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Our Peer The Pigeon: Impacts Of The Covid-19 “Anthropause” On Psu Campus Urban Foragers, Audrey R. Douglass 2021 Portland State University

Our Peer The Pigeon: Impacts Of The Covid-19 “Anthropause” On Psu Campus Urban Foragers, Audrey R. Douglass

University Honors Theses

The 2020 COVID Pandemic presented a paradigm shift dubbed, by some scholars, the ‘Anthropause’, an ecological epoch in which humans faded from the public sphere. As was the case for many urban species that depend on the foraging of food waste, this meant a fundamental disruption to their food systems and to the entire urban eco-web. The PSU Campus Park Blocks presents a unique opportunity to observe animal behavior, while also a succinct microcosm to study food waste flow changes, and compare species layout to other urban parks in the METRO area. Decreased food waste output from proximal restaurants, businesses ...


Genomic And Ecological Dimensions Of Malagasy Reptile And Amphibian Biodiversity, Arianna L. Kuhn 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genomic And Ecological Dimensions Of Malagasy Reptile And Amphibian Biodiversity, Arianna L. Kuhn

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A long history of isolation coupled with complex topographic and ecological landscapes makes Madagascar ideal for exploring the historical factors that have shaped patterns of population diversity and endemism. Many species-level studies have suggested Late Quaternary climate change may have influenced population dynamics in the tropics, but Madagascar’s ecologically unique biomes or individual species properties may have driven idiosyncratic responses to these shifts. Using community-scale population genetic data I implement a hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (hABC) approach to evaluate the degree of synchronous population expansion during glacial cycles across herpetofaunal assemblages both within and across discrete biomes and taxonomic ...


Phenotypic Plasticity And Parental Effect On Rearing Of Two Diverse Habitat Environment For Laboratory Reared Sympetrum Meridionale, Imane Halassi, Ali Elafri, Ismahan Halassi, Hichem Amari, Moussa Houhamdi 2021 Biology, Water and Environment Laboratory, Faculty SNV-STU, University 8 May 1945 Guelma, BO. 401 24000 Guelma, Algeria.

Phenotypic Plasticity And Parental Effect On Rearing Of Two Diverse Habitat Environment For Laboratory Reared Sympetrum Meridionale, Imane Halassi, Ali Elafri, Ismahan Halassi, Hichem Amari, Moussa Houhamdi

Journal of Bioresource Management

Laboratory observations on rearing experiment of Odonata serve to answer many evolutionary and ecological questions. In order to evidences the role of species parental habitat provenience in the development behaviour of their offspring, we surveyed several life history traits of two rearing populations of Sympetrum meridionale (Anisoptera: Sympetrinae), coming from two different habitats across north-eastern Algeria. The first one is a RAMSAR wetland called ‘Mekhada’ (a perennial water body), and the second one is a temporary pond located at “Maouna” Mountain (1400 m altitude). Overall, the development patterns of the two populations of dragonflies vary with the type of habitat ...


Introduction Of Native Podostemum Ceratophyllum Michx. (Podostemaceae, Hornleaf Riverweed) Into The Norwalk River, Wilton, Ct, Kelly Marie Nealon 2021 Western Connecticut State University

Introduction Of Native Podostemum Ceratophyllum Michx. (Podostemaceae, Hornleaf Riverweed) Into The Norwalk River, Wilton, Ct, Kelly Marie Nealon

MS in Integrated Biological Diversity

Podostemum ceratophyllum (Podostemaceae), “Hornleaf riverweed,” is a native aquatic flowering plant that occurs only attached to rocks in fast flowing water. The species occurs in much of eastern United States and Canada. Over the last several decades the species has notably declined in numbers, largely as a result of human induced factors. The ecological importance of P. ceratophyllum in rivers is well documented. This research is the first attempt to transplant the species into a river where it was not known to occur, with the goal of helping to mitigate the loss of populations. The plant was taken from two ...


Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-dong Pan, Xing-fu Jiang 2021 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-Meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-Xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-Dong Pan, Xing-Fu Jiang

Entomology Publications

The geomagnetic field affects all living organisms on the Earth. In this study we investigated the developmental and behavioral effects of rearing Mythimna separata in a near-zero magnetic field (<500 nT) compared to the local geomagnetic field (approximately 50 µT). The near-zero magnetic field produced by a Helmholtz coil system significantly lengthened larval and pupal development durations, increased male longevity, and reduced pupal weight, female reproduction, and the relative expression level of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene in newly emerged females. Moreover, the near-zero magnetic field had a considerable negative effect on the mating ratio of M. separata adults. In addition, the moths in the near-zero magnetic field displayed less flight activity late in the night than those in the Earth's normal geomagnetic field, indicating that the flight rhythm of M. separata may be affected by the near-zero magnetic field. Reduction in magnetic field intensity may have negative effects on the development and flight of oriental armyworm, with consequent additional effects on its migration.


