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Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. VerCauteren 2021 USDA APHIS NWRC

Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Hailey E. Mclean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In the 21st century, invasive animals rank second only to habitat destruction as the greatest threat to global biodiversity. Socially-acceptable and cost-effective strategies are needed to reduce the negative economic and environmental impacts of invasive animals. We investigated the potential for sodium nitrite (SN; CAS 7632-00-0) to serve as an avian toxicant for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.). We also assessed the non-target hazard of an experimental formulation of SN that is being developed as a toxicant for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa L.). In gavage experiments with European starlings, we identified a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for ...


Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. DeLiberto 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. Deliberto

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In August 2020, outbreaks of coronavirus disease were confirmed on mink farms in Utah, USA. We surveyed mammals captured on and around farms for evidence of infection or exposure. Free-ranging mink, presumed domestic escapees, exhibited high antibody titers, suggesting a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission pathway to native wildlife.

We report a wildlife epidemiologic investigation of mammals captured on or near properties in Utah, USA, where outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occurred in farmed mink. Mink farms are relatively common in the United States, and most are small family farms. The US ...


Monitoring For Wolves, Jeff Hansen, Cat Urbigkit 2021 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services Mountain View, Wyoming

Monitoring For Wolves, Jeff Hansen, Cat Urbigkit

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) once again roam across landscapes where they have been absent for decades (Figure 1). With wolf range expansion comes increased opportunities for conflicts when wolves harass or prey on domestic livestock or other animals. Wolves have relatively high reproductive and dispersal rates but detecting individual animals in low-density populations is difficult without a concerted monitoring effort. In fact, wolf presence in an area often is not known until there is a confirmed livestock depredation. Ranchers and wildlife damage management experts need not wait for livestock depredations to occur before wolves ...


Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor 2021 Boise State University

Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Beaver-related restoration is a process-based strategy that seeks to address wide-ranging ecological objectives by reestablishing dam building in degraded stream systems. Although the beaver-related restoration has broad appeal, especially in water-limited systems, its effectiveness is not yet well documented. In this article, we present a process-expectation framework that links beaver-related restoration tactics to commonly expected outcomes by identifying the set of process pathways that must occur to achieve those expected outcomes. We explore the contingency implicit within this framework using social and biophysical data from project and research sites. This analysis reveals that outcomes are often predicated on complex process ...


The Influence Of Juvenile Dinosaurs On Community Structure And Diversity, Katlin Schroeder, S. Kathleen Lyons, Felisa A. Smith 2021 University of New Mexico

The Influence Of Juvenile Dinosaurs On Community Structure And Diversity, Katlin Schroeder, S. Kathleen Lyons, Felisa A. Smith

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Despite dominating biodiversity in the Mesozoic, dinosaurs were not speciose. Oviparity constrained even gigantic dinosaurs to less than 15 kg at birth; growth through multiple morphologies led to the consumption of different resources at each stage. Such disparity between neonates and adults could have influenced the structure and diversity of dinosaur communities. Here, we quantified this effect for 43 communities across 136 million years and seven continents. We found that megatheropods (more than 1000 kg) such as tyrannosaurs had specific effects on dinosaur community structure. Although herbivores spanned the body size range, communities with megatheropods lacked carnivores weighing 100 to ...


Sequencing Of 53,831 Diverse Genomes From The Nhlbi Topmed Program, Daniel Taliun, David D. McManus, L. Adrienne Cupples, Cathy C. Laurie, Cashell E. Jaquish, Ryan D. Hernandez, Timothy D. O'Connor, Goncalo R. Abecasis 2021 University of Michigan

Sequencing Of 53,831 Diverse Genomes From The Nhlbi Topmed Program, Daniel Taliun, David D. Mcmanus, L. Adrienne Cupples, Cathy C. Laurie, Cashell E. Jaquish, Ryan D. Hernandez, Timothy D. O'Connor, Goncalo R. Abecasis

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and biology of heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases. The initial phases of the programme focused on whole-genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here we describe the TOPMed goals and design as well as the available resources and early insights obtained from the sequence data. The resources include a variant browser, a genotype imputation server, and genomic and phenotypic data that are available through dbGaP (Database of Genotypes and ...


