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Diets Of Double-Crested Cormorants In The Lake Winnebago System, Wisconsin, Ryan P. Koenigs, Daniel J. Dembkowski, Charles D. Lovell, Daniel A. Isermann, Adam D. Nickel 2021 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

Diets Of Double-Crested Cormorants In The Lake Winnebago System, Wisconsin, Ryan P. Koenigs, Daniel J. Dembkowski, Charles D. Lovell, Daniel A. Isermann, Adam D. Nickel

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorox auritus Lesson (cormorant) populations have increased throughout the Great Lakes region of North America causing concern related to the impact of cormorant predation on fish communities. A recent decline in yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchill) abundance within the Lake Winnebago System, Wisconsin, USA, prompted an assessment of cormorant diets to evaluate potential effects of cormorant predation on the sportfish community. Diets were collected from 883 cormorants (417 from Lake Winnebago and 466 from Lake Butte des Morts) between 2015 and 2017. Cormorant diets on both waterbodies consisted mostly of freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque and gizzard shad ...


Efficacy And Risks From A Modified Sodium Nitrite Toxic Bait For Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Jason Wishart, Justin A. Foster, Linton D. Staples, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Efficacy And Risks From A Modified Sodium Nitrite Toxic Bait For Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Jason Wishart, Justin A. Foster, Linton D. Staples, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a destructive invasive species throughout many regions of the world. In 2018, a field evaluation of an early prototype of a sodium nitrite (SN) toxic bait in the United States revealed wild pigs dropped large amounts of the toxic bait outside the pig-specific bait stations while feeding, and thus subsequent hazards for non-target animals. We modified the SN-toxic bait formulation, the design of the bait station, and the baiting strategy to reduce dropped bait. We tested the modifications in Queensland, Australia (December 2018), Alabama, USA (August 2019), and Texas, USA (March 2020) under differing ...


Daily And Landscape Influences Of Species Visitation To Toxic Bait Sites For Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael P. Glow, Michael Lavelle, Justin Fischer, Eric H. VanNatta, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Daily And Landscape Influences Of Species Visitation To Toxic Bait Sites For Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael P. Glow, Michael Lavelle, Justin Fischer, Eric H. Vannatta, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Toxic baiting of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is a potential new tool for population control and damage reduction in the United States. Use of toxic bait sites by non‐target species is concerning because of the risks posed from exposure to a toxic bait. A 2018 field trial in northern Texas, USA, examining the efficacy of a prototype toxic bait (HOGGONE®, containing 10% sodium nitrite) revealed unexpected hazards to non‐target species, primarily passerine birds, from consuming toxic bait spilled outside of bait stations by wild pigs. The hazards jeopardize the ability to register HOGGONE as a tool for controlling ...


Invasive Species In Puerto Rico: The View From El Yunque, Jess Zimmerman, Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Aaron B. Shiels 2021 Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras

Invasive Species In Puerto Rico: The View From El Yunque, Jess Zimmerman, Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Native flora and fauna of Puerto Rico have a long biogeographic connection to South America. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that islands, particularly those distantly isolated from the mainland, should be more susceptible to naturalizations and invasions of non-native species than continental areas. Anthropogenic disturbances can facilitate accidental and deliberate introductions of non-native species. In this study, we asked: What is the current status of introduced species within El Yunque National Forest (EYNF), the largest and most well-conserved forest area of Puerto Rico? To address this question, we reviewed the literature and surveyed local experts to identify introduced plant and ...


Evidence For Continental-Scale Dispersal Of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria By Landfill-Foraging Gulls, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Mariëlle L. van Toor, Hanna Woksepp, Jeffrey C. Chandler, John A. Reed, Andrew B. Reeves, Jonas Waldenström, Alan B. Franklin, David C. Douglas, Jonas Bonnedahl, Andrew M. Ramey 2021 USGS Alaska Science Center, Anchorage

Evidence For Continental-Scale Dispersal Of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria By Landfill-Foraging Gulls, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Mariëlle L. Van Toor, Hanna Woksepp, Jeffrey C. Chandler, John A. Reed, Andrew B. Reeves, Jonas Waldenström, Alan B. Franklin, David C. Douglas, Jonas Bonnedahl, Andrew M. Ramey

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Anthropogenic inputs into the environment may serve as sources of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and alter the ecology and population dynamics of synanthropic wild animals by providing supplemental forage. In this study, we used a combination of phenotypic and genomic approaches to characterize antimicrobial resistant indicator bacteria, animal telemetry to describe host movement patterns, and a novel modeling approach to combine information fromthese diverse data streams to investigate the acquisition and long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria by landfill-foraging gulls. Our results provide evidence that gulls acquire antimicrobial resistant bacteria from anthropogenic sources, which they may subsequently disperse across and between ...


