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Evaluating Costs Associated With Management Decisions Of Replacement Dairy Heifers And Their Impact On The Total Rearing Investment, Anna Catherine Hawkins 2019 University of Kentucky

Evaluating Costs Associated With Management Decisions Of Replacement Dairy Heifers And Their Impact On The Total Rearing Investment, Anna Catherine Hawkins

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Replacement heifer rearing is critical for the future of the dairy operation, especially to improve genetic merit and maintain herd size. A replacement heifer from the day she is born to the day she calves herself is generally a 2-year investment without potential income. A myriad of options exists on how to manage, fed, and ultimately raise replacement heifers. This study quantifies the costs associated with replacement heifer management decisions from birth to calving related to housing, labor, feed and health. The heifer rearing period can be broken into pre and post weaning sections to allow for more understanding the ...


Automated Body Condition Scoring: Progression Across Lactation And Its Association With Disease And Reproduction In Dairy Cattle, Carissa Marie Truman 2019 University of Kentucky

Automated Body Condition Scoring: Progression Across Lactation And Its Association With Disease And Reproduction In Dairy Cattle, Carissa Marie Truman

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Body condition scoring is a technique used to noninvasively assess fat reserves. It provides an objective estimate to describe the current and past nutritional status of the dairy cow and has been associated with increased disease risk and breeding success. Traditionally body condition scores are taken manually by visual appraisal on a 1 to 5 scale, in one-quarter increments. However, recent studies have shown the potential of automating the body condition scoring of cows using images. The first objective was to estimate the likelihood of disease development and breeding success, using odds ratios, associated with body condition score scored automatically ...


Validation Of An Automated Behavior Monitoring Collar, And Evaluation Of Heat Stress On Lactating Dairy Cow Behavior With Access To A Free Choice Soaker, Lori Nicole Grinter 2019 University of Kentucky

Validation Of An Automated Behavior Monitoring Collar, And Evaluation Of Heat Stress On Lactating Dairy Cow Behavior With Access To A Free Choice Soaker, Lori Nicole Grinter

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Precision dairy technologies (PDT) are becoming more accessible and are therefore becoming more common on commercial dairy farms and in dairy research. Prior to any use of PDT, one should understand the precision, accuracy and bias of the device by a validations studies before interpreting the behavior measurements. Thus, the objective of the first section of my thesis is to validate ruminating, feeding and resting measurements of a behavior monitoring collar used in the second section. Precision dairy technology is used in heat stress studies to compare behavior of cows exposed to different heat stress treatments or abatement strategies. Heat ...


Effects Of Yeast-Derived Microbial Protein On Transition Dairy Cow Health And Performance, Gustavo Mazon Correa Alves 2019 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Yeast-Derived Microbial Protein On Transition Dairy Cow Health And Performance, Gustavo Mazon Correa Alves

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The transition period for dairy cows is defined as the three weeks pre and postpartum. During the transition period, dairy cows experience a myriad of metabolic, managerial, and nutritional requirement changes. These changes lead to stress and increased susceptibility to diseases which can negatively affect lactational performance in the short and long term. However, dietary amino acid availability can have a dramatic impact on the health and performance of dairy cows around parturition. Thus, the objective of the thesis was to evaluate the effects of supplementing yeast-derived microbial protein, as an alternative protein source for dairy cows during the transition ...


Diseño De Un Protocolo De Ordeño Mecánico En El Hato De La Hacienda La Alcancía En El Municipio De Sopó, Cundinamarca, Alejandro Suárez 2019 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Diseño De Un Protocolo De Ordeño Mecánico En El Hato De La Hacienda La Alcancía En El Municipio De Sopó, Cundinamarca, Alejandro Suárez

Zootecnia

El presente estudio se realizó en la hacienda La Alcancía, ubicada en el municipio de Sopó, Cundinamarca, para lo cual, se tomaron 20 vacas de segundo y tercer parto como unidades experimentales, las cuales fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente en dos grupos; 10 animales como grupo control y 10 como grupo experimental. Los animales del grupo experimental, entraron a ser tratados por el nuevo protocolo de ordeño; este diseño, consiste básicamente en la reducción de los tiempos de pre-ordeño, ordeño y post ordeño a un máximo de seis minutos por animal; disminución del estrés y adrenalina, evitando la inhibición de oxitocina para ...


