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Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella 2022 University of New Mexico

Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella

Biology ETDs

At high latitudes, climatic oscillations have triggered repeated episodes of organismal divergence by geographically isolating populations. For terrestrial species, extended isolation in glacial refugia – ice-free regions that enable terrestrial species persistence through glacial maxima – is hypothesized to stimulate allopatric divergence. Alternatively, upon glacial recession, divergent populations expanded from independent glacial refugia and often contacted other diverging populations. In the absence of reproductive isolating mechanisms, this biogeographic process may trigger hybridization and ultimately, gene flow between divergent taxa. My dissertation research aims to understand how these episodic periods of isolation and contact have impacted the evolution of high latitude species. To ...


Understanding Caribou Population Cycles, Jack R. St. John 2022 University of Montana

Understanding Caribou Population Cycles, Jack R. St. John

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

The complex population dynamics of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) were studied to determine the patterns of their population cycles and the processes driving them. It is well established, via previous archaeological research and Indigenous knowledge, that large migrating caribou herds found in and around the tundra at northern latitudes experience population boom and busts roughly every several decades. However, the processes driving the dynamics of these cycles are relatively unknown, which makes managing caribou herds for recreational and subsistence harvests difficult. It has been hypothesized that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors shape these cycles, with density-dependence, predation, harvest, climate ...


Intensive Hunting Pressure Changes Local Distribution Of Wild Boar, Jakub Drimaj, Jiří Kamler, Radim Plhal, Přemysl Janata, Zdeněk Adamec, Miloslav Homolka 2021 Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic

Intensive Hunting Pressure Changes Local Distribution Of Wild Boar, Jakub Drimaj, Jiří Kamler, Radim Plhal, Přemysl Janata, Zdeněk Adamec, Miloslav Homolka

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is now an important species of wild ungulates in Central Europe. Next to conflicts of wild boar with agriculture, the main threat of wild boar presence lies in the expansion of African swine fever across Europe. The regulation of the wild boar population is complicated by the high reproduction rate and intelligent behavior of the species, which limits hunting effectiveness. We analyzed the spatial behavior of wild boar in an environment with a lack of natural food resources. The study area consisted of a forest complex (1,283 ha) with 2 areas. In the “risk” area ...


Бадхызские Архивы. Том 1, Р. И. Горелова, В. Фет 2021 Marshall University

Бадхызские Архивы. Том 1, Р. И. Горелова, В. Фет

Books Published by MU Libraries in MDS

Gorelova, RI, Fet V, editors. The Badkhyz Archives, Vol. 1. Huntington, WV: Marshall University Libraries; 2021. 444 p.

This volume compiles memoirs and research information about the unique Badkhyz Natural Reserve, now in Turkmenistan, formerly at the southernmost point of the USSR. Established in 1941, the Reserve—nicknamed a Serengeti of Central Asia— housed many unique and endangered species, with an iconic wild ass, or kulan, preserved only there. The book is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the Reserve and the 90th birthday of Yuri Gorelov (1931—2018), an extraordinary naturalist who worked in Badkhyz in 1956—1978. His ...


Developmental Environment Shapes Honeybee Worker Response To Virus Infection, Alexander Walton, Amy L. Toth, Adam G. Dolezal 2021 Iowa State University

Developmental Environment Shapes Honeybee Worker Response To Virus Infection, Alexander Walton, Amy L. Toth, Adam G. Dolezal

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The consequences of early-life experiences are far reaching. In particular, the social and nutritional environments that developing animals experience can shape their adult phenotypes. In honeybees, larval nutrition determines the eventual social roles of adults as reproductive queens or sterile workers. However, little is known about the effects of developmental nutrition on important adult worker phenotypes such as disease resilience. In this study, we manipulated worker developmental nutrition in two distinct ways under semi-natural field conditions. In the first experiment, we restricted access to nutrition via social isolation by temporarily preventing alloparental care. In the second experiment, we altered the ...


Environmental Drivers Of Jaguar Distribution, Activity, And Abundance In Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica, Victor Montalvo 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Environmental Drivers Of Jaguar Distribution, Activity, And Abundance In Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica, Victor Montalvo

Doctoral Dissertations

Jaguars (Panthera onca) are a landscape species persisting in less than 54% of their historical distribution range; thus, the understanding of abiotic and biotic environmental factors affecting ecological interactions of this top predator in seasonal ecosystems such the dry forest is crucial for their conservation. In addition to factors affecting species ecology, some methodological constraints also could affect jaguar study outcomes leading to wrong decision-making. Data gathered from available jaguar peer-reviewed literature showed that there are large number of variables and techniques used to model jaguar distribution that did not contribute substantially to descriptions of jaguar distribution. Using the variables ...


