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Non-Aggressive Competition Between Males Of Srilankametrus Yaleensis (Kovařík Et Al., 2019) (Scorpionidae), And Other Types Of Agonistic Behavior Observed In Scorpions, Victoria Tang 2023 Marshall University

Non-Aggressive Competition Between Males Of Srilankametrus Yaleensis (Kovařík Et Al., 2019) (Scorpionidae), And Other Types Of Agonistic Behavior Observed In Scorpions, Victoria Tang

Euscorpius

A peculiar intraspecific agonistic behavior involving a non-aggressive physical combat is reported between the adult males of Srilankametrus yaleensis (Kovařík et al., 2019) (Scorpionidae: Heterometrinae). The adult males were observed to resort to a ritualized and relatively gentle way for strength demonstration. The combat is characterized by lateral spreading of pedipalps, chelicerae-to-chelicerae collision, and entanglement of metasomal segments. This behavior is hereby considered a form of an intrasexual combat defined as the “arm-span competition”. It is hypothesized to be beneficial for solving territorial and/ or sexual competitions while avoiding unnecessary mortality which could pose adverse impact to the natural populations. …


Lychas Jakli Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Indonesia, František Kovařík 2023 Marshall University

Lychas Jakli Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Indonesia, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

A new species Lychas jakli sp. n. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) is described from Indonesia, fully illustrated with color photos showing its morphology and habitus. A new synonymy is proposed: Lychas kotao Lourenço, 2020 = Lychas mucronatus (Fabricius, 1798), syn. n.


Still A Private Universe? Community College Students’ Understanding Of Evolution, Meredith A. Dorner, Philip Sadler, Brian Alters 2023 Irvine Valley College

Still A Private Universe? Community College Students’ Understanding Of Evolution, Meredith A. Dorner, Philip Sadler, Brian Alters

Education Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Measuring what students know and retain about evolution is essential to improving our understanding of how students learn evolution. The literature shows that college students appear to have a poor understanding of evolution, answering questions on various instruments correctly only about half of the time. There is little research regarding evolution understanding among community college students and so this study examines if those students who are enrolled in life science classes, who are assessed using questions based on grade eight standards, show a better understanding of evolutionary principles than younger students and if there are differences in knowledge based …


Attack Of The Clones: Elucidating The Role Of Clonality In The Invasion Success Of Carpobrotus Edulis, Eduardo Luis Cruz 2023 California State University - San Bernardino

Attack Of The Clones: Elucidating The Role Of Clonality In The Invasion Success Of Carpobrotus Edulis, Eduardo Luis Cruz

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Transcriptomics is a modern technique in genomics that utilizes RNA sequences to get a snapshot of genetic expression. This is a powerful tool in non-model species lacking a reference genome. Thus, the application of comparative transcriptomics has the potential to help us elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms that facilitate species invasion. Carpobrotus edulis is a prolific and widespread invasive succulent plant belonging to the Aizoaceae family. A native to South Africa, this species has become a dominant invader of many Mediterranean coastal areas. In this study, we leveraged the use of RNAseq to investigate evolutionary changes among invasive populations. RNA-seq data …


A Comparison Of Seasonal Reproductive Pattern In Two Sympatric Darters Of The Simoperca Clade, Etheostoma Duryi And Etheostoma Simoterum, Tiffany Bell, Elizabeth Cantrell, Bruce Stallsmith 2022 University of Alabama in Huntsville

A Comparison Of Seasonal Reproductive Pattern In Two Sympatric Darters Of The Simoperca Clade, Etheostoma Duryi And Etheostoma Simoterum, Tiffany Bell, Elizabeth Cantrell, Bruce Stallsmith

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

We present results from an examination of the seasonal reproductive patterns of two closely related sympatric darter species of the Simoperca clade, Etheostoma duryi and Etheostoma simoterum. Most members of the genus Etheostoma exhibit striking sexual dimorphism, making reproductive strategy a logical point of study. Monthly collections of specimens over a one-year period were performed at a single site on the Flint River near Huntsville, Alabama. Standard length and gross somatic mass were measured for all individuals. Sex ratio was examined for possible skew. Measures of reproductive effort were monthly means of gonadosomatic index of both sexes, total oocyte count, …


A Report Of Intraguild Predation By Orthochirus Sp. On Hottentotta Tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Maharashtra, India, Mihir Joshi, Shubhankar Deshpande 2022 Marshall University

A Report Of Intraguild Predation By Orthochirus Sp. On Hottentotta Tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Maharashtra, India, Mihir Joshi, Shubhankar Deshpande

Euscorpius

We report an event of intraguild predation by Orthochirus sp. feeding on a juvenile individual of Hottentotta tamulus (Fabricius,1798) from Maharashtra, India. This is the first report of intraguild predation among Indian scorpions.