Gray Wolves, Eric Gese, John P. Hart, Patricia Terletzky 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Gray Wolves, Eric Gese, John P. Hart, Patricia Terletzky

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Wolf conflicts are primarily related to predation on livestock, pets and other domestic animals, as well as their direct and indirect impacts on native ungulates (i.e., big game). Economic losses vary widely with some livestock producers facing high levels of depredation in some areas. This publication focuses on wolf ecology, damage, and management, particularly as it relates to wolf depredation on livestock and other conflicts with people.

Wolves and people share the same environments more than people realize. In the U.S., wolves are not confined to wilderness areas. Though curious, wolves generally fear people and rarely pose a ...


Density Of Free-Roaming Cats Related To Feeding Stations On Hayden Island, Olivia Helback, Joe Liebezeit 2021 Portland State University

Density Of Free-Roaming Cats Related To Feeding Stations On Hayden Island, Olivia Helback, Joe Liebezeit

University Honors Theses

Free-roaming cats have a devastating impact on wildlife populations with stray/feral cats being the most problematic. In some areas, community members provide these cats with food, water, and shelter often in conjunction with a trap, neuter, return (TNR) program. Hayden Island located north of Portland, Oregon is home to a managed colony of feral and stray cats. Some island residents provide feeding stations for the cats and actively participate in population management. To determine how feeding stations might affect cat spatial distribution, camera traps were placed at 19 different stations in urban and natural areas on Hayden island. Additional ...


208— Describing Genetic Diversity In A Non-Native Ant-Mimicking Spider, Cassidy Mills, Jennifer L. Apple 2021 SUNY Geneseo

208— Describing Genetic Diversity In A Non-Native Ant-Mimicking Spider, Cassidy Mills, Jennifer L. Apple

GREAT Day

The ant-mimicking spider Myrmarachne formicaria (Salticidae) is a species native to Eurasia and was first identified in North America in 2001. It has since been found in many locations in the Northeast including western New York, western Pennsylvania, northeastern Ohio, and southern Ontario. Little is known about its introduction to North America and how it has dispersed since. By characterizing the mitochondrial genetic diversity of this species, we can learn about its introduction history and dispersal patterns in North America. Sequencing of a 600-bp mitochondrial DNA gene region spanning the 16s rRNA, leucine tRNA, and part of the ND1 gene ...


Breeding Ecology And Nest- Site Selection Of Turtle Doves (Streptopelia Turtur) In Three New Orchard Habitats, Thilelli Aitouakli, Ettayib BENSACI 2021 Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, Ferhat ABBAS University - Setif1, Setif 19000, Algeria Laboratory of Improvement and Development of Plant and Animal Production, University of Ferhat Abbas, Setif1, Setif 19000, Algeria

Breeding Ecology And Nest- Site Selection Of Turtle Doves (Streptopelia Turtur) In Three New Orchard Habitats, Thilelli Aitouakli, Ettayib Bensaci

Journal of Bioresource Management

The main aim of our work was to investigate the breeding parameters in three orchard types in Algeria (apple, cherry and nectarine) for better conservation of existing species. A total of 149 active Turtle dove nests were monitored in these man–made agro-systems. Egg laying occurred from early May and continued until mid-August. Egg laying started later in cherry trees and stopped earlier in nectarines. Nest density was higher in apple orchards. Nests were located higher in nectarine. Clutch size was similar among orchard types. Northeast was the dominant orientation in all orchards. Breeding success was higher than that recorded ...


Density Dependent Growth Of Pseudomonas Fluorescens In The Presence And Absence Of C. Elegans Predation In Liquid Media, Jack Landmann 2021 University of Mississippi

Density Dependent Growth Of Pseudomonas Fluorescens In The Presence And Absence Of C. Elegans Predation In Liquid Media, Jack Landmann

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to understand the predator-prey relationship between C. elegans worms and P. fluorescens bacteria in liquid media. We were aiming to create a predation model of the relationship between these two species.