Deliberate Exercise Of Pregnant Holstein Heifers Improves Milk Composition During Lactation, J. Johnson, P. Steichen, B. J. Bradford, A. E. Rhodes, T. G. Rozell 2019 Kansas State University

Deliberate Exercise Of Pregnant Holstein Heifers Improves Milk Composition During Lactation, J. Johnson, P. Steichen, B. J. Bradford, A. E. Rhodes, T. G. Rozell

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Exercise has substantial impacts on systemic physiology, but little research has been conducted to assess how it may influence dairy cattle in modern confined production systems. Dairy heifers were walked for up to 45 minutes, 4 days per week for 8 weeks during pregnancy to assess impacts on subsequent health and productivity. Heifers that were exercised had increased milk protein and solids-not-fat concentrations for up to 15 weeks into lactation, and increased milk fat and energy-corrected milk production at some time points during this period, as compared to sedentary contemporaries. No adverse or beneficial effects of exercise were found on ...


Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Alters The Mrna Cytokine Profile From Mouse Macrophages Challenged With Streptococcus Uberis, T. H. Swartz, L. K. Mamedova, B. J. Bradford 2019 Kansas State University

Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Alters The Mrna Cytokine Profile From Mouse Macrophages Challenged With Streptococcus Uberis, T. H. Swartz, L. K. Mamedova, B. J. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to determine if β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) altered inflammatory responses in macrophages challenged with a common mastitis pathogen, Streptococcus uberis. Mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 line) were cultured either in the presence or absence of BHB for 24 h, and then challenged or not with S. uberis. Relative transcript abundance of cell membrane receptors (TLR2 and GPR109a), cytokines (IL-1β, IL-10, TNFα, and TGFβ), and chemokines (CXCL2 and CCL5) were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and normalized against the geometric mean of HPRT and B2M. Streptococcus uberis activated the macrophages, noted by greater transcript ...


Dairy Research 2019, B. J. Bradford 2019 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Dairy Research 2019, B. J. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Kansas State University is pleased to present the 2019 Dairy Research Report of Progress and proud to serve the growing Kansas dairy industry.


Does Time Interval From Thawing Multiple Straws Of Semen To Insemination Affect Pregnancy Outcome Of Lactating Dairy Cows?, J. Fehn, L. G. Mendonça 2019 Kansas State University

Does Time Interval From Thawing Multiple Straws Of Semen To Insemination Affect Pregnancy Outcome Of Lactating Dairy Cows?, J. Fehn, L. G. Mendonça

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Technicians must follow guidelines when inseminating cows to avoid impacting the quality of semen and pregnancy per AI (P/AI). The interval from initiation of the thawing process of multiple semen straws until AI is an important aspect to be considered when evaluating the performance of AI technicians. Time interval from thawing to AI can be affected by the skill level of the AI technician, distance from the thawing unit to location of insemination, and labor efficiency. Because modern dairy farms are becoming larger, it is important to evaluate if the interval from thawing to AI is impacting P/AI ...


Individual Feed Intake Of Transition Cows And Their Daily Activity Measures Of Temperature, Eating, Rumination, Resting, And Activity Times, J. S. Stevenson, C. S. Takiya, B. J. Bradford 2019 Kansas State University

Individual Feed Intake Of Transition Cows And Their Daily Activity Measures Of Temperature, Eating, Rumination, Resting, And Activity Times, J. S. Stevenson, C. S. Takiya, B. J. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Fifteen transition dairy cows bearing CowSensor® ear tags were monitored during 14 days before and after calving to assess temperature and behavior outcomes recorded by the sensors, in addition to actual individual dry matter and as-fed feed intake. The sensors—compared with reported visual observation studies—underestimated eating and resting times, but rumination time was estimated reasonably accurately. Expected changes in rumination (decreased acutely before calving and increased linearly to day 14) and general activity (increased acutely just before calving) were observed. More studies are warranted to determine how to use these activity monitors in detecting health disorders of cows ...


