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Impact Of Anthropic Pressure On The Quality And Diversity Of Groundwater In The Region Of Sighus Oum-El-Bouaghi And El Rahmounia, Algeria., Hadjab Ramzi, Khammar Hichem, Redjaimia Lylia, Merzoug Djemoi, Saheb Menouar 2020 University of Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria

Impact Of Anthropic Pressure On The Quality And Diversity Of Groundwater In The Region Of Sighus Oum-El-Bouaghi And El Rahmounia, Algeria., Hadjab Ramzi, Khammar Hichem, Redjaimia Lylia, Merzoug Djemoi, Saheb Menouar

Journal of Bioresource Management

Groundwater of Oum-El-Bouaghi and its surroundings hosts a variety of microflora and fauna. This study investigated the relationship between the effect of human activity and the biodiversity and distribution of aquatic fauna in two semi-arid regions Sighus region (Oum-El-Bouaghi) and El Rahmouni (Constantine) in north-eastern Algeria. Fourteen wells and six springs were studied in two hydrographic basins, that of Constantine and Seybouse Melegue. Significant differences were revealed between the wells and springs in the two watersheds, making it possible to distinguish four groups of wells and two groups of springs. The overall faunal richness of the stations appeared to be ...


Distribution And Activity Patterns Of Large Carnivores And Their Implications For Human–Carnivore Conflict Management In Namibia, Summer Fink, Richard Chandler, Michael Chamberlain, Steven Castleberry, Shannon Glosenger-Thrasher 2020 University of Georgia

Distribution And Activity Patterns Of Large Carnivores And Their Implications For Human–Carnivore Conflict Management In Namibia, Summer Fink, Richard Chandler, Michael Chamberlain, Steven Castleberry, Shannon Glosenger-Thrasher

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs) are increasing globally and contributing to the decline of wildlife species. In sub-Saharan African countries such as Namibia, most of the suitable land has been or is currently being converted to crop and livestock production to support income or subsistence agriculture. These changes in land use often incur increased levels of HWCs because of crop and livestock depredation by native species. To quantify livestock predation risks posed by carnivores in Namibia, we deployed 30 trail cameras on a 6,500-ha farm in the Khomas region of Namibia from May to July 2018. We developed occupancy models ...


Evidence For Height And Immune Function Trade-Offs Among Preadolescents In A High Pathogen Population, Angela R. Garcia, Aaron Blackwell, Benjamin C. Trumble, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven 2020 Arizona State University

Evidence For Height And Immune Function Trade-Offs Among Preadolescents In A High Pathogen Population, Angela R. Garcia, Aaron Blackwell, Benjamin C. Trumble, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven

ESI Publications

Background

In an energy-limited environment, caloric investments in one characteristic should trade-off with investments in other characteristics. In high pathogen ecologies, biasing energy allocation towards immune function over growth would be predicted, given strong selective pressures against early-life mortality.

Methodology

In the present study, we use flow cytometry to examine trade-offs between adaptive immune function (T cell subsets, B cells), innate immune function (natural killer cells), adaptive to innate ratio and height-for-age z scores (HAZ) among young children (N = 344; aged 2 months–8 years) in the Bolivian Amazon, using maternal BMI and child weight-for-height z scores (WHZ) as proxies ...


Great Lakes Snake: Estimating The Occupancy And Detection Probabilities Of The Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus Catenatus), Arin June Thacker 2020 Grand Valley State University

Great Lakes Snake: Estimating The Occupancy And Detection Probabilities Of The Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus Catenatus), Arin June Thacker

Masters Theses

Detailed knowledge of a species’ range and distribution is important for understanding species persistence and developing species management plans. This issue is particularly pronounced in threatened species with wide-spread range and a low detectability in their natural environment, as surveying and successfully encountering this type of species is oftentimes difficult. One such species is the eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus), a smallbodied pit viper with a distribution centered around the Great Lakes region. We used singleseason occupancy modeling in order to reassess the status of historic massasauga occurrences. We evaluated factors affecting eastern massasauga detection probability from a long-term dataset ...