Our Peer The Pigeon: Impacts Of The Covid-19 “Anthropause” On Psu Campus Urban Foragers, Audrey R. Douglass 2021 Portland State University

Our Peer The Pigeon: Impacts Of The Covid-19 “Anthropause” On Psu Campus Urban Foragers, Audrey R. Douglass

University Honors Theses

The 2020 COVID Pandemic presented a paradigm shift dubbed, by some scholars, the ‘Anthropause’, an ecological epoch in which humans faded from the public sphere. As was the case for many urban species that depend on the foraging of food waste, this meant a fundamental disruption to their food systems and to the entire urban eco-web. The PSU Campus Park Blocks presents a unique opportunity to observe animal behavior, while also a succinct microcosm to study food waste flow changes, and compare species layout to other urban parks in the METRO area. Decreased food waste output from proximal restaurants, businesses ...


Assessing Cryptic Dispersal And Movement In The Lompoc Kangaroo Rat, Katherine A. Belnick 2021 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Assessing Cryptic Dispersal And Movement In The Lompoc Kangaroo Rat, Katherine A. Belnick

Biological Sciences

Lompoc kangaroo rats (LKR, Dipodomys heermanni arenae) are small rodents that reside in sand dunes from Pismo to Orcutt, including the Oceano Dunes State Vehicular Recreation Area (SVRA), in Oceano, CA. In the SVRA, some of these individuals live in habitat islands, which are habitat fragments of dense vegetation disrupted by empty, bare sand in between them. Recreational vehicle activity is permitted in the Oceano Dunes, which has caused persistence habitat fragmentation. Kangaroo rats are known to disperse between habitat islands and are suspected to do so via a special type of dispersal: cryptic dispersal. This dispersal mode, if it ...


Genomic And Ecological Dimensions Of Malagasy Reptile And Amphibian Biodiversity, Arianna L. Kuhn 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genomic And Ecological Dimensions Of Malagasy Reptile And Amphibian Biodiversity, Arianna L. Kuhn

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A long history of isolation coupled with complex topographic and ecological landscapes makes Madagascar ideal for exploring the historical factors that have shaped patterns of population diversity and endemism. Many species-level studies have suggested Late Quaternary climate change may have influenced population dynamics in the tropics, but Madagascar’s ecologically unique biomes or individual species properties may have driven idiosyncratic responses to these shifts. Using community-scale population genetic data I implement a hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (hABC) approach to evaluate the degree of synchronous population expansion during glacial cycles across herpetofaunal assemblages both within and across discrete biomes and taxonomic ...


Phenotypic Plasticity And Parental Effect On Rearing Of Two Diverse Habitat Environment For Laboratory Reared Sympetrum Meridionale, Imane Halassi, Ali Elafri, Ismahan Halassi, Hichem Amari, Moussa Houhamdi 2021 Biology, Water and Environment Laboratory, Faculty SNV-STU, University 8 May 1945 Guelma, BO. 401 24000 Guelma, Algeria.

Phenotypic Plasticity And Parental Effect On Rearing Of Two Diverse Habitat Environment For Laboratory Reared Sympetrum Meridionale, Imane Halassi, Ali Elafri, Ismahan Halassi, Hichem Amari, Moussa Houhamdi

Journal of Bioresource Management

Laboratory observations on rearing experiment of Odonata serve to answer many evolutionary and ecological questions. In order to evidences the role of species parental habitat provenience in the development behaviour of their offspring, we surveyed several life history traits of two rearing populations of Sympetrum meridionale (Anisoptera: Sympetrinae), coming from two different habitats across north-eastern Algeria. The first one is a RAMSAR wetland called ‘Mekhada’ (a perennial water body), and the second one is a temporary pond located at “Maouna” Mountain (1400 m altitude). Overall, the development patterns of the two populations of dragonflies vary with the type of habitat ...