This study was performed through three experiments. Using 96-well plates, we were able to measure the change in optical density (OD) of these wells and calculate the growth rate. This growth rate was then graphed and analyzed. The first experiment contained P. fluorescens and KB liquid media, this study demonstrated that the bacterial population has a carrying capacity. We were also able to ...


Population And Evolution Dynamics In Predator-Prey Systems With Anti-Predation Responses, Yang Wang 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Population And Evolution Dynamics In Predator-Prey Systems With Anti-Predation Responses, Yang Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis studies the impact of anti-predation strategy on the population dynamics of predator-prey interactions. This work includes three research projects.

In the first project, we study a system of delay differential equations by considering both benefit and cost of anti-predation response, as well as a time delay in the transfer of biomass from the prey to the predator after predation. We reveal some insights on how the anti-predation response level and the biomass transfer delay jointly affect the population dynamics; we also show how the nonlinearity in the predation term mediated by the fear effect affects the long term ...


The Effect Of Changing Substrate On Arctic Aquatic Invertebrates Abundance, Tom Dolman 2021 University of Maine at Farmington

The Effect Of Changing Substrate On Arctic Aquatic Invertebrates Abundance, Tom Dolman

Michael D. Wilson Symposium

Climate change is directly affecting tundra ecosystems in northern regions, and warming temperatures have caused discontinuous permafrost and thawing sediments across the region. This project investigates how increasing erosion and the foraging patterns of migratory snow geese may degrade habitat for aquatic invertebrates in the upper Mast River, located in Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada. In the past two decades, many of the important species of aquatic invertebrates have shown declines. Declining invertebrate populations are predicted to affect aquatic ecosystems and decrease the resources available to shorebirds and waterfowl, which breed and migrate through this area.


Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams 2021 James Madison University

Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reptiles utilize a variety of environmental cues to inform and drive animal behavior such as chemical scent trails produced by food or conspecifics. Decrypting the scent-trailing behavior of vertebrates, particularly invasive species, enables the discovery of cues that induce exploratory behavior and can aid in the development of valuable basic and applied biological tools. However, pinpointing behaviors dominantly driven by chemical cues versus other competing environmental cues can be challenging. Y-mazes are common tools used in animal behavior research that allow quantification of vertebrate chemosensory behavior across a range of taxa. By reducing external stimuli, Y-mazes remove confounding factors and ...


The Insular Herpetofauna Of Mexico: Composition, Conservation, And Biogeographic Patterns, Juan Valentín Pliego‐Sánchez, Christopher Blair, Aníbal H. Díaz de la Vega‐Pérez, Víctor H. Jiménez‐Arcos 2021 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

The Insular Herpetofauna Of Mexico: Composition, Conservation, And Biogeographic Patterns, Juan Valentín Pliego‐Sánchez, Christopher Blair, Aníbal H. Díaz De La Vega‐Pérez, Víctor H. Jiménez‐Arcos

Publications and Research

We compile a Mexican insular herpetofaunal checklist to estimate endemism, conservation status, island threats, net taxonomic turnover among six biogeographic provinces belonging to the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, and the relationships between island area and mainland distance versus species richness. We compile a checklist of insular herpetofaunal through performing a literature and collection review. We define the conservation status according to conservation Mexican law, the Red List of International Union for Conservation of Nature, and Environmental Vulnerability Scores. We determine threat percentages on islands according to the 11 major classes of threats to biodiversity. We estimate the net taxonomic turnover ...


Applying Ecological Theory To Amphibian Populations To Determine If Wood Frogs (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Are Ideal And Free When Selecting Breeding Habitat, Taylor M. Braunagel 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Applying Ecological Theory To Amphibian Populations To Determine If Wood Frogs (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Are Ideal And Free When Selecting Breeding Habitat, Taylor M. Braunagel

Masters Theses

Amphibian populations are declining globally due to a litany of factors including pollution, disease, climate change, and most importantly, habitat destruction. As most amphibian life histories involve their populations being recruitment limited, focusing on the mechanism behind breeding habitat selection will reveal useful cues that managers may use to increase abundance and breeding success. Though there are many theoretical models that describe the distribution of animals in response to a resource, the ideal free distribution (IFD) theory has not yet been applied to amphibian settling decisions. Through this application of the IFD, I have found that a population of wood ...


