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Use Of Micellar Casein Concentrate And Milk Protein Concentrate Treated With Transglutaminase In Imitation Cheese Products—Unmelted Texture, Prafulla Salunke, Chenchaiah Marella, J. K. Amamcharla, K. Muthukumarappan, Lloyd Metzger 2022 South Dakota State University

Use Of Micellar Casein Concentrate And Milk Protein Concentrate Treated With Transglutaminase In Imitation Cheese Products—Unmelted Texture, Prafulla Salunke, Chenchaiah Marella, J. K. Amamcharla, K. Muthukumarappan, Lloyd Metzger

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

The amount of intact casein provided by dairy ingredients is a critical parameter in dairy-based imitation mozzarella cheese (IMC) formulation because it has a significant effect on unmelted textural parameters such as hardness. From a functionality perspective, rennet casein (RCN) is the preferred ingredient. Milk protein concentrate (MPC) and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) cannot provide the required functionality due to the higher steric stability of casein micelle. However, the use of transglutaminase (TGase) has the potential to modify the surface properties of MPC and MCC and may improve their functionality in IMC. The objective of this study was to determine …


High Protein Powders Fortification Of Nonfat Yoghurt: Impact Of Protein Source, Protein To Total Solids Ratio, Storage, And Seasonality On The Functionality Of Nonfat Yoghurt Made Using Glucono-Δ-Lactone (Gdl), Kartik Shah, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd Metzger 2022 South Dakota State University

High Protein Powders Fortification Of Nonfat Yoghurt: Impact Of Protein Source, Protein To Total Solids Ratio, Storage, And Seasonality On The Functionality Of Nonfat Yoghurt Made Using Glucono-Δ-Lactone (Gdl), Kartik Shah, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd Metzger

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

Nonfat yoghurt is a popular fermented product across the world. High protein powders such as Skim Milk Powder (SMP), Nonfat Dry Milk (NDM), and Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC) can be utilized in yoghurt formulations. The final Total Solids (TS), source and amount of protein in the formulation, and the physicochemical changes during storage may impact the functionality of yoghurt-type products. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of storage of SMP, NDM, MPC40, and MPC70 on the functionality of nonfat yoghurts at three different protein/ TS levels. Additionally, the impact of SMP and NDM manufactured in different …


Corn (Zea Mays L.) Production In Living Mulch Systems, Grazing Potential, And Economic Viability, Marcia Peireira Quinby 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Corn (Zea Mays L.) Production In Living Mulch Systems, Grazing Potential, And Economic Viability, Marcia Peireira Quinby

Doctoral Dissertations

Living mulch (LM) is a practice in which forages are grown simultaneously with the main crop, serving as a living cover throughout the growing season. The LM systems were developed to alleviate concerns of soil depletion and finding ways to reduce tillage negative effects on soil productivity. In addition, when legumes are use can decrease the reliance on N fertilizer. The use of corn in LM have been previously studied due to the crop being a large commodity in the U.S.; In addition, the ability to graze the LM after corn production can increase the land use efficiency. To determine …


Microbial, Chemical, And Functional Components In Kefir, Natto, And Feed Ingredients, Dana McCurdy 2022 Clemson University

Microbial, Chemical, And Functional Components In Kefir, Natto, And Feed Ingredients, Dana Mccurdy

All Dissertations

Kefir grains were purchased from online, home kitchen vendors in the United States (n = 22), inoculated into UHT milk, and incubated at 25°C for 22 hours. Results indicated lactobacilli, lactococci and yeast in all samples. Six out of 11 samples contained coliform, and all samples contained pseudomonal and staphylococcal species. Using targeted genome sequencing (16S) of kefir grain samples 1, 2, and 3 revealed that lactobacilli were the predominant genera of bacteria. ITS sequencing revealed different fungal species in each grain. Results indicated potential presence of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 by UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

The fermentation of whole and ground soybeans, …


Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler 2022 University of Maine

Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Animals have trillions of microorganisms living in or on many body sites, these communities of microorganisms are called microbiomes. Microbiomes are typically host-specific, and a lot of information about the host can be determined from investigating them. Microbiome research has many real-world applications, and this thesis utilizes the One Health perspective, which acknowledges the connection of humans, animals, and environments, and emphasizes the need for collaborative, interdisciplinary research. The first interdisciplinary project is an investigation into the bacteria in wild and cultured Atlantic deep-sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus larvae. Adults in hatcheries can be induced to spawn, but the last two …


Using Cytoplasmic Biopsies To Determine Bovine Oocyte Quality, Madison Lindsey 2022 Utah State University

Using Cytoplasmic Biopsies To Determine Bovine Oocyte Quality, Madison Lindsey

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Embryos resulting from assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), develop with lower efficiencies than embryos resulting from their in vivo counterparts. The reasons behind the developmental discrepancies remain largely unknown. Because the egg is the primary determinant of embryo developmental success, it is reasonable to consider inherent egg quality as a possible cause. The hypothesis for this project is that there are distinct mRNA transcript patterns, or molecular “fingerprints,” that distinguish high- versus low-quality eggs developing within the same environment. In this study, a small cytoplasmic biopsy was removed from 40 eggs …


Effect Of Storage Of Skim Milk Powder, Nonfat Dry Milk And Milk Protein Concentrate On Functional Properties, Kartik Shah, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd Metzger 2022 South Dakota State University

Effect Of Storage Of Skim Milk Powder, Nonfat Dry Milk And Milk Protein Concentrate On Functional Properties, Kartik Shah, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd Metzger

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

The physicochemical changes during the storage of high protein