Population Genomic Transformations Induced By Isolation Of Wild Bird Avian Influenza Viruses (Orthomyxoviridae) In Embryonated Chicken Eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, K. L. Pabilonia, James Pierce, Theodore Anderson, Courtney Pierce, Zaid Abdo 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO

Population Genomic Transformations Induced By Isolation Of Wild Bird Avian Influenza Viruses (Orthomyxoviridae) In Embryonated Chicken Eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, K. L. Pabilonia, James Pierce, Theodore Anderson, Courtney Pierce, Zaid Abdo

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Isolation and cultivation of wild-type viruses in model organism cells or tissues is standard practice in virology. Oftentimes, the virus host species is distantly related to the species from which the culture system was developed. Thus, virus culture in these tissues and cells basically constitutes a host jump, which can lead to genomic changes through genetic drift and/or adaptation to the culture system. We directly sequenced 70 avian influenza virus (Orthomyxoviridae) genomes from oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs collected from wild bird species and paired virus isolates propagated from the same samples following isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs. The data ...


Factors Influencing Survival Rates Of Pronghorn Fawns In Idaho, Brett R. Panting, Eric M. Gese, Mary M. Conner, Scott Bergen 2021 Utah State University

Factors Influencing Survival Rates Of Pronghorn Fawns In Idaho, Brett R. Panting, Eric M. Gese, Mary M. Conner, Scott Bergen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) occur throughout western North America. In Idaho, USA, following intensive hunting to reduce crop depredations in the late 1980s, pronghorn populations have not rebounded to desired levels. Because neonatal survival in ungulates is one factor limiting population growth, we evaluated cause‐specific mortality and the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on survival rates of 217 radio‐collared pronghorn fawns across 3 study areas in Idaho during 2015–2016. For intrinsic variables, we determined the sex and body mass index (BMI) for each fawn. For extrinsic variables, we determined the abundance of predators and alternate prey, estimated ...


Effects Of Social Structure And Management On Risk Of Disease Establishment In Wild Pigs, Anni Yang, Peter E. Schlichting, Bethany Wight, Wesley M. Anderson, Sarah M. Chinn, Mark Q. Wilber, Ryan S. Miller, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Kurt C. Vercauteren, George Wittemyer, Kim M. Pepin 2021 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Effects Of Social Structure And Management On Risk Of Disease Establishment In Wild Pigs, Anni Yang, Peter E. Schlichting, Bethany Wight, Wesley M. Anderson, Sarah M. Chinn, Mark Q. Wilber, Ryan S. Miller, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Kurt C. Vercauteren, George Wittemyer, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

1. Contact heterogeneity among hosts determines invasion and spreading dynamics of infectious disease, thus its characterization is essential for identifying effective disease control strategies. Yet, little is known about the factors shaping contact networks in many wildlife species and how wildlife management actions might affect contact networks.

2. Wild pigs in North America are an invasive, socially structured species that pose a health concern for domestic swine given their ability to transmit numerous devastating diseases such as African swine fever (ASF). Using proximity loggers and GPS data from 48 wild pigs in Florida and South Carolina, USA, we employed a ...


