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Spectral Properties Of A Non-Compact Operator In Ecology, Matthew Reichenbach 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Spectral Properties Of A Non-Compact Operator In Ecology, Matthew Reichenbach

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research Papers in Mathematics

Ecologists have used integral projection models (IPMs) to study fish and other animals which continue to grow throughout their lives. Such animals cannot shrink, since they have bony skeletons; a mathematical consequence of this is that the kernel of the integral projection operator T is unbounded, and the operator is not compact. A priori, it is unclear whether these IPMs have an asymptotic growth rate λ, or a stable-stage distribution ψ. In the case of a compact operator, these quantities are its spectral radius and the associated eigenvector, respectively. Under biologically reasonable assumptions, we prove that the non-compact operators in ...


Climate Warming’S Alteration Of Host-Parasite Dynamics, Ting-Hsuan Wu 2020 Binghamton University

Climate Warming’S Alteration Of Host-Parasite Dynamics, Ting-Hsuan Wu

Alpenglow: Binghamton University Undergraduate Journal of Research and Creative Activity

Parasites and pathogens have significant roles in host population control, and thus host-parasite interactions affect biodiversity. The important question reviewed in this paper is how changes in temperature due to climate change affect host-parasite interactions. There is mounting evidence that elevated temperatures have both beneficial and detrimental effects on parasites and independently on hosts. These independent changes result in altered host-parasite dynamics through various mechanisms. If elevated temperatures enhance parasite survival, risk of disease transmission among hosts is enhanced as well. This enhancement is dependent on temperature-induced shifts in the host lifecycle, as asynchrony in host and parasite development can ...


Hunting Contests In New York State, Tyler Caffrey 2020 Pace University

Hunting Contests In New York State, Tyler Caffrey

Honors College Theses

The world is currently in a biodiversity crisis and hunting contests cannot continue. Hunting contests are not legitimate wildlife management tools, but exist for entertainment and killing for a prize. Many of the species targeted can be killed without bag limits. Additionally, many wildlife management practices are retroactive, meaning they are in response to an issue. Within New York State, these contests are not regulated by the NYSDEC beyond adhering to hunting regulations. With these factors together, animals targeted by these contests can be hunted to a detrimental point, and then management agencies would step in. These contests face significant ...


Population Structure Of A Federally Endangered Plant (Astragalus Jaegerianus Munz, Fabaceae) With Limited Range Using Microsatellites, SueAnn Neal 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

Population Structure Of A Federally Endangered Plant (Astragalus Jaegerianus Munz, Fabaceae) With Limited Range Using Microsatellites, Sueann Neal

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Studies on population genetics examine the relationship and effects of population structure, migration, gene flow and demographic history, and are therefore important in the conservation of endangered species. Astragalus jaegerianus, a critically federally endangered species found in a geographically restricted range is investigated to determine population structure and genetic variation. Previous research on A. jaegerianus focused on DNA sequence data for cpDNA and nrDNA showed no variation. Further research on A. jaegerianus utilizing AFLP’s on the whole genome indicated substantial gene diversity and population structure consistent with geographically widespread species. AFLP research is a cost-effective process to identify levels ...


Spatial Use By Mammals Within Two State Parks In The Ozarks National Scenic Riverways, Benjamin Aaron Smith 2020 Missouri State University

Spatial Use By Mammals Within Two State Parks In The Ozarks National Scenic Riverways, Benjamin Aaron Smith

MSU Graduate Theses

A mammalian species inventory with comparisons between sampled sites was conducted via multiple methodologies to document presence of mammals at two Missouri state parks within the Ozark National Scenic Riverways. Camera traps, small mammal traps, acoustic detectors, and mist nets were used to detect species at the parks, and species similarity indices and occupancy analyses were used to discern use of space. A mammalian inventory was compiled for each area of inquiry. Greater diversity was found at the park with more variable habitat types. Bat activity was more in the park with a known hibernaculum, though species specific activity differed ...