Introduction Of Native Podostemum Ceratophyllum Michx. (Podostemaceae, Hornleaf Riverweed) Into The Norwalk River, Wilton, Ct, Kelly Marie Nealon 2021 Western Connecticut State University

Introduction Of Native Podostemum Ceratophyllum Michx. (Podostemaceae, Hornleaf Riverweed) Into The Norwalk River, Wilton, Ct, Kelly Marie Nealon

MS in Integrated Biological Diversity

Podostemum ceratophyllum (Podostemaceae), “Hornleaf riverweed,” is a native aquatic flowering plant that occurs only attached to rocks in fast flowing water. The species occurs in much of eastern United States and Canada. Over the last several decades the species has notably declined in numbers, largely as a result of human induced factors. The ecological importance of P. ceratophyllum in rivers is well documented. This research is the first attempt to transplant the species into a river where it was not known to occur, with the goal of helping to mitigate the loss of populations. The plant was taken from two ...


Densidad Poblacional Y Vegetación Asociada Al Hábitat Del Periquito Aliamarillo (Pyrrhura Calliptera) En El Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza Y Su Zona De Amortiguación., Ronald Alessandro Díaz Flórez 2021 Universidad de La Salle - Bogotá

Densidad Poblacional Y Vegetación Asociada Al Hábitat Del Periquito Aliamarillo (Pyrrhura Calliptera) En El Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza Y Su Zona De Amortiguación., Ronald Alessandro Díaz Flórez

Biología

Introducción: El periquito aliamarillo Pyrrhura calliptera es una especie endémica de Colombia, actualmente se encuentra en estado de vulnerabilidad (VU) y declive de sus poblaciones por la pérdida y fragmentación de su hábitat. La falta de información acerca de su ecología poblacional e historia de vida es una de las razones del por qué no se ha podido realizar un diagnóstico actualizado de su estado de conservación. El presente estudio brinda nueva información de su densidad poblacional y vegetación asociada a su hábitat en el PNN Chingaza y el área de influencia directa. Métodos: Se estimaron las densidades para la ...


Analysis Of Emerging Variants In Structured Regions Of The Sars-Cov-2 Genome, Sean P. Ryder, Brittany R. Morgan, Peren Coskun, Katianna Antkowiak, Francesca Massi 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Analysis Of Emerging Variants In Structured Regions Of The Sars-Cov-2 Genome, Sean P. Ryder, Brittany R. Morgan, Peren Coskun, Katianna Antkowiak, Francesca Massi

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has motivated a widespread effort to understand its epidemiology and pathogenic mechanisms. Modern high-throughput sequencing technology has led to the deposition of vast numbers of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences in curated repositories, which have been useful in mapping the spread of the virus around the globe. They also provide a unique opportunity to observe virus evolution in real time. Here, we evaluate two sets of SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences to identify emerging variants within structured cis-regulatory elements of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Overall, 20 variants are present at a minor allele frequency of at ...


Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-dong Pan, Xing-fu Jiang 2021 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-Meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-Xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-Dong Pan, Xing-Fu Jiang

Entomology Publications

The geomagnetic field affects all living organisms on the Earth. In this study we investigated the developmental and behavioral effects of rearing Mythimna separata in a near-zero magnetic field (<500 nT) compared to the local geomagnetic field (approximately 50 µT). The near-zero magnetic field produced by a Helmholtz coil system significantly lengthened larval and pupal development durations, increased male longevity, and reduced pupal weight, female reproduction, and the relative expression level of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene in newly emerged females. Moreover, the near-zero magnetic field had a considerable negative effect on the mating ratio of M. separata adults. In addition, the moths in the near-zero magnetic field displayed less flight activity late in the night than those in the Earth's normal geomagnetic field, indicating that the flight rhythm of M. separata may be affected by the near-zero magnetic field. Reduction in magnetic field intensity may have negative effects on the development and flight of oriental armyworm, with consequent additional effects on its migration.


Gray Wolves, Eric Gese, John P. Hart, Patricia Terletzky 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Gray Wolves, Eric Gese, John P. Hart, Patricia Terletzky

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Wolf conflicts are primarily related to predation on livestock, pets and other domestic animals, as well as their direct and indirect impacts on native ungulates (i.e., big game). Economic losses vary widely with some livestock producers facing high levels of depredation in some areas. This publication focuses on wolf ecology, damage, and management, particularly as it relates to wolf depredation on livestock and other conflicts with people.

Wolves and people share the same environments more than people realize. In the U.S., wolves are not confined to wilderness areas. Though curious, wolves generally fear people and rarely pose a ...