Breaking The Chain – The Role Of Intersexual Genetic Correlations In Sexual Dimorphism And The Consequences And Limits Of Their Evolution, Matthew MA Maoloni, Tara Newman, Tristan AF Long Dr. 2021 Wilfrid Laurier University

Breaking The Chain – The Role Of Intersexual Genetic Correlations In Sexual Dimorphism And The Consequences And Limits Of Their Evolution, Matthew Ma Maoloni, Tara Newman, Tristan Af Long Dr.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In many sexually reproducing species, males and females often differ in countless ways beyond their primary sexual organs. This phenomenon is known as sexual dimorphism, and it is generally considered to be an adaptive response to differences in the selection pressures experienced by males and females. Despite the advantages associated with sexual dimorphism, it does not evolve completely unhindered – there are plenty of biological effects that can limit the extent and rate of divergence between the sexes. This research project focusses on the potential role of the intersexual genetic correlation (rmf­) – which describes the degree to which brothers and ...


A Preliminary Study On The Small Population Paradigm And Nesting Biology Of Rose-Ringed Parakeets (Psittacula Krameri) In Gujar Khan, Pakistan, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Huzaifa Zahid, Khalid Mahmood, Abdullah Ibrahim, Ali Hasnain Mosvi, Amir Naseer, Sadia Munir 2020 Department of Biology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan

A Preliminary Study On The Small Population Paradigm And Nesting Biology Of Rose-Ringed Parakeets (Psittacula Krameri) In Gujar Khan, Pakistan, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Huzaifa Zahid, Khalid Mahmood, Abdullah Ibrahim, Ali Hasnain Mosvi, Amir Naseer, Sadia Munir

Journal of Bioresource Management

Rose-ringed parakeet (P. krameri) is commonly found native psittacid in Pakistan. It is most popular companion bird in Pakistan. It is an unprotected species as per The Punjab Wildlife Act, 1974. The objectives of the present study were to study its population paradigm and basic nesting biology in the Gujar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. Previously, no studies were carried out to assess its live and vacant nest cavities, nesting site, nest height, cavity position on substrate, and potential roosts in the area. Moreover, this study also assesses the potential threats and factors in this area and conservation of the parakeet. Results ...


Population Density, Habitat Characteristics And Preferences Of Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) In Chakwal, Pakistan, Amir Naseer, Muhammad Bilal, Umar Naseer, Naureen Mustafa, Bushra Allah Rakha 2020 Department of Wildlife Management, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Population Density, Habitat Characteristics And Preferences Of Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) In Chakwal, Pakistan, Amir Naseer, Muhammad Bilal, Umar Naseer, Naureen Mustafa, Bushra Allah Rakha

Journal of Bioresource Management

The Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a least concern carnivore according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2016). However, in Pakistan Red fox is considered as Near Threatened (NT), due to habitat destruction and depletion of food resources. The objective of the study was to identify habitat preferences and population density of Red fox in District Chakwal, Pakistan. Line transect census method was used to estimate the population density of Red fox through direct sighting and indirect method of burrow counting, presence of footprints and scats. A total of 10 transects were carried out at three potential sites ...


Evaluation Of The Diversity Of Durum Wheat Coleoptera (Triticum Durum Desf.) In The Region Of Sigus Oum El Bouaghi (Eastern Algeria), Amokrane Assia, khammar hichem, Hadjab ramzi, saheb menouar 2020 University of Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria

Evaluation Of The Diversity Of Durum Wheat Coleoptera (Triticum Durum Desf.) In The Region Of Sigus Oum El Bouaghi (Eastern Algeria), Amokrane Assia, Khammar Hichem, Hadjab Ramzi, Saheb Menouar

Journal of Bioresource Management

The Oum El Bouaghi region in Eastern Algeria, long considered as a cereal-growing area is nowadays a durum wheat production region par excellence. Although the damage caused by Coleoptera is very significant, studies on the knowledge of their diversity are few and remain limited for some entomological groups. Our work is the first step to evaluate the diversity of Coleoptera and the long-term impact of taking biological management measures against harmful fauna in favour of more environment friendly agriculture. To assess the beetle community, different sampling methods were combined (Barber trap, coloured traps, mowing net and sight hunting). Evaluation of ...


