change is a priority for 21st‐century ecology. Deserts, already at climatic extremes, are of unique interest because they are projected to be ecosystems most responsive to global change. Within a 500‐km2 landscape in the Mojave Desert, USA, we measured perennial plant communities at 100 sites three times (1979, 2008, and 2016) during 37 yr to evaluate six hypotheses of community change. These hypotheses encompassed shifts in community measures (e.g., diversity, cover) and species elevational distributions, biotic homogenization, disproportionately large change at the highest elevations, relationships between turnover and ...
Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), 2019 Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang
Biology Faculty Publications
Future increased precipitation in cold desert ecosystems may impact annual/ephemeral plant species that germinate in both spring and autumn. Our primary aim was to compare the life history characteristics of plants from spring-germinating (SG) and autumn-germinating (AG) seeds of Erodium oxyrhynchum. Plants in field plots with simulated increases in precipitation of 0, 30 and 50 % in spring and summer were monitored to determine seedling survival, phenology, plant size, seed production and biomass accumulation and allocation. Germination characteristics were determined in the laboratory for seeds produced by plants in all increased precipitation treatments. Increased precipitation in spring significantly improved survival ...
Genomics Based Approaches To Fungal Evolution, 2019 University of New Mexico
Genomics Based Approaches To Fungal Evolution, Aaron J. Robinson, Donald O. Natvig
Advances in DNA sequencing and data analysis make it possible to address questions in population genetics and evolution at the genomic level. Fungi are excellent subjects for such studies, because they are found in diverse environments, have short generation times, can be maintained in culture and have relatively small genomes. My research employed genetic approaches using a variety of sequencing technologies and methods of analysis to explore questions in fungal evolution.
In one study, I explored the genetics behind differences in thermotolerance between isolates of Neurospora discreta from Alaska and New Mexico. Isolates from the two states exhibited differences in ...
Examining Interactions Between And Among Predictors Of Net Ecosystem Exchange: A Machine Learning Approach In A Semi-Arid Landscape, 2019 University of New Hampshire
Examining Interactions Between And Among Predictors Of Net Ecosystem Exchange: A Machine Learning Approach In A Semi-Arid Landscape, Qingtao Zhou, Aaron Fellows, Gerald N. Flerchinger, Alejandro N. Flores
Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations
Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is an essential climate indicator of the direction and magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer between land surfaces and the atmosphere. Improved estimates of NEE can serve to better constrain spatiotemporal characteristics of terrestrial carbon fluxes, improve verification of land models, and advance monitoring of Earth’s terrestrial ecosystems. Spatiotemporal NEE information developed by combining ground-based flux tower observations and spatiotemporal remote sensing datasets are of potential value in benchmarking land models. We apply a machine learning approach (Random Forest (RF)) to develop spatiotemporally varying NEE estimates using observations from a flux tower and several ...
Drought And Coyotes Mediate The Relationship Between Mesopredators And Human Disturbance In California, 2019 Humboldt State University
Drought And Coyotes Mediate The Relationship Between Mesopredators And Human Disturbance In California, Molly K. Parren
HSU theses and projects
Mesopredators in California are facing two major changes to their ecosystem: drought and the expansion of human disturbance. As a result, mesopredators are likely shifting their habitat use as well as their interspecies interactions to balance resource needs and risk-taking on the landscape. In response to severe drought, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife deployed 585 camera traps throughout the Mojave Desert and Central Valley documenting mammalian mesopredator presence in a drought year (2016) and a post-drought year (2017). The objectives of this study were to examine spatial patterns of mesopredator occurrence and co-occurrence with a dominant predator, the ...