The Genus Barbaracurus In Saudi Arabia (Scorpiones: Buthidae), With Description Of A New Species, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Pavel Just 2022 Marshall University

The Genus Barbaracurus In Saudi Arabia (Scorpiones: Buthidae), With Description Of A New Species, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Pavel Just

Euscorpius

The genus Barbaracurus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia. B. yemenensis Kovařík et al., 2018 was found in the extreme southwest of the country, near its border with Yemen. The diagnosis of the species is emended based on the finding of adult males and a large adult female. The proximal margins of the pedipalp fingers of male B. yemenensis are strongly undulate, leaving a gap with the fingers closed. This character differentiates it from all other species of Barbaracurus in the Arabian Peninsula. A second species, B. kabateki sp. n. from Saudi Arabia is described …


Influence Of Environmental Factors On Surface Activity Of Paruroctonus Marksi (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) In The Mojave Desert, Zia Nisani, Destiny Frederick, Alejandro Garcia-Plascencia, Daian Lopez, Robert Miller, Linhsan Trinh-Nguyen 2022 Marshall University

Influence Of Environmental Factors On Surface Activity Of Paruroctonus Marksi (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) In The Mojave Desert, Zia Nisani, Destiny Frederick, Alejandro Garcia-Plascencia, Daian Lopez, Robert Miller, Linhsan Trinh-Nguyen

Euscorpius

Many environmental factors may influence the activity pattern of scorpions in arid ecosystems. We investigated the seasonal variations of Paruroctonus marksi scorpion activity in the Mojave Desert (California, USA). Black light surveys were carried out within two 100 ×100 m plots from August 2017 to September 2018. The majority (85%) of scorpions were found in open areas compared with being in vegetation. The presence of P. marksi was positively correlated with both water vapor pressure and soil temperature, while moon illumination had no significant effect on P. marksi foraging behavior. Scorpions might be using humidity as an indicator of prey …


Integrative Revision Of Five Genera Type Species For Zoanthidea To Bridge The Parataxonomy Gap, Jacob Colbert 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Integrative Revision Of Five Genera Type Species For Zoanthidea To Bridge The Parataxonomy Gap, Jacob Colbert

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Cnidarian order Zoanthidea is a relatively understudied group of invertebrates inhabiting a diverse range of marine habitats. Over/During the last two decades, species descriptions within this order have largely been based on a novel molecular parataxonomic system that relies almost exclusively on DNA barcodes to detect and describe new species. DNA barcodes are short, conserved sequences that are readily compared across taxa and used to detect previously described species. The existing taxonomic system, based on anatomical analysis and the identification of evolutionarily informative characters for phylogenetic inference, has been recently replaced by molecular parataxonomy by some scientists/researchers. While molecular sequence …


Insect Availability And Parental Care Behavior In A Common Bird, Cole Bourque 2022 Kennesaw State University

Insect Availability And Parental Care Behavior In A Common Bird, Cole Bourque

Symposium of Student Scholars

Populations of aerially insectivorous birds are declining throughout North America. Urbanization may indirectly contribute to this decline through its negative effects on populations of insects, an important food source in insectivores' diets, where low insect availability may be especially challenging for birds during breeding. How fluctuations in insect populations impact various species at higher trophic levels is an important area of current study for future conservation biology. Here, we examine whether nestling provisioning, brooding and guarding behaviors in a breeding bird—the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)—may be altered depending on the relative insect availability in the environment. We found …


Caribbean Reef-Building Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Network: Identifying Symbioses Critical For System Stability In A Changing Climate, Shaman Patel 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Caribbean Reef-Building Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Network: Identifying Symbioses Critical For System Stability In A Changing Climate, Shaman Patel