Disease Prevalence And Its Consequences On Blood Metabolites, Physical Activities, Milk Yield, And Fertility, J. S. Stevenson, S. Banuelos 2019 Kansas State University

Disease Prevalence And Its Consequences On Blood Metabolites, Physical Activities, Milk Yield, And Fertility, J. S. Stevenson, S. Banuelos

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Health status of 160 lactating cows was monitored by assessing blood metabolites on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 after calving, in addition measures of physical activity during 20 days surrounding parturition. Cows with clinical disease (any with diagnosis of ketosis, metritis, mastitis, respiratory disease, or milk fever during the first 60 days in milk) were compared with outcomes in healthy cows. Expected differences were observed between health status groups for serum concentrations of free fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, haptoglobin, and calcium, but not for plasma glucose. Daily postpartum rumination and eating times were decreased in diseased cows and they spent ...


Identifying A Milk-Replacer And Weaning Strategy For Holstein Calves Using Automated Behavioral Measures Of Lying And Environmental Enrichment Device Use, E. M. Bortoluzzi, T. M. Hill, L. L. Deikun, L. A. Ruiz, M. J. Goering, T. S. Dennis, F. X. Suarez-Mena, J. D. Quigley, R. L. Schlotterbeck, M. V. Alonso, R. Mazloom, M. Jaberi-Douraki, L. E. Hulbert 2019 Kansas State University

Identifying A Milk-Replacer And Weaning Strategy For Holstein Calves Using Automated Behavioral Measures Of Lying And Environmental Enrichment Device Use, E. M. Bortoluzzi, T. M. Hill, L. L. Deikun, L. A. Ruiz, M. J. Goering, T. S. Dennis, F. X. Suarez-Mena, J. D. Quigley, R. L. Schlotterbeck, M. V. Alonso, R. Mazloom, M. Jaberi-Douraki, L. E. Hulbert

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

In dairy production, “weaning readiness” is often based on solid feed intake. The goal of this study was to determine weaning readiness using feed-intake, lying-behaviors, and the use of an environmental enrichment device (EED) in calves that underwent 1 of 4 milk-replacer and weaning protocols. Twenty-eight male Holstein calves (95 ± 2.6 lb BW at 1 d of age) were housed in individual pens and initially fed one type of milk replacer (25% crude protein (CP), 17% fat, 1.45 lb of dry matter (DM)) via nipplebuckets twice a day (AM and PM), and one type of textured calf starter ...


Combined Risk Factors And Digestive Disorders In Mid-Lactation Holstein Cows: A Case Study, S. T. Quanz, L. K. Mamedova, M. J. Brouk, P. Gott, B. J. Bradford 2019 Kansas State University

Combined Risk Factors And Digestive Disorders In Mid-Lactation Holstein Cows: A Case Study, S. T. Quanz, L. K. Mamedova, M. J. Brouk, P. Gott, B. J. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Digestive disorders can be a significant cause of disease on dairies and are frustrating because of their unpredictability. Diets that may support excellent health in most cases may nonetheless result in significant gastrointestinal disease, even leading to deadly conditions such as hemorrhagic bowel syndrome. To our knowledge, there is limited research on these conditions, as many risk factors fail to reproduce disease when experimentally administered to cows, leading many to conclude that these disorders are generally multifactorial in nature and difficult to replicate. In this case study, we document the outbreak and resolution of digestive disorders among 15 control cows ...


The Effect Of Bovine Galectin-1, A Conceptus Secretory Protein, On The Endometrial Transcriptome, Lindsay Faye Grose 2019 West Virginia University

The Effect Of Bovine Galectin-1, A Conceptus Secretory Protein, On The Endometrial Transcriptome, Lindsay Faye Grose

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Early embryonic loss in cattle is detrimental to reproduction thus, the profitability of both the beef and dairy industries. Therefore, an important aspect of study is to find techniques that beef or dairy producers could use to decrease early embryonic loss Galectin-1, the protein that was investigated in this research is important in modulating the maternal immune system in rodent and human early pregnancies by promoting fetomaternal immune tolerance. The role of galectin-1 within the reproductive tissues has not been thoroughly investigated in cattle. Galectin-1 is located in the caruncular and intercaruncular regions of the bovine endometrium, specifically the maternal ...