Tolerance Of Bearded Vultures To Human Activities: Response To Comor Et Al. (2019), Olivier Duriez, Antoni Margalida, Luc Albert, Beatriz Arroyo, Virginie Couanon, Hélène Loustau, Martine Razin, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub 2020 Centre for Evolutionnary and Functional Ecology, Montpellier, France

Tolerance Of Bearded Vultures To Human Activities: Response To Comor Et Al. (2019), Olivier Duriez, Antoni Margalida, Luc Albert, Beatriz Arroyo, Virginie Couanon, Hélène Loustau, Martine Razin, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) is listed as vulnerable in Europe on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List because of population declines over multiple generations. Vulture population declines have been attributed to shooting, use of toxicants, and changes in land use, which have resulted in habitat degradation and increased anthropogenic disturbances. Concomitantly, conservation authorities have restricted practices deemed harmful to the species and have established protection buffers around occupied vulture breeding sites to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on breeding success. Comor et al. (2019) compared bearded vulture breeding success over 6 years within and outside ...


Black Vulture Conflict And Management In The United States: Damage Trends, Management Overview, And Research Needs, Bryan M. Kluever, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Scott C. Barras, Brett G. Dunlap, Lee A. Humberg 2020 NWRC, Gainesville

Black Vulture Conflict And Management In The United States: Damage Trends, Management Overview, And Research Needs, Bryan M. Kluever, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Scott C. Barras, Brett G. Dunlap, Lee A. Humberg

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Contrary to rapid declines of many vulture (Accipitridae, Cathartidea) species worldwide, black vulture (Coragyps atratus) populations are increasing and expanding their range in North America. Vultures exhibit complex behaviors and can adapt to any human-dominated landscape or land use. These traits, combined with population growth and range expansion, have contributed to increased human–vulture conflicts. Our goal was to summarize the current status and trends in human–black vulture conflicts (hereafter human–vulture conflicts), review available management strategies, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to enhance management and understanding of this species and the associated conflicts. We found human–vulture ...


The Emerging Conflict Of Common Ravens Roosting On Electric Power Transmission Line Towers In Montana, Usa, Marco Restani, James S. Lueck 2020 NorthWestern Energy

The Emerging Conflict Of Common Ravens Roosting On Electric Power Transmission Line Towers In Montana, Usa, Marco Restani, James S. Lueck

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Bird interactions with electric power lines can cause faults (e.g., disruption of electrical service). Faults on 500kV transmission lines in Montana, USA, which are integral to the Northwest USA power grid, became concerning during winter 2016–2017. In 2017 we found insulators contaminated with bird droppings and discovered a large nocturnal roost of common ravens (Corvus corax). To assess the potential magnitude of the impact of raven roosts on electric power transmission, we summarized fault data obtained from the Energy Management System and raven abundance data obtained from the Christmas Bird Count in central Montana from 2005 to 2020 ...


Modeling Migratory Nongame Birds: A Plea For Data, George M. Linz 2020 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center (Retired)

Modeling Migratory Nongame Birds: A Plea For Data, George M. Linz

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The Bird Damage Management Conference held February 10–13, 2020 in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA provided a forum for professionals from across the United States to discuss and share management approaches, research strategies, policy, and messaging regarding the management of blackbirds (Icteridae), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), corvids (Corvidae), and vultures (Cathartidae). Mathematical models were presented at the conference and subsequently discussed in a special issue of Human–Wildlife Interactions. Rapidly changing landscape variables point to the need for detailed systematic population monitoring programs with specific objectives. Nationwide periodic monitoring would provide data about changes not only in bird populations due ...


Improving Understanding Of Forest Communities And Biodiversity With Multi-Dimensional Landscape Gradients, Ben J. Padilla 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Improving Understanding Of Forest Communities And Biodiversity With Multi-Dimensional Landscape Gradients, Ben J. Padilla

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation was motivated by a desire to understand the effects of habitat degradation and urbanization on a single species in a single study system in western Massachusetts, the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), but along the way unexpected conceptual and methodological hurdles caused the work to grow into a multi-species, multi-region, and multi-scale endeavor. As I designed my dissertation research and began considering approaches to quantifying heterogeneity and human influence in my study landscape, I recognized inconsistencies in methods used to define and quantify landscape metrics, particularly in urban systems. To investigate further, I conducted a critical review of the ...