Dynamics Of Hybrid Zones At A Continental Scale, Bradley T. Martin 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dynamics Of Hybrid Zones At A Continental Scale, Bradley T. Martin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Hybridization has traditionally been viewed as a happenstance that negatively impacts populations, but is now recognized as an important evolutionary mechanism that can substantially impact the evolutionary trajectories of gene pools, influence adaptive capacity, and contravene or reinforce divergence. Physiographic processes are important drivers of dispersal, alternately funneling populations into isolation, promoting divergence, or facilitating secondary contact of diverged populations, increasing the potential for hybridization. In North America, glacial-interglacial cycles and geomorphological changes have provided a dynamic backdrop over the last two million years that promoted such oscillations of population contraction and expansion. These biogeographic processes have resulted in regional ...


Population Connectivity Of The Eastern Collared Lizard Crotaphytus Collaris In Arkansas, Whitney Allison Murchison-Kastner 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Population Connectivity Of The Eastern Collared Lizard Crotaphytus Collaris In Arkansas, Whitney Allison Murchison-Kastner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Habitat reduction and fragmentation can isolate populations and decrease genetic diversity, making them susceptible to local extirpation. Additionally, geographic barriers can further impede dispersal among populations thus reducing gene flow. Field studies suggest these factors may be responsible for the decline in Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) populations in Arkansas. To address the impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on the Eastern Collared Lizard (C. collaris) in Arkansas, I used DNA fragment analysis to examine genetic diversity, population structure and connectivity among C. collaris populations. I do so herein by employing microsatellite data from 138 adults across 11 loci to ...


Density Of Free-Roaming Cats Related To Feeding Stations On Hayden Island, Oregon, Olivia Helback, Joe Liebezeit 2021 Portland State University

Density Of Free-Roaming Cats Related To Feeding Stations On Hayden Island, Oregon, Olivia Helback, Joe Liebezeit

University Honors Theses

Free-roaming cats have a devastating impact on wildlife populations with stray/feral cats being the most problematic. In some areas, community members provide these cats with food, water, and shelter often in conjunction with a trap, neuter, return (TNR) program. Hayden Island located north of Portland, Oregon is home to a managed colony of feral and stray cats. Some island residents provide feeding stations for the cats and actively participate in population management. To determine how feeding stations might affect cat spatial distribution, camera traps were placed at 19 different stations in urban and natural areas on Hayden island. Additional ...


208— Describing Genetic Diversity In A Non-Native Ant-Mimicking Spider, Cassidy Mills, Jennifer L. Apple 2021 SUNY Geneseo

208— Describing Genetic Diversity In A Non-Native Ant-Mimicking Spider, Cassidy Mills, Jennifer L. Apple

GREAT Day

The ant-mimicking spider Myrmarachne formicaria (Salticidae) is a species native to Eurasia and was first identified in North America in 2001. It has since been found in many locations in the Northeast including western New York, western Pennsylvania, northeastern Ohio, and southern Ontario. Little is known about its introduction to North America and how it has dispersed since. By characterizing the mitochondrial genetic diversity of this species, we can learn about its introduction history and dispersal patterns in North America. Sequencing of a 600-bp mitochondrial DNA gene region spanning the 16s rRNA, leucine tRNA, and part of the ND1 gene ...


Breeding Ecology And Nest- Site Selection Of Turtle Doves (Streptopelia Turtur) In Three New Orchard Habitats, Thilelli Aitouakli, Ettayib BENSACI 2021 Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, Ferhat ABBAS University - Setif1, Setif 19000, Algeria Laboratory of Improvement and Development of Plant and Animal Production, University of Ferhat Abbas, Setif1, Setif 19000, Algeria

Breeding Ecology And Nest- Site Selection Of Turtle Doves (Streptopelia Turtur) In Three New Orchard Habitats, Thilelli Aitouakli, Ettayib Bensaci

Journal of Bioresource Management

The main aim of our work was to investigate the breeding parameters in three orchard types in Algeria (apple, cherry and nectarine) for better conservation of existing species. A total of 149 active Turtle dove nests were monitored in these man–made agro-systems. Egg laying occurred from early May and continued until mid-August. Egg laying started later in cherry trees and stopped earlier in nectarines. Nest density was higher in apple orchards. Nests were located higher in nectarine. Clutch size was similar among orchard types. Northeast was the dominant orientation in all orchards. Breeding success was higher than that recorded ...


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