Are My Dry Cows Heat-Stressed? A Novel Approach To Assess Heat Stress Of Dry Cows In Commercial Dairy Herds, A. L. Scanavez, C. A. Gamarra, R. S. de Oliveira, L. G. Mendonça 2019 Kansas State University

Are My Dry Cows Heat-Stressed? A Novel Approach To Assess Heat Stress Of Dry Cows In Commercial Dairy Herds, A. L. Scanavez, C. A. Gamarra, R. S. De Oliveira, L. G. Mendonça

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Heat stress during the dry period causes major economic losses to the dairy industry. However, limited research exists regarding responses of dry cows exposed to various temperature and relative humidity gradients. In addition, no validated methods are currently available to assess heat stress in dry cows. The goals of this study were to describe core body temperature (CBT) responses of dry cows according to a variety of temperature-humidity index (THI) values, and develop and validate a practical method to assess heat stress in dry cows in commercial dairy herds. This study was comprised of 2 parts. In the first part ...


Effects Of A High-Protein Corn Product On Nutrient Digestibility And Production Responses In Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows, W. E. Brown, B. J. Bradford 2019 Kansas State University

Effects Of A High-Protein Corn Product On Nutrient Digestibility And Production Responses In Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows, W. E. Brown, B. J. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of a high-protein corn product (56% crude protein; CP) relative to other sources of protein on the lactation performance of dairy cows. Twenty-four Holstein cows (1,367 ± 105 lb of body weight, 111 ± 34 days in milk, 2.28 ± 0.46 lactations; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design balanced for carryover effects. Cows were individually fed one of four diets with a different protein concentrate source during each 28-day period, including: soybean meal (SBM), high-protein corn product (HPCP), soybean meal with ...


Effects Of Two Commercial Supplemental Fat Products On Body Condition Score And Cow- And Herd-Level Milk Yield And Composition In A Commercial Dairy Herd In Kansas, A. L. Scanavez, C. A. Gamarra, R. S. de Oliveira, L. G. Mendonça 2019 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Effects Of Two Commercial Supplemental Fat Products On Body Condition Score And Cow- And Herd-Level Milk Yield And Composition In A Commercial Dairy Herd In Kansas, A. L. Scanavez, C. A. Gamarra, R. S. De Oliveira, L. G. Mendonça

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Feeding fat supplements to lactating dairy cows is an effective strategy to increase energy density of rations and increase milk yield. However, it is not clear whether supplementing a specific fat supplement for the entire lactating herd provides better results than others in commercial dairy herds. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of fat supplementation with two commercial products on changes in body condition score (BCS) and cow- and herd-level milk production and composition in a large commercial dairy herd. The study was conducted in a herd milking approximately 1,500 Holstein cows. One of two ...


Evaluation Of Flax Oil Supplementation On Performance Of Growing Dairy Heifer Calves And Lactating Cows, Chelsea Rose Schossow 2019 South Dakota State University

Evaluation Of Flax Oil Supplementation On Performance Of Growing Dairy Heifer Calves And Lactating Cows, Chelsea Rose Schossow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Utilization of flax oil is new to the livestock industry, and limited research has been done to see the benefits of feeding the highly unsaturated oil to both dairy calves and lactating cows. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the potential benefits of flax oil as a lipid supplement. The first study compared the supplementation of two plant based oils to growing dairy calves. Thirty-six female Holstein calves in individual hutches were used in a 12-wk randomized complete block design study. Treatments were: 1) control (CON) with no oil, 2) 80 g/d of flax oil (FLAX), and 3) and ...


Curriculum For Foods Of Animal Origin At Ellsworth Community College, Kaitlyn Bartling 2019 Iowa State University

Curriculum For Foods Of Animal Origin At Ellsworth Community College, Kaitlyn Bartling

Creative Components

No abstract provided.


The Relationship Between Increased Milk Production And Increased Twinning Rates On Modern Dairy Farms, Courtney Babcock 2019 Iowa State University

The Relationship Between Increased Milk Production And Increased Twinning Rates On Modern Dairy Farms, Courtney Babcock

Creative Components

During the past three decades, twinning in dairy cattle has been rising at a significant rate, the cause of which is not well understood. There have been multiple reasons hypothesized to explain this but the most influential one has been found to be double ovulation due to lowered levels of progesterone. Metabolism by the liver leading to decreased progesterone levels at time of ovulation leads to an increase in circulating luteinizing hormone, and therefore the occurrence of codominance and increased likelihood of a double ovulation event occurring. Twining has many negative health risks associated with it and there are three ...


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