Core Commitments For Field Trials Of Gene Drive Organisms, Kanya C. Long, Luke Alphey, George J. Annas, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Karl J. Campbell, Jackson Champer, Chun-Hong Chen, Amit Choudhary, George M. Church, James P. Collins, Kimberly L. Cooper, Jason A. Delborne, Owain R. Edwards, Claudia I. Emerson, Kevin Esvelt, Sam Weiss Evans, Robert M. Friedman, Valentino M. Gantz, Fred Gould, Sarah Hartley, Elizabeth Heitman, Janet Hemingway, Hirotaka Kanuka, Jennifer Kuzma, James V. Lavery, Yoosook Lee, Marce Lorenzen, Jeantine E. Lunshof, John M. Marshall, Philipp W. Messer, Craig Montell, Kenneth A. Oye, Megan J. Palmer, Philippos Aris Papathanos, Prasad N. Paradkar, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Jason L. Rasgon, Gordana Rašić, Larisa Rudenko, J. Royden Saah, Maxwell J. Scott, Jolene T. Sutton, Adam E, Vorsino, Omar S. Akbari 2020 University of California, San Diego

Core Commitments For Field Trials Of Gene Drive Organisms, Kanya C. Long, Luke Alphey, George J. Annas, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Karl J. Campbell, Jackson Champer, Chun-Hong Chen, Amit Choudhary, George M. Church, James P. Collins, Kimberly L. Cooper, Jason A. Delborne, Owain R. Edwards, Claudia I. Emerson, Kevin Esvelt, Sam Weiss Evans, Robert M. Friedman, Valentino M. Gantz, Fred Gould, Sarah Hartley, Elizabeth Heitman, Janet Hemingway, Hirotaka Kanuka, Jennifer Kuzma, James V. Lavery, Yoosook Lee, Marce Lorenzen, Jeantine E. Lunshof, John M. Marshall, Philipp W. Messer, Craig Montell, Kenneth A. Oye, Megan J. Palmer, Philippos Aris Papathanos, Prasad N. Paradkar, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Jason L. Rasgon, Gordana Rašić, Larisa Rudenko, J. Royden Saah, Maxwell J. Scott, Jolene T. Sutton, Adam E, Vorsino, Omar S. Akbari

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We must ensure that trials are scientifically, politically, and socially robust, publicly accountable, and widely transparent.

Gene drive organisms (GDOs), whose genomes have been genetically engineered to spread a desired allele through a population, have the potential to transform the way societies address a wide range of daunting public health and environmental challenges. The development, testing, and release of GDOs, however, are complex and often controversial. A key challenge is to clarify the appropriate roles of developers and others actively engaged in work with GDOs in decision-making processes, and, in particular, how to establish partnerships with relevant authorities and other ...


Teaching Ecology In The Nys North Country To Promote Environmental Appreciation And Foster More Scientifically Literate Citizens, Jeffrey Blackburn 2020 The College at Brockport: State University of New York

Teaching Ecology In The Nys North Country To Promote Environmental Appreciation And Foster More Scientifically Literate Citizens, Jeffrey Blackburn

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This thesis includes the research, rationale and implementation of refutation texts, field trips, and concept mapping as core teaching methodologies in the development of a complete introductory ecology curriculum for high school level students. The goal of which is to promote reading comprehension and scientific literacy, and facilitate greater environmental appreciation and positive ecological behaviors in students to help them become more environmentally aware and scientifically educated members of society.


An Examination Of The Influence Of Multi-Scale Processes And Connectivity On The Population And Assemblage Dynamics Of Headwater Fishes, Josh P. Hubbell 2020 University of Southern Mississippi

An Examination Of The Influence Of Multi-Scale Processes And Connectivity On The Population And Assemblage Dynamics Of Headwater Fishes, Josh P. Hubbell

Dissertations

Typified by their branching pattern, headwaters are numerically abundant as the density of these habitats increases with increasing distance from the base of a dendritic river system. Connectivity among headwaters is complex, resulting in the spatial isolation of populations. Headwater specialists have evolved a suite of traits that permit these species to permanently reside within these habitats. The spatial configuration and connectivity of headwaters has repercussions for metapopulations and meta-assemblages. I investigated how multi-scale processes and connectivity influenced the patch occupancy, coexistence, movement ecology, population structure, and gene flow of headwater specialists. In chapter two, I used occupancy modeling to ...


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