Impulse Vaccination Model For The Control Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Zachary Bobbitt, Timothy Comar, Megan O. Powell, Catherine Roberts, Nicholas Schneider, Teagen Smith 2021 University of North Carolina Asheville

Impulse Vaccination Model For The Control Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Zachary Bobbitt, Timothy Comar, Megan O. Powell, Catherine Roberts, Nicholas Schneider, Teagen Smith

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is a cancer that affects Tasmanian devils and that has caused the devil population to grossly decline since 1996. We present an SEIVR model to explore if recent advances in DFTD vaccines can help the wild population recover. Considering both and bi-annual impulse of vaccinating wild devils through food drops and introducing vaccinated captive-bred devils into the population, we explore the vaccine efficacy, percent of healthy devils receiving the vaccine, and years of campaign necessary for the devil population to have a long-term recovery. Based on our initial parameter estimations, we find a stable population ...


Data From: Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson 2021 Utah State University

Data From: Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson

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Wounding events (predation attempts, competitive combat) result in injuries and/or infections that induce integrated immune responses for the recovery process. Despite the survival benefits of immunity in this context, the costs incurred may require investment to be diverted from traits contributing to immediate and/or future survival, such as locomotor performance and oxidative status. Yet, whether trait constraints manifest likely depends on wound severity and the implications for energy budget. For this study, food intake, body mass, sprint speed, and oxidative indices (reactive oxygen metabolites, antioxidant capacity) were monitored in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) healing from cutaneous wounds ...


Emergence And Evolution Of Plasmodium Falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein 2 And 3 Deletion Mutant Parasites In Ethiopia [Preprint], Sindew M. Feleke, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Jane Cunningham, Jonathan B. Parr 2021 Ethiopian Public Health Institute

Emergence And Evolution Of Plasmodium Falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein 2 And 3 Deletion Mutant Parasites In Ethiopia [Preprint], Sindew M. Feleke, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Jane Cunningham, Jonathan B. Parr

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Malaria diagnostic testing in Africa is threatened by Plasmodium falciparum parasites lacking histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and 3 (pfhrp3) genes. Among 12,572 subjects enrolled along Ethiopia’s borders with Eritrea, Sudan, and South Sudan and using multiple assays, we estimate HRP2-based rapid diagnostic tests would miss 9.7% (95% CI 8.5-11.1) of falciparum malaria cases due to pfhrp2 deletion. Established and novel genomic tools reveal distinct subtelomeric deletion patterns, well-established pfhrp3 deletions, and recent expansion of pfhrp2 deletion. Current diagnostic strategies need to be urgently reconsidered in Ethiopia, and expanded surveillance is needed throughout the Horn of ...


A New Vine Snake (Reptilia, Colubridae, Oxybelis) From Peru And Redescription Of O. Acuminatus, Robert C. Jadin, Michael J. Jowers, Sarah A. Orlofske, William E. Duellman, Christopher Blair, John C. Murphy 2021 University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire

A New Vine Snake (Reptilia, Colubridae, Oxybelis) From Peru And Redescription Of O. Acuminatus, Robert C. Jadin, Michael J. Jowers, Sarah A. Orlofske, William E. Duellman, Christopher Blair, John C. Murphy

Publications and Research

The Brown Vine Snake, Oxybelis aeneus, was until recently considered a single species, distributed from southern Arizona through the Neotropics into southeastern Brazil. However, newly conducted research restructured the species with a substantial taxonomic revision, recognizing five additional taxa (i.e. O. koehleri, O. microphthalmus, O. potosiensis, O. rutherfordi, O. vittatus) in this species complex. This revision focused on populations in North America, Central America, and northern South America while neglecting the southern portion of its distribution. Here, we examine the taxonomic history of the complex and use it along with specimen data to resurrect O. acuminatus from southeastern Brazil ...


Ovarian Dynamics And Fecundity Regulation In Blueback Herring, Alosa Aestivalis, From The Connecticut River, Us, Foivos Alexandros Mouchlianitis, Eric T. Schultz, Thassya C. dos Santos Schmidt, Justin P. Davis, Kostas Ganias 2021 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Ovarian Dynamics And Fecundity Regulation In Blueback Herring, Alosa Aestivalis, From The Connecticut River, Us, Foivos Alexandros Mouchlianitis, Eric T. Schultz, Thassya C. Dos Santos Schmidt, Justin P. Davis, Kostas Ganias

EEB Articles

We analyzed ovarian dynamics of anadromous blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, in Connecticut River with the principal aim of exploring oocyte recruitment and how it shapes the fecundity pattern. We examined the oocyte release strategy and analyzed spawning cyclicity by linking oocyte growth to the degeneration of postovulatory follicles. Females were accordingly classified as pre-spawners, early and late active spawners, and oocyte recruitment intensity was compared among the different spawning phases. Oocyte recruitment occurred continuously and in parallel with spawning activity, a pattern which is diagnostic of indeterminate fecundity. However, both fecundity and oocyte recruitment intensity progressively decreased (tapered) throughout spawning ...