From Phocine Distemper To Avian Influenza: A Study Of Immunogenetic Diversity In Two Sympatric Pinniped Species, Alayna K. Gigliotti 2020 University of Maine

From Phocine Distemper To Avian Influenza: A Study Of Immunogenetic Diversity In Two Sympatric Pinniped Species, Alayna K. Gigliotti

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Gray (Halichoerus grypus) and harbor (Phoca vitulina) seals are sympatric species that inhabit the North Atlantic and have been subject to mortality events from disease outbreaks, particularly phocine distemper and avian influenza virus. Across mortality events, gray seals tend to exhibit a higher survival rate, which could be explained by various ecological factors impacting rates or direction of selection in parts of the genome related to the immune system. These factors could include haul-out site density, habitat, and degree of inter/intraspecies interaction. This research aims to compare genetic diversity within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I gene complex ...


Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes Reveal Population Structure And Type 1 Association With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma, Yasin Kaymaz, Cliff I. Oduor, Ozkan Aydemir, Micah A. Luftig, Juliana A. Otieno, John Michael. Ong'echa, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Ann M. Moormann 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes Reveal Population Structure And Type 1 Association With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma, Yasin Kaymaz, Cliff I. Oduor, Ozkan Aydemir, Micah A. Luftig, Juliana A. Otieno, John Michael. Ong'echa, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Ann M. Moormann

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), the most prevalent pediatric cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, is distinguished by its inclusion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In order to better understand the impact of EBV variation in eBL tumorigenesis, we improved viral DNA enrichment methods and generated a total of 98 new EBV genomes from both eBL cases (n = 58) and healthy controls (n = 40) residing in the same geographic region in Kenya. Using our unbiased methods, we found that EBV type 1 was significantly more prevalent in eBL patients (74.5%) than in healthy children (47.5%) (odds ratio = 3.24, 95% confidence interval ...


Evaluating The Role Of Invasive Dreissenid Mussels On Harmful Algal Bloom Formation And Toxicity Using Citizen Science Data, Victoria Field 2020 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Evaluating The Role Of Invasive Dreissenid Mussels On Harmful Algal Bloom Formation And Toxicity Using Citizen Science Data, Victoria Field

Dissertations and Theses

Invasive dreissenid mussels cause ecological and economical damage to non-native freshwaters. Dreissenids are implicated as causative factors in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom (HABs) formation and toxicity in low-nutrient lakes. I used data from the Citizen Statewide Lake Assessment Program (CSLAP) to assess variations in water quality and HAB parameters between invaded and uninvaded lakes in New York State. Only true color differed significantly between lake types, while HAB frequency did not. Instead, lake characteristics, water temperature, and nutrient status were drivers of HABs parameters. Open water microcystin concentrations were also a function of total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratios and ...


Assessment Of Wild Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur Catta) Populations In Southwestern Madagascar With Implications For The Illegal Pet Trade, Samantha D. Calkins 2020 CUNY Hunter College

Assessment Of Wild Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur Catta) Populations In Southwestern Madagascar With Implications For The Illegal Pet Trade, Samantha D. Calkins

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Accurate population estimates are critical to inform conservation management of species. Incomplete sampling can lead to population underestimates and lacking conservation efforts. Population surveys are important for assessing human and animal welfare to allow for targeted conservation action. Recent ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) surveys have led researchers to conclude that L. catta populations are crashing. This has generated much attention and alarm, but may also be based on incomplete information. To better understand population dynamics, more thorough sampling is needed. Here, we survey five such sites to reassess the presence and abundance of L. catta in these locations. We conducted ...


Structure And Evolution Of Lizard Immunity Genes, Trent Santonastaso 2020 University of New Orleans, New Orleans

Structure And Evolution Of Lizard Immunity Genes, Trent Santonastaso

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

One of the most important gene families to play a role in adaptive immunity is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). MHC class II loci are considered to be the most variable loci in the vertebrate genome, and studies have shown that this variability can be maintained through complex co-evolutionary dynamics between host and parasite. Despite the rich body of research into the MHC, there is comparatively little understanding of its genomic architecture in reptiles. Similarly, loci associated with innate immunity have received little attention in reptiles compared to other vertebrates. In the first chapter, we investigated the structure and organization ...