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Increasing global ocean temperatures and frequency of marine heatwaves pose dire consequences for coral reefs. High temperatures often lead to disruptions in coral symbiosis resulting in coral bleaching, increasing the mortality of corals. However, corals can potentially avoid bleaching peril by associating with thermally tolerant symbionts. Here we provide a tool for understanding symbiosis network stability of Caribbean reef-building corals. We created a network of Caribbean hermatypic corals and their associated Symbiodiniaceae phylotypes. A bleaching model was applied to this network to test for resilience and robustness (R50) to thermal stress. It was also layered with trait data for coral …


First Report Of Intraguild Predation In Scorpions (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Turkey, Şahin Toprak, Rıdvan Kurt, Ersen A. Yağmur 2022 Marshall University

First Report Of Intraguild Predation In Scorpions (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Turkey, Şahin Toprak, Rıdvan Kurt, Ersen A. Yağmur

Euscorpius

Scorpions are predators of a wide range of invertebrates even including other scorpions. Larger species commonly prey on smaller species or juveniles. Here, we report three cases of intraguild predation of Mesobuthus mesopotamicus (Penther, 1912) and Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905) by Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880) (Scorpiones: Buthidae) in Şırnak Province, Turkey. These are the first cases reporting antagonistic interactions among scorpions in Turkey.


Orthochirus Katerinae Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Saudi Arabia, František Kovařík, Pavel Just 2022 Marshall University

Orthochirus Katerinae Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Saudi Arabia, František Kovařík, Pavel Just

Euscorpius

We describe a new species Orthochirus katerinae sp. n. from Saudi Arabia, previously cited as Orthochirus innesi Simon 1910, ssp. ?, the name many years used as an ‘umbrella’ for various Orthochirus from North Africa and Arabia. The new species is described based on males characterized mainly by: total length 26–30 mm; pectinal teeth number 16–20; movable finger of pedipalps with 7–8 rows of denticles, 8–9 ID and 7 OD; tarsomere I of legs I–III with 3–5 long setae; ratio length/width of metasoma V 1.13–1.16; pedipalp femur length/width ratio 3.30–3.32.


Internal Vertebral Morphology Of Bony Fishes Matches The Mechanical Demands Of Different Environments, Dana Baxter, Karly E. Cohen, Cassandra M. Donatelli, Eric D. Tytell 2022 Tufts University

Internal Vertebral Morphology Of Bony Fishes Matches The Mechanical Demands Of Different Environments, Dana Baxter, Karly E. Cohen, Cassandra M. Donatelli, Eric D. Tytell

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Fishes have repeatedly evolved characteristic body shapes depending on how close they live to the substrate. Pelagic fishes live in open water and typically have narrow, streamlined body shapes; benthic and demersal fishes live close to the substrate; and demersal fishes often have deeper bodies. These shape differences are often associated with behavioral differences: pelagic fishes swim nearly constantly, demersal fishes tend to maneuver near the substrate, and benthic fishes often lie in wait on the substrate. We hypothesized that these morphological and behavioral differences would be reflected in the mechanical properties of the body, and specifically in vertebral column …


Exceptional Larval Morphology Of Nine Species Of The Anastrepha Mucronota Species Group (Diptera: Tephritidae), Erick J. Rodriguez, Gary J. Steck, Matthew R. Moore, Allen L. Norrbom, Jessica Diaz, Louis A. Somma, Raul Ruiz-Arce, Bruce D. Sutton, Norma Nolazco, Alies Muller, Marc A. Branham 2022 University of Florida, Gainesville

Exceptional Larval Morphology Of Nine Species Of The Anastrepha Mucronota Species Group (Diptera: Tephritidae), Erick J. Rodriguez, Gary J. Steck, Matthew R. Moore, Allen L. Norrbom, Jessica Diaz, Louis A. Somma, Raul Ruiz-Arce, Bruce D. Sutton, Norma Nolazco, Alies Muller, Marc A. Branham

Papers in Evolution

Anastrepha is the most diverse and economically important genus of Tephritidae in the American tropics and subtropics. The striking morphology of the third instars of Anastrepha caballeroi Norrbom, Anastrepha crebra Stone, Anastrepha haplacantha Norrbom & Korytkowski, Anastrepha korytkowskii Norrbom, Anastrepha nolazcoae Norrbom & Korytkowski, and three newly discovered and as yet formally unnamed species (Anastrepha sp. Peru-82, Anastrepha sp. nr. protuberans, and Anastrepha sp. Sur-16), and the more typical morphology of Anastrepha aphelocentema Stone, are described using light and scanning electron microscopy. To contribute to a better understanding of the interspecific and intraspecific variation among species in the mucronota …