Patterns Of Dispersion, Movement And Feeding Of The Sea Urchin Lytechinus Variegatus, And The Potential Implications For Grazing Impact On Live Seagrass, Adrianna Parson, Joseph M. Dirnberger, Troy Mutchler 2021 Augusta University

Patterns Of Dispersion, Movement And Feeding Of The Sea Urchin Lytechinus Variegatus, And The Potential Implications For Grazing Impact On Live Seagrass, Adrianna Parson, Joseph M. Dirnberger, Troy Mutchler

Gulf and Caribbean Research

The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is a known grazer of both living and dead tissue of turtlegrass, Thalassia testudinum, occasionally denuding large areas of seagrass. Field studies have attempted to assess effects of herbivory on seagrass by enclosing urchins at various densities. However, it is unclear how unrestricted urchins affect seagrass at lower densities more typically observed in the field. This study describes movement, feeding, and distribution of L. variegatus within beds of T. testudinum in St. Joseph Bay, Florida (USA) to quantify this urchin’s impact as a seagrass grazer. Urchins were absent from portions of seagrass beds closest ...


Modeling Onset Of Hourly Nesting Activity In A Freshwater Turtle Using Abiotic Variables And Physiological Capacity, Morgan R. Muell, A. L. Carter, Fredric J. Janzen 2021 Iowa State University

Modeling Onset Of Hourly Nesting Activity In A Freshwater Turtle Using Abiotic Variables And Physiological Capacity, Morgan R. Muell, A. L. Carter, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Nesting is an essential, yet variable, reproductive behavior in most oviparous organisms. Although many factors conceivably influence nesting behaviors, it is unclear which factors strongly influence terrestrial nest timing in aquatic nonavian reptiles. As climate is changing rapidly, understanding the relative influences of biotic and abiotic factors on nesting behaviors may yield important information on future changes in daily and seasonal nesting activity. We collected hourly data to examine the significance of local weather conditions to the timing of within-season nesting activity in a large population of Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta). We quantified nesting activity as the ratio of females ...


Lepidopteran Granivory Reduces Seed Counts In A Rare Species Of Riparian Scour Prairies, Cheyenne Moore, Angela J. McDonnell, Scott Schuette, Christopher T. Martine 2021 Bucknell University

Lepidopteran Granivory Reduces Seed Counts In A Rare Species Of Riparian Scour Prairies, Cheyenne Moore, Angela J. Mcdonnell, Scott Schuette, Christopher T. Martine

Faculty Journal Articles

In Pennsylvania Baptisia australis var. australis is found along only four waterways: the Allegheny River, Youghiogheny River, Clarion River, and Red Bank Creek. Because of its limited distribution and small number of extant populations, the species is considered state-threatened in Pennsylvania. In addition, the riparian prairie habitat that Pennsylvania Baptisia australis var. australis is restricted to is also in decline and considered vulnerable. Because of these conservation concerns, insights into the natural history of the taxon in the state is valuable and will inform conservation efforts. Field surveys and fruit collections along the Allegheny River and herbarium collections were used ...


Vole Population Dynamics In Cover Crops Transitioning To Soybeans With Integrated Pest Management By Habitat Modification, Jena L. Nierman 2021 University of Kentucky

Vole Population Dynamics In Cover Crops Transitioning To Soybeans With Integrated Pest Management By Habitat Modification, Jena L. Nierman

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

The use of cover crops has been a wildly used method in rotational row crop production. Cover crops have minimized soil runoff and aided in maintaining nutrients in agricultural fields. Increased use of cover crops has seen a corresponding increase in the amount of damage done to soybeans by voles. Currently, there are no mitigation methods that successfully decrease vole populations in agricultural fields. The use of habitat manipulation as an integrated pest management solution has not been studied as a practical solution for vole population management. During 2019 and 2020, I tested the impacts of various cover crop termination ...


Embracing Dynamic Models For Gene Drive Management, Andrew J. Golnar, Emily W. Ruell, Alun L. Lloyd, Kim M. Pepin 2021 NWRC, USDA APHIS

Embracing Dynamic Models For Gene Drive Management, Andrew J. Golnar, Emily W. Ruell, Alun L. Lloyd, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Robust methods of predicting how gene drive systems will interact with ecosystems is essential for safe deployment of gene drive technology. We describe how quantitative tools can reduce risk uncertainty, streamline empirical research, guide risk management, and promote cross-sector collaboration throughout the process of gene drive technology development and implementation.