Prioritizing The Largest, Oldest Corals For Disease Intervention In A Coral Disease-Ravaged Area: Southeast Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem Conservation Area., Alysha Brunelle 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Prioritizing The Largest, Oldest Corals For Disease Intervention In A Coral Disease-Ravaged Area: Southeast Florida Coral Reef Ecosystem Conservation Area., Alysha Brunelle

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Coral diseases appear to be more devastating than ever before. When a virulent disease ravages a coral ecosystem, it can significantly change the population’s demographics and cause local extinctions. Disease intervention response during such an event is impossible at a landscape scale, therefore priorities must be considered. Saving the largest, oldest colonies of reef-building species is a good choice due to their high fecundity and ecological function. Their size, as a proxy for age, is an indicator of their resistance to previous perturbations which may indicate higher fitness. Their size also provides habitat to many organisms and wave resistance ...


Movement And Survival Of Atlantic Salmon Smolts In The Penobscot River, Maine, Alejandro Molina Moctezuma 2020 University of Maine

Movement And Survival Of Atlantic Salmon Smolts In The Penobscot River, Maine, Alejandro Molina Moctezuma

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Penobscot River system hosts the largest population of endangered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the United States. However, total adult returns in this river remain low. Historically low numbers led to listing of the distinct population segment (DPS) in 2000, and the Penobscot River population was included in the DPS in 2009. Reducing mortality in all life stages is crucial for the recovery of Atlantic salmon populations. One of the life stages associated to high mortality is the juvenile stage (smolts), in which individuals migrate downstream towards the estuary. During this migration smolts face a series of new conditions ...


Estimation Of Wildlife Damage From Federal Crop Insurance Data, Sophie McKee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Aaron M. Anderson 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center & Colorado State University

Estimation Of Wildlife Damage From Federal Crop Insurance Data, Sophie Mckee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Aaron M. Anderson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Wildlife damage to crops is a persistent and costly problem for many farmers in the USA. Most existing estimates of crop damage have relied on direct assessment methods such as field studies conducted by trained biologists or surveys distributed to farmers. In this paper, we describe a new method of estimating wildlife damage that exploits federal crop insurance data. We focused our study on four crops: corn, soybean, wheat, and cotton, chosen because of their economic importance and their vulnerability to wildlife damage.

RESULTS: We determined crop-raiding hot spots across the USA over the 2015–2019 period and identified ...


Feral Swine, Michael P. Glow, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Feral Swine, Michael P. Glow, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Feral swine (Sus scrofa; Figure 1), also known as feral hogs, feral pigs, wild pigs, wild boar, or other similar derivations, are a non-native species considered to be one of the most destructive invasive terrestrial vertebrates in North America. While feral swine populations remained relatively small and confined in the continental United States following initial introductions by European explorers during the 15th century, substantial range expansion has occurred across every geographical region of the United States (Figure 2). This expansion has primarily been attributed to human-mediated movements, predominately for the purpose of establishing populations for recreational hunting, and facilitated by ...


An Evaluation Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Turbines In The Northeastern United States, Daniel Y. Choi, Thomas W. Wittig, Bryan M. Kluever 2020 United States Fish and Wildlife Service

An Evaluation Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Turbines In The Northeastern United States, Daniel Y. Choi, Thomas W. Wittig, Bryan M. Kluever

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wind energy offers substantial environmental benefits, but wind facilities can negatively impact wildlife, including birds and bats. Researchers and managers have made major efforts to chronicle bird and bat mortality associated with wind facilities, but few studies have examined the patterns and underlying mechanisms of spatial patterns of fatalities at wind facilities. Understanding the horizontal fall distance between a carcass and the nearest turbine pole is important in designing effective search protocols and estimating total mortality. We explored patterns in taxonomic composition and fall distance of bird and bat carcasses at wind facilities in the Northeastern United States using publicly ...


Effects Of Freshwater Crayfish On Influenza A Virus Persistence In Water, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Effects Of Freshwater Crayfish On Influenza A Virus Persistence In Water, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Several investigations have recently assessed the ability of some aquatic invertebrates to act as tools for avian influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance as well as their potential role(s) in IAV ecology. Because of this, as well as the high IAV seroprevalence rates noted in select mesocarnivores that commonly inhabit aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats, we evaluated the effects that freshwater crayfish have on IAV in water at three dose levels and monitored for the presence of IAV in crayfish tissues (gill and green gland) and haemolymph at multiple time points. At relatively high, medium 432 and low (approximately 10 , 10 ...