Fish And Macroinvertebrate Response To Restoration And Conservation Efforts, Madison C. Cogar 2020 Missouri State University

Fish And Macroinvertebrate Response To Restoration And Conservation Efforts, Madison C. Cogar

MSU Graduate Theses

Fish and macroinvertebrate response to restoration and conservation efforts varies in regards to the size and structure of the system (e.g. headwater streams in WV versus large rivers such as the Mississippi River). This project reviews fish and macroinvertebrate rebound in treated acid mine drainage (AMD) streams in WV as well as macroinvertebrate drift patterns in the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. AMD is a product of a chemical reaction resulting in an acidic water outflow from mining sites, which may harm aquatic life. As a response, passive AMD treatment systems have been installed. I tested the effectiveness of remediation ...


Linking Mosquito Surveillance To Dengue Fever Through Bayesian Mechanistic Modeling, Clinton B. Leach, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Kim M. Pepin, Alvaro E. Eiras, Mevin B. Hooten, Colleen T. Webb 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Linking Mosquito Surveillance To Dengue Fever Through Bayesian Mechanistic Modeling, Clinton B. Leach, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Kim M. Pepin, Alvaro E. Eiras, Mevin B. Hooten, Colleen T. Webb

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Our ability to effectively prevent the transmission of the dengue virus through targeted control of its vector, Aedes aegypti, depends critically on our understanding of the link between mosquito abundance and human disease risk. Mosquito and clinical surveillance data are widely collected, but linking them requires a modeling framework that accounts for the complex non-linear mechanisms involved in transmission. Most critical are the bottleneck in transmission imposed by mosquito lifespan relative to the virus’ extrinsic incubation period, and the dynamics of human immunity. We developed a differential equation model of dengue transmission and embedded it in a Bayesian hierarchical framework ...


The Effect Of Fcgammariia Polymorphisms On Dengue Outbreak Severity, Leah Darwin, Richard V. Clarke 2020 Arizona State University at the Tempe Campus

The Effect Of Fcgammariia Polymorphisms On Dengue Outbreak Severity, Leah Darwin, Richard V. Clarke

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Phage-Antibiotic Synergy Inhibited By Temperate And Chronic Virus Competition, Sara M. Clifton, Kylie Landa, Lauren Mossman, Rachel J. Whitaker, Zoi Rapti 2020 St. Olaf College

Phage-Antibiotic Synergy Inhibited By Temperate And Chronic Virus Competition, Sara M. Clifton, Kylie Landa, Lauren Mossman, Rachel J. Whitaker, Zoi Rapti

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Can Modeling Save Florida’S Native Bromeliads From The Evil Weevil?, Erin N. Bodine, Zoe S. Brookover, Brian D. Christman, Sydney L. Davis, Alexis Kohnke 2020 Rhodes College

Can Modeling Save Florida’S Native Bromeliads From The Evil Weevil?, Erin N. Bodine, Zoe S. Brookover, Brian D. Christman, Sydney L. Davis, Alexis Kohnke

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Impacts Of Fishing And Stochasticity On Saving Coral Reefs, Robyn Blevins, Jordan Penn, Christopher Stieha 2020 Millersville University of Pennsylvania

The Impacts Of Fishing And Stochasticity On Saving Coral Reefs, Robyn Blevins, Jordan Penn, Christopher Stieha

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Coyotes, Rick Tischaefer 2020 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services Bismarck, North Dakota

Coyotes, Rick Tischaefer

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The coyote (Canis latrans; Figure 1) is a medium-sized member of the canid family. Once primarily found in western deserts and grasslands, coyotes have expanded their range across North America and into diverse habitats, including urban areas. This expansion occurred during a time of extensive habitat change and efforts by people to suppress coyote populations to prevent damage. Coyotes can cause a variety of conflicts related to agriculture, natural resources, property, and human health and safety. This document highlights a variety of methods for reducing those conflicts. Coyotes are a highly adaptable species and may become habituated to some management ...