Gene drive technologies, although diverse in design and mode of action, are molecular architectures that promote the transmission of genetic information between generations. In theory, the release of one gene-drive-modified organism (GDMO) has the potential to irreversibly alter species, ecosystems, and environmental processes at a global scale (although in practice ...


Anthraquinone Repellent Seed Treatment On Corn Reduces Feeding By Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Scott J. Werner, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services NWRC

Anthraquinone Repellent Seed Treatment On Corn Reduces Feeding By Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Scott J. Werner, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a destructive invasive species that cause extensive damage to agriculture throughout many regions of the world. In particular wild pigs damage corn more than any other crop, and most of that damage occurs immediately after planting when wild pigs excavate and consume planted seeds. We evaluated whether anthraquinone (AQ), a repellent, could be useful for protecting seed corn from consumption by wild pigs. Specifically, we conducted cafeteria-style tests at 16 bait sites for 6 nights using concentrations of: untreated, 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0% AQ by weight sprayed on whole-kernel corn in AL ...


Understanding Tolerance For An Invasive Species: An Investigation Of Hunter Acceptance Capacity For Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In Texas, Hailey E. McLean, Tara L. Teel, Alan Bright, Lauren M. Jaebker, John M. Tomecek, Maureen G. Frank, Rachael L. Connally, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Keith M. Carlisle 2021 U.S.Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center

Understanding Tolerance For An Invasive Species: An Investigation Of Hunter Acceptance Capacity For Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In Texas, Hailey E. Mclean, Tara L. Teel, Alan Bright, Lauren M. Jaebker, John M. Tomecek, Maureen G. Frank, Rachael L. Connally, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Keith M. Carlisle

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species and their establishment in new areas have significant impacts on the ecological, economic, and social well-being of our planet. Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the world’s most formidable invasive species, particularly in the United States. They cause significant damage to agriculture and ecosystems, and can transmit diseases to livestock, wildlife, and people. There is an inherent social dimension to the issue of wild pigs due in part to the fact that people hunt them. Hunting contributes to both the control and spread of this species. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine hunters ...


Avian Influenza A Viruses Reassort And Diversify Differently In Mallards And Mammals, Ketaki Ganti, Anish Bagga, Juliana DaSilva, Samuel S. Shepard, John R. Barnes, Susan A. Shriner, Katia Koelle, Anice C. Lowen 2021 Emory University School of Medicine

Avian Influenza A Viruses Reassort And Diversify Differently In Mallards And Mammals, Ketaki Ganti, Anish Bagga, Juliana Dasilva, Samuel S. Shepard, John R. Barnes, Susan A. Shriner, Katia Koelle, Anice C. Lowen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reassortment among co-infecting influenza A viruses (IAVs) is an important source of viral diversity and can facilitate expansion into novel host species. Indeed, reassortment played a key role in the evolution of the last three pandemic IAVs. Observed patterns of reassortment within a coinfected host are likely to be shaped by several factors, including viral load, the extent of viral mixing within the host and the stringency of selection. These factors in turn are expected to vary among the diverse host species that IAV infects. To investigate host differences in IAV reassortment, here we examined reassortment of two distinct avian ...


Evaluating Potential Effects Of Solar Power Facilities On Wildlife From An Animal Behavior Perspective, Rachel Y. Chock, Barbara Clucas, Elizabeth K. Peterson, Bradley Blackwell, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kathleen Church, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Gabriel Francescoli, Alison L. Greggor, Paul Kemp, Gabriela M. Pinho, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Bruce A. Schulte, Pauline Toni 2021 San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research

Evaluating Potential Effects Of Solar Power Facilities On Wildlife From An Animal Behavior Perspective, Rachel Y. Chock, Barbara Clucas, Elizabeth K. Peterson, Bradley Blackwell, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kathleen Church, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Gabriel Francescoli, Alison L. Greggor, Paul Kemp, Gabriela M. Pinho, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Bruce A. Schulte, Pauline Toni

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Solar power is a renewable energy source with great potential to help meet increasing global energy demands and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. However, research is scarce on how solar facilities affect wildlife. With input from professionals in ecology, conservation, and energy, we conducted a research-prioritization process and identified key questions needed to better understand impacts of solar facilities on wildlife. We focused on animal behavior, which can be used to identify population responses before mortality or other fitness consequences are documented. Behavioral studies can also offer approaches to understand the mechanisms leading to negative interactions (e.g., collision ...


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