Interacting Effects Of Climate And Biotic Factors On Mesocarnivore Distribution And Snowshoe Hare Demography Along The Boreal-Temperate Ecotone, Alexej P. Siren 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Interacting Effects Of Climate And Biotic Factors On Mesocarnivore Distribution And Snowshoe Hare Demography Along The Boreal-Temperate Ecotone, Alexej P. Siren

Doctoral Dissertations

The motivation of my dissertation research was to understand the influence of climate and biotic factors on range limits with a focus on winter-adapted species, including the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), American marten (Martes americana), and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). I investigated range dynamics along the boreal-temperate ecotone of the northeastern US. Through an integrative literature review, I developed a theoretical framework building from existing thinking on range limits and ecological theory. I used this theory for my second chapter to evaluate direct and indirect causes of carnivore range limits in the northeastern US, using data collected from 6 years ...


Autonomous Recording Units As An Alternative Method For Monitoring Songbirds, Lindsay Clough 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Autonomous Recording Units As An Alternative Method For Monitoring Songbirds, Lindsay Clough

Masters Theses

There is an increasing interest in the use of autonomous recording units as an alternative survey method to point count surveys conducted by human observers; however, questions remain about whether or not these recording units perform similarly to point count surveys and produce valid, comparable results. The use of individual listeners to transcribe the acoustic data collected by autonomous recording units is a common method for the analysis of recorded acoustic data, but potential variability among transcribers raises questions about the standardization of listening protocols to decrease inconsistencies in transcription results.

Autonomous recording units have been used to monitor birds ...


Immune Function During Pregnancy Varies Between Ecologically Distinct Populations, Carmen Hové, Benjamin C. Trumble, Amy S. Anderson, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven, Aaron Blackwell 2020 University of California, Santa Barbara

Immune Function During Pregnancy Varies Between Ecologically Distinct Populations, Carmen Hové, Benjamin C. Trumble, Amy S. Anderson, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven, Aaron Blackwell

ESI Publications

Background and objectives

Among placental mammals, females undergo immunological shifts during pregnancy to accommodate the fetus (i.e. fetal tolerance). Fetal tolerance has primarily been characterized within post-industrial populations experiencing evolutionarily novel conditions (e.g. reduced pathogen exposure), which may shape maternal response to fetal antigens. This study investigates how ecological conditions affect maternal immune status during pregnancy by comparing the direction and magnitude of immunological changes associated with each trimester among the Tsimane (a subsistence population subjected to high pathogen load) and women in the USA.

Methodology

Data from the Tsimane Health and Life History Project (N = 935) and ...


A Macroevolutionary View On Extinction In Aves, Chiroptera, And Odonata, Peter Hasik 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Macroevolutionary View On Extinction In Aves, Chiroptera, And Odonata, Peter Hasik

Theses and Dissertations

A central goal of conservation biology is to identify and understand the factors that lead to extinction. The Earth is currently undergoing a 6th mass extinction event, in large part because of human activity. In the last century, rates of extinction have increased anywhere from 8-100 times the background rate of 2 extinctions per 10,000 species every 100 years. However, there remains a debate over whether certain species are predisposed to a higher extinction risk. In particular, it is not known if the macroevolutionary history of a lineage is a major contributor to the probability of extinction, nor is ...


Frontal Vehicle Illumination Via Rear-Facing Lighting Reduces Potential For Collisions With White-Tailed Deer, Travis L. Devault, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley Blackwell 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Frontal Vehicle Illumination Via Rear-Facing Lighting Reduces Potential For Collisions With White-Tailed Deer, Travis L. Devault, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley Blackwell

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

nimal–vehicle collisions cause many millions of animal deaths each year worldwide and present a substantial safety risk to people. In the United States and Canada, deer (Odocoileus spp.) are involved in most animal–vehicle collisions associated with human injuries. We evaluated a vehicle-based collision mitigation method designed to decrease the likelihood of deer–vehicle collisions during low-light conditions, when most collisions occur. Specifically, we investigated whether the use of a rear-facing light, providing more complete frontal vehicle illumination than standard headlights alone, enhanced vehicle avoidance behaviors of white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). We quantified flight initiation distance (FID), the likelihood ...


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