Spotted Owls And Forest Fire: Comment, Gavin M. Jones, R. J. Gutiérrez, William M. Block, Peter C. Carlson, Emily J. Comfort, Samuel A. Cushman, Raymond J. Davis, Stephanie A. Eyes, Alan B. Franklin, Joseph L. Ganey, Shaula Hedwall, John J. Keane, Rodd Kelsey, Damon B, Lesmeister, Malcolm P. North, Susan L. Roberts, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Jamie S. Sanderlin, Sarah C. Sawyer, Ben Solvesky, Douglas J. Tempel, Ho Yi Wan, A. LeRoy Westerling, Gary C. White, M. Zachariah Peery 2020 USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Albuquerque

Spotted Owls And Forest Fire: Comment, Gavin M. Jones, R. J. Gutiérrez, William M. Block, Peter C. Carlson, Emily J. Comfort, Samuel A. Cushman, Raymond J. Davis, Stephanie A. Eyes, Alan B. Franklin, Joseph L. Ganey, Shaula Hedwall, John J. Keane, Rodd Kelsey, Damon B, Lesmeister, Malcolm P. North, Susan L. Roberts, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Jamie S. Sanderlin, Sarah C. Sawyer, Ben Solvesky, Douglas J. Tempel, Ho Yi Wan, A. Leroy Westerling, Gary C. White, M. Zachariah Peery

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Western North American forest ecosystems are experiencing rapid changes in disturbance regimes because of climate change and land use legacies (Littell et al. 2018). In many of these forests, the accumulation of surface and ladder fuels from a century of fire suppression, coupled with a warming and drying climate, has led to increases in the number of large fires (Westerling 2016) and the proportion of areas burning at higher severity (Safford and Stevens 2017, Singleton et al. 2018). While the annual area burned by fire is still below historical levels (Taylor et al. 2016), some forest types in the west ...


Adaptive Divergence, Neutral Panmixia, And Algal Symbiont Population Structure In The Temperate Coral Astrangia Poculata Along The Mid-Atlantic United States, Hannah E. Aichelman, Daniel J. Barshis 2020 Old Dominion University

Adaptive Divergence, Neutral Panmixia, And Algal Symbiont Population Structure In The Temperate Coral Astrangia Poculata Along The Mid-Atlantic United States, Hannah E. Aichelman, Daniel J. Barshis

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Astrangia poculata is a temperate scleractinian coral that exists in facultative symbiosis with the dinoflagellate alga Breviolum psygmophilum across a range spanning the Gulf of Mexico to Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Our previous work on metabolic thermal performance of Virginia (VA) and Rhode Island (RI) populations of A. poculata revealed physiological signatures of cold (RI) and warm (VA) adaptation of these populations to their respective local thermal environments. Here, we used whole-transcriptome sequencing (mRNA-Seq) to evaluate genetic differences and identify potential loci involved in the adaptive signature of VA and RI populations. Sequencing data from 40 A. poculata individuals, including 10 ...


Distribution Of Crickets (Subfamily: Phalangopsinae) In Caves Of Baratang Island, Andaman And Nicobar Islands, India, Amruta Dhamorikar, Dhanusha Kawalkar, Shirish Manchi 2020 Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History

Distribution Of Crickets (Subfamily: Phalangopsinae) In Caves Of Baratang Island, Andaman And Nicobar Islands, India, Amruta Dhamorikar, Dhanusha Kawalkar, Shirish Manchi

International Journal of Speleology

Cave-dwelling organisms share different ecological and evolutionary relationships with caves. Based on these interactions, they are categorized as troglobites, troglophiles, and trogloxenes. In India, caves are meagerly explored, and thus cave study is in its infancy in India. Through the present study, we attempted to understand and model the distribution of crickets (Family Phalangopsidae), a critical group of insects - being the primary consumers in the cave ecosystems. We sampled seven caves using belt transects (N = 184; total area covered = 1294.9 m2) with 1 m width. During the survey, we encountered 818 individual crickets (116.85 ± 47.16 SD ...