Reproductive Traits And Change In Body Shape Of Neonates In The Oak Forest Skink, Plestiodon Lynxe, Manuel Feria-Ortiz, Uri Omar García-Vázquez, Carlos Joaquín Pavón-Vázquez, Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca 2022 Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Reproductive Traits And Change In Body Shape Of Neonates In The Oak Forest Skink, Plestiodon Lynxe, Manuel Feria-Ortiz, Uri Omar García-Vázquez, Carlos Joaquín Pavón-Vázquez, Adrián Nieto-Montes De Oca

Publications and Research

Reproductive traits are critically important for understanding how organisms adapt to their respective environments. In this study, we provide information on relative litter mass (RLM) and other litter and neonate related characters of nine female Plestiodon lynxe captured in the field. We also recorded seven body dimensions in 16 neonates and 15 two-month juveniles, and on the basis of these dimensions we compared the body shape of these two age classes to detect changes in the proportions of body parts. The average litter size (4.55) is larger than that found in other viviparous species of Plestiodon, but smaller than …


Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins

Masters Theses

Chemosensation is achieved through the binding of chemical signals to chemoreceptor proteins embedded in the membranes of sensory neurons. The molecular identity of these receptors, as well as the downstream processing of chemosensory signals, has been well studied in arthropods and vertebrates. However, very little is known about molluscan chemosensation. The identity of chemoreceptor proteins in the nudibranch mollusc Berghia stephanieae are unknown. Data from other protostome and molluscan studies suggest Berghia may use ionotropic receptors for some forms of chemoreception. This study used a bioinformatics approach to identify potential chemosensory ionotropic receptors in the transcriptome of Berghia. A …


Constraints Of The Imagination: How Phenotypes Are Shaped Through Genetics, The Environment, And Development, Michelle Gilbert 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Constraints Of The Imagination: How Phenotypes Are Shaped Through Genetics, The Environment, And Development, Michelle Gilbert

Doctoral Dissertations

Phenotypic constraints are ubiquitous throughout nature, being found throughout all stages of life and at multiple different biological levels including cellular, genetic, environmental, behavioral, evolutionary, and developmental. These constraints have shaped, not only the natural world, but the way that we perceive what is possible, or impossible, an observation made clear by François Jacob in his 1977 paper “Evolution and Tinkering”. This is reflected in the literature, repeatedly, by the regular occurrence of densely packed visualization of phenotypic space that seemingly always have large areas that go unoccupied. Despite constrained regions of space being observable across countless taxa, identifying the …


Effects Of The Brain Nonapeptides Arginine-Vasotocin And Isotocin On Shoaling Behaviour In The Guppy (Poecilia Reticulata), Babak Ataei Mehr 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of The Brain Nonapeptides Arginine-Vasotocin And Isotocin On Shoaling Behaviour In The Guppy (Poecilia Reticulata), Babak Ataei Mehr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Brain nonapeptides have been suggested to regulate social behaviours. However, the contribution of Arginine-Vasotocin (AVT) and Isotocin (IT) to social behaviour in fishes is not well-characterized. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), I first measured association preference for conspecifics in individuals injected with either AVT, an AVT-antagonist, or saline. The time spent associating with conspecifics did not differ significantly among the injection treatments. However, individuals injected with AVT performed more movement among areas of the tank than individuals injected with either the AVT-antagonist or saline, consistent with an effect of AVT on anxiety-related behaviours (i.e. hyperactivity). Second, I measured …


Reanalysis Of The Yunnan Population Of Scorpiops Kubani With A Description Of A New Species, Scorpiops Lowei Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Scorpiopidae), Victoria Tang 2022 Marshall University

Reanalysis Of The Yunnan Population Of Scorpiops Kubani With A Description Of A New Species, Scorpiops Lowei Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Scorpiopidae), Victoria Tang

Euscorpius

The Yunnan population of Scorpiops kubani (Kovařík, 2004) is reassessed based on recently collected specimens from this region. A misidentification of that species is revealed, which leads to a description of a new species, Scorpiops lowei sp. n.


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