The Expansion Of A Native Generalist Species Following Competitive Release And Habitat Degradation, Ellie Tate 2021 Trinity College

The Expansion Of A Native Generalist Species Following Competitive Release And Habitat Degradation, Ellie Tate

Senior Theses and Projects

The understanding of competitive release and a generalist species’ ability to exploit an available niche assists in explaining short- and long-term changes in ecological communities. I evaluated the expansion and establishment of a native generalist species, the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans), into a river community studied over a 50-year period (1969-2019). My objective was to analyze the T. s. elegans population upon expansion and how the population has been affected by the short- and long-term changes of the ecosystem. The turtle community in the North Fork of the White River, Ozark County, MO, USA faced habitat degradation, harvesting, a ...


The Effects Of Urbanization On Plant Biodiversity In Southeastern Virginia, Tess Hardesty 2021 Old Dominion University

The Effects Of Urbanization On Plant Biodiversity In Southeastern Virginia, Tess Hardesty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

This research project investigated the impacts of urbanization on plant species biodiversity within Southeastern Virginia. The hypothesized results of this research were if there was an increase in urbanization, then plant diversity would decrease. Plant biodiversity can increase the decomposition rates, pollination success, and biomass production of the area. Decreasing in plant biodiversity can increase the spread of pathogens through plant populations and increase herbivore damage. There was data compiled from SERNEC herbarium records of four counties, Accomack, Northampton, Norfolk, and Virginia Beach. Virginia Beach had the largest population increase, which was considered the measurement for urbanization in this study ...


Success Of Glover’S Reef Marine Reserve On Queen Conch (Strombus Gigas) Populations In Belize, Gianna Fanelli, Ciera Jarrett, Sara Joralemon 2021 University of Central Florida

Success Of Glover’S Reef Marine Reserve On Queen Conch (Strombus Gigas) Populations In Belize, Gianna Fanelli, Ciera Jarrett, Sara Joralemon

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

The queen conch (Strombus gigas) provides important economic, ecological, and societal benefits to local communities throughout the Caribbean. The species, however, has fallen victim to commercial exploitation and overfishing in many areas. In Belize, even with restricted harvesting seasons, size restrictions, and regulations set by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), harvesting practices have significantly depleted populations. Marine reserves, including the Glover’s Reef Marine Reserve, were established to protect biodiversity and maintain populations of Belize’s natural coral reefs. Utilizing size, frequency, and evidence of harvesting (shell notches), the 2018 Tropical Marine Biology (BSC 3355) course ...


Qualitative Analysis Of A Resource Management Model And Its Application To The Past And Future Of Endangered Whale Populations, Glenn Ledder 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Qualitative Analysis Of A Resource Management Model And Its Application To The Past And Future Of Endangered Whale Populations, Glenn Ledder

CODEE Journal

Observed whale dynamics show drastic historical population declines, some of which have not been reversed in spite of restrictions on harvesting. This phenomenon is not explained by traditional predator prey models, but we can do better by using models that incorporate more sophisticated assumptions about consumer-resource interaction. To that end, we derive the Holling type 3 consumption rate model and use it in a one-variable differential equation obtained by treating the predator population in a predator-prey model as a parameter rather than a dynamic variable. The resulting model produces dynamics in which low and high consumption levels lead to single ...


Population Fluctuation And Diurnal Time Budgeting Of White-Headed Duck (Oxyura Leucocephala) During Winter At Garaet Hadj Tahar (Skikda, North East Algerian), Merzoug Seyf Eddine, Abdi Soumia, Bara Mouslim, Houhamdi Moussa 2021 Department of Biology, Institute of Sciences and Technology, University Abdelhafid Boussouf, Mila Algeria

Population Fluctuation And Diurnal Time Budgeting Of White-Headed Duck (Oxyura Leucocephala) During Winter At Garaet Hadj Tahar (Skikda, North East Algerian), Merzoug Seyf Eddine, Abdi Soumia, Bara Mouslim, Houhamdi Moussa

Journal of Bioresource Management

This study was focused on the ecology and behavior of the White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala) at Garaet Hadj Tahar (Guerbes-Sanhadja, North East of Algeria). Sampling was carried out during two wintering seasons (2017-2018 and 2018-2019). High number of this duck was recorded in 2018/19 (350 individuals). We observed two Oxyura population, the first sedentary, and the second, hosted the Garaet during the wintering season. Diurnal time budget was dominated by the comfort activities the sleeping with a rate of 39.13%. Following by swimming (37.76%), feeding (17.59%) grooming (4.58%), courtship ritual (0.56%) and flying (0 ...


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