Chromosome-Level Assembly Of The Atlantic Silverside Genome Reveals Extreme Levels Of Sequence Diversity And Structural Genetic Variation [Preprint], Anna Tigano, Cornell University, Aryn P. Wilder, Ankita Nand, Ye Zhan, Job Dekker, Nina O. Therkildsen 2020 Cornell University

Chromosome-Level Assembly Of The Atlantic Silverside Genome Reveals Extreme Levels Of Sequence Diversity And Structural Genetic Variation [Preprint], Anna Tigano, Cornell University, Aryn P. Wilder, Ankita Nand, Ye Zhan, Job Dekker, Nina O. Therkildsen

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The levels and distribution of standing genetic variation in a genome can provide a wealth of insights about the adaptive potential, demographic history, and genome structure of a population or species. As structural variants are increasingly associated with traits important for adaptation and speciation, investigating both sequence and structural variation is essential for wholly tapping this potential. Using a combination of shotgun sequencing, 10X Genomics linked reads and proximity-ligation data (Chicago and Hi-C), we produced and annotated a chromosome-level genome assembly for the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia) - an established ecological model for studying the phenotypic effects of natural and artificial ...


Loci Associated With Antibody Response In Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) Infected With Brucella Suis, Courtney F. Pierce, Vienna R. Brown, Steven C. Olsen, Paola Boggiatto, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Scott E. Speidel, Timothy J. Smyser 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Loci Associated With Antibody Response In Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) Infected With Brucella Suis, Courtney F. Pierce, Vienna R. Brown, Steven C. Olsen, Paola Boggiatto, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Scott E. Speidel, Timothy J. Smyser

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a destructive invasive species widespread throughout the United States that disrupt ecosystems, damage crops, and carry pathogens of concern for the health of domestic stock and humans including Brucella suis—the causative organism for swine brucellosis. In domestic swine, brucellosis results in reproductive failure due to abortions and infertility. Contact with infected feral swine poses spillover risks to domestic pigs as well as humans, companion animals, wildlife, and other livestock. Genetic factors influence the outcome of infectious diseases; therefore, genome wide association studies (GWAS) of differential immune responses among feral swine can provide an understanding ...


A Review Of Avian Influenza A Virus Associations In Synanthropic Birds, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

A Review Of Avian Influenza A Virus Associations In Synanthropic Birds, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Avian influenza A viruses (IAV) have received significant attention due to the threat they pose to human, livestock, and wildlife health. In this review, we focus on what is known about IAV dynamics in less common avian species that may play a role in trafficking IAVs to poultry operations. Specifically, we focus on synanthropic bird species. Synanthropic species, otherwise known as peridomestic, are species that are ecologically associated with humans and anthropogenically modified landscapes, such as agricultural and urban areas. Aquatic birds such as waterfowl and shorebirds are the species most commonly associated with avian IAVs, and are generally considered ...


Instability Of Glucocorticoid Metabolites In Coyote Scats: Implications For Field Sampling, Erika T. Stevenson, Eric M. Gese, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Susannah S. French 2020 USDA-ARS NWRC

Instability Of Glucocorticoid Metabolites In Coyote Scats: Implications For Field Sampling, Erika T. Stevenson, Eric M. Gese, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Susannah S. French

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Studying physiologic stress responses can assist in understanding the welfare of animals. One method of measuring the physiologic stress response is evaluating concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces. Previously, using an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge, we found fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were a reliable indicator of physiologic stress response in coyotes (Canis latrans). We determine whether glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remain stable when collecting feces over a 2-week period, a timeframe commonly used in scat surveys for wild canids. We collected feces from 6 captive coyotes maintained at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Predator Research ...


Tools, Techniques And Teamwork: Transferring New Technologies For Wildlife Management, Conservation And Economic Development, John Eisemann, Gail Keirn 2020 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Tools, Techniques And Teamwork: Transferring New Technologies For Wildlife Management, Conservation And Economic Development, John Eisemann, Gail Keirn

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Did you ever wonder who invented radio telemetry? Or breakaway snares? What about the bird repellent methyl anthranilate or the livestock protection collar? These and many other tools used in wildlife damage management resulted from creative thinking by biologists, technicians, researchers and managers working to solve complex wildlife issues. Over the past 90 years, these “aha moments” within the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Wildlife Services program have ranged from developing novel scare devices, traps and vaccines to exploiting an animal’s visual capabilities to stop unwanted behaviors. Once discovered, these unique ideas may lead to practical, feasible and ...


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