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Evaluating Non-Invasive Environmental Methods For Detecting Tropical African Pangolin Species To Inform Conservation Actions, Ichu Godwill Ichu 2022 Mississippi State University

Evaluating Non-Invasive Environmental Methods For Detecting Tropical African Pangolin Species To Inform Conservation Actions, Ichu Godwill Ichu

Theses and Dissertations

Tropical African pangolin species are threatened throughout their range due to habitat loss and illegal take. Limited knowledge on distribution has rendered conservation efforts challenging. Methods commonly used for other wildlife species need to be tested for each pangolin species as each has variable ecologies requiring specific detection and monitoring techniques. This thesis evaluates the efficacy of two non-invasive environmental methods for detecting tropical African pangolin species, and consists of two complementary studies; a proof of concept study using soil sourced eDNA from a white-bellied pangolin enclosure in the Columbus Zoo, Ohio, to detect the species, and a field study ...


In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi 2022 University of Hawaii at Hilo

In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a neurotropic nematode, and the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The parasite is usually contracted through ingestion of infected gastropods, often hidden in raw or partially cooked produce. Pharmaceutical grade pyrantel pamoate was evaluated as a post-exposure prophylactic against A. cantonensis. Pyrantel pamoate is readily available over-the-counter in most pharmacies in the USA and possesses anthelmintic activity exclusive to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Administering pyrantel pamoate immediately after exposure should theoretically paralyze the larvae in the GIT, causing the larvae to be expelled via peristalsis without entering the systemic circulation. In this study, pyrantel ...


A Theoretical Perspective On Parasite-Host Coevolution With Alternative Modes Of Infection, George N. Shillcock 2022 The University of Western Ontario

A Theoretical Perspective On Parasite-Host Coevolution With Alternative Modes Of Infection, George N. Shillcock

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We investigate how natural selection shapes the coevolution of parasitism. We discuss the antagonism fuelled by parasites’ necessity to transmit to novel hosts, and host’s desire to minimise virulence. In support, we build a mathematical model which considers the epidemiology and life-history trade-offs faced by an obligate microparasite and its host. Our model allows parasites to be transmitted to new hosts via direct contact (horizontally) or from parent to offspring during birth (vertically). We test the hypothesis that vertical transmission causes virulence to diminish in the long run, and contrary to widely accepted views, find that vertical transmission need ...


Abundance, Site-Fidelity, And Association Patterns Of Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Off Southeast Florida, Graysen D. Boehning 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Abundance, Site-Fidelity, And Association Patterns Of Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Off Southeast Florida, Graysen D. Boehning

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

The coastal bottlenose dolphin is well studied throughout its natural range, however, most of the study areas comprised wide, well-protected habitats such as bays and estuaries, and not narrow coastal sandbanks. This study identifies a residential group of coastal bottlenose dolphins utilizing the narrow sandbanks within the Northwestern Atlantic waters off the coast of Palm Beach County, Florida, USA. From 2014-2020, 313 boat surveys were conducted, and 585 individual dolphins were identified using photo-ID. Twenty-four animals were determined to be full-time and 66 animals were determined to be part-time residents. Full-time and part-time residents associated in three social tribes, with ...


The Impact Of Long-Term Artificial Removal Experiment And Natural Local Extinctions On The Genetics Of An Alpine Butterfly, Keon Young Park 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Impact Of Long-Term Artificial Removal Experiment And Natural Local Extinctions On The Genetics Of An Alpine Butterfly, Keon Young Park

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In the current age of widespread anthropogenic effects across the globe, organisms are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and localized decline in population more than ever before. Therefore, insight into metapopulation-level dynamics and the genetic basis of inter-patch dispersal is key to understanding the regional persistence of a species in the face of potential localized extinction or population bottleneck. In this study I used samples from a previously conducted localized long-term population removal experiment to investigate the effects of an extended population reductions on the genetic structure of a local population, and to explore the genetic basis of dispersal and recolonization ...


Epidemiological Assessment Of Wolbachia-Based Biocontrol For Reduction Of Dengue Morbidity, Olga Vasilieva, Oscar E. Escobar, Hector J. Martinez, Pierre-Alexandre Bliman, Yves Dumont 2022 Universidad Del Valle

Epidemiological Assessment Of Wolbachia-Based Biocontrol For Reduction Of Dengue Morbidity, Olga Vasilieva, Oscar E. Escobar, Hector J. Martinez, Pierre-Alexandre Bliman, Yves Dumont

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


De-Coupling Cell-Autonomous And Non-Cell-Autonomous Fitness Effects Allows Solution Of The Fokker-Planck Equation For The Evolution Of Interacting Populations, Steph J. Owen 2022 Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute

De-Coupling Cell-Autonomous And Non-Cell-Autonomous Fitness Effects Allows Solution Of The Fokker-Planck Equation For The Evolution Of Interacting Populations, Steph J. Owen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Gene Drives And The Consequences Of Over-Suppression, Cole Butler 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Gene Drives And The Consequences Of Over-Suppression, Cole Butler

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski 2022 Florida State University

Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Bioeconomic Analysis In A Predator-Prey System With Harvesting: A Case Study In The Chesapeake Bay Fisheries, Iordanka Panayotova, Maila Hallare 2022 Christopher Newport University

Bioeconomic Analysis In A Predator-Prey System With Harvesting: A Case Study In The Chesapeake Bay Fisheries, Iordanka Panayotova, Maila Hallare

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Hepatitis B And D: A Forecast On Actions Needed To Reduce Incidence And Achieve Elimination, Scott Greenhalgh, Andrew Klug 2022 Siena College

Hepatitis B And D: A Forecast On Actions Needed To Reduce Incidence And Achieve Elimination, Scott Greenhalgh, Andrew Klug

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Viral hepatitis negatively affects the health of millions, with the worst health outcomes associated with the hepatitis D virus (HDV). Fortunately, HDV is rare and requires prior infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) before it can establish infection and transmit. Here, we develop a mathematical model of HBV and HDV transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa to investigate the effects of hepatitis B vaccination on both HBV and HDV. Our findings illustrate a hepatitis B vaccination rate above 0.006 year-1 reduces hepatitis D by over 90%, and a vaccination rate above 0.0221 year-1 reduces hepatitis B by ...


An Application Of Differential Mathematical Modeling Techniques To Study The Ongoing Rabies Epizootic In China, Christopher Turner 2022 Stephen F. Austin State University

An Application Of Differential Mathematical Modeling Techniques To Study The Ongoing Rabies Epizootic In China, Christopher Turner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rabies remains a global public health issue with a wide variety of neurological symptoms such as confusion, slight paralysis, hypersalivation, and hydrophobia. Rabies is usually fatal once symptoms appear. Many species are reservoirs for rabies, such as foxes, racoons, and wild dogs, which in turn can transmit the disease to humans, leading to complex transmission chains. There is a long latent period of rabies, between 1 to 3 months after infection, which further complicates control efforts. Mathematical modeling is a valuable tool in the study of infectious disease outbreaks and there have been many models applied to rabies outbreaks. However ...


Elk Abundance, Survival, And Health In The Cumberland Mountains Of Tennessee, Katherine Kurth 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Elk Abundance, Survival, And Health In The Cumberland Mountains Of Tennessee, Katherine Kurth

Doctoral Dissertations

Managing sustainable wildlife populations requires insight into population abundance and health. Since reintroduction, elk (Cervus canadensis) at the North Cumberland Wildlife Management Area (NCWMA) in Tennessee have shown marginal population growth using low-precision abundance estimates. Limited research investigating possible population limiting factors has occurred since evaluations conducted directly after translocation. To provide information necessary for effective population management, we estimated abundance, identified survival rates, and conducted mortality and health surveillance. Precise abundance estimates of eastern elk populations are challenging to obtain using traditional capture-recapture due to invasive handling of individuals and low detection in forested landscapes. Therefore, we used elk ...


Life After Death – Does Carcass Biodiversity Scale With Carcass Body Size?, Troy Warfield 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Life After Death – Does Carcass Biodiversity Scale With Carcass Body Size?, Troy Warfield

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mammals play a large role in the ecosystems where some, especially large-bodied mammals, act as ecosystem engineers. Mammal carcasses, particularly those of large body mass act as a temporary island of dense nutrients that support other organisms, including other mammal species, for an extended period. Research in this field currently focuses on the link between mammal carcass size and nutrient availably or on non-mammalian size and biodiversity, but little is available on the correlation between mammal carcass size and its influence on ecosystem biodiversity. Here we ask, does the available biomass (i.e., body size) of the carcass affect its ...


Relative Palatability And Efficacy Of Brodifacoum-25d Conservation Rodenticide Pellets For Mouse Eradication On Midway Atoll, Peter J. Kappes, Shane R. Siers, Israel L. Leinbach, Robert T. Sugihara, Wesley J. Jolley, Jonathan H. Plissner, Elizabeth N. Flint, Kelly L. Goodale, Gregg R. Howald 2022 USDA APHIS National Wildlife Research Center

Relative Palatability And Efficacy Of Brodifacoum-25d Conservation Rodenticide Pellets For Mouse Eradication On Midway Atoll, Peter J. Kappes, Shane R. Siers, Israel L. Leinbach, Robert T. Sugihara, Wesley J. Jolley, Jonathan H. Plissner, Elizabeth N. Flint, Kelly L. Goodale, Gregg R. Howald

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Invasive mice (Mus spp.) can negatively impact island species and ecosystems. Because fewer island rodent eradications have been attempted for mice compared to rats (Rattus spp.), less is known about efficacy and palatability of rodenticide baits for mouse eradications. We performed a series of bait acceptance and efficacy cage trials using a standard formulation of brodifacoum-based rodenticide on wild-caught mice from Sand Island, Midway Atoll, to help inform a proposed eradication there. Mice were offered ad libitum brodifacoum pellets along with various alternative food sources, and a “no choice” treatment group received only bait pellets. Mortality in the no choice ...


Microplastics Exposure In At-Risk Myotis Lucifugus Bats Of The Northeastern United States, Leah Crowley 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Microplastics Exposure In At-Risk Myotis Lucifugus Bats Of The Northeastern United States, Leah Crowley

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Site Fidelity Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using Elemental Analyses And Photo-Identification, Lauren R. Clance 2022 University of South Alabama

Site Fidelity Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using Elemental Analyses And Photo-Identification, Lauren R. Clance

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to determine if bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Alabama waters acquire location-specific elemental signatures indicative of site fidelity. I measured trace metal concentrations (Chapter II) and stable isotope ratios (Chapter III) in skin from free-ranging dolphins remotely biopsied in Mobile Bay, the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and eastern Mississippi Sound (EMSS). Elemental findings were corroborated with photo-identification data. I found that dolphins acquired some location-specific elements indicative of site fidelity, with the greatest differences at geographic extremes, particularly relative to salinity. For trace metals, highest concentrations were found in winter, consistent with higher ...


Non-Native Coccinellid Beetles And Land Use Abundance Patterns In The Quad Cities Region, Jack Hughes, Tierney Brosius, Michael Reisner 2022 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Non-Native Coccinellid Beetles And Land Use Abundance Patterns In The Quad Cities Region, Jack Hughes, Tierney Brosius, Michael Reisner

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Harmonia axyridis was introduced in 1916. This species of coccinellid beetle is considered a desirable species for agriculture practices because of its ability to control pests. There is increasing evidence that H. axyridis may be outcompeting native species which could be contributing to the decline of some species that are disappearing from the landscape. Harmonia axyridis has a large migration range of 2 Km enabling the species to affect a large area of land. Invasive species often increase in abundance in urban landscapes which may be the case with H. axyridis. During the summer of 2021 we investigated H. axyridis ...


Editorial: Special Issue “Innovative Techniques And Approaches In The Control And Prevention Of Rabies Virus”, Amy T. Gilbert, Ryan M. Wallace, Charles E. Rupprecht 2022 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Editorial: Special Issue “Innovative Techniques And Approaches In The Control And Prevention Of Rabies Virus”, Amy T. Gilbert, Ryan M. Wallace, Charles E. Rupprecht

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rabies is an ancient lethal scourge that has plagued humankind for centuries. Globally, 60,000 human deaths are estimated to occur each year from rabies virus (RABV) transmission in domestic dogs, mostly affecting children. While rabies is recognized as a neglected disease, there is cause for optimism in the context of growing global recognition, collaboration and commitment to advance a tripartite agenda to eliminate human deaths transmitted from rabid dogs by 2030, also known as “Zero By Thirty” (ZBT). Nevertheless, the ZBT goal must also confront competing challenge(s) of tracking and mitigating human morbidity and mortality during a global ...


Microbial Diversity And Community Structure In Sediments Associated With The Seagrass (Thallassia Testudinum) In Apalachicola Bay, Florida, Rahma Ahmed, Thomas McElroy, Troy Mutchler 2022 Kennesaw State University

Microbial Diversity And Community Structure In Sediments Associated With The Seagrass (Thallassia Testudinum) In Apalachicola Bay, Florida, Rahma Ahmed, Thomas Mcelroy, Troy Mutchler

Symposium of Student Scholars

Seagrass is an angiosperm which provides many ecosystem services in coastal areas, such as providing food, shelter and nurseries for many species, and decreasing the impact of waves on shorelines. A global assessment reported that 29% of known seagrass meadows are in a state of decline due to the effects of human activity. Seagrass is commonly found in shallow marine waters where they form meadows containing a microbiome that plays an important role in providing nutrients for seagrass growth, though little is known about the microorganisms within the seagrass meadow sediments. Our project collected sediments from seagrass meadows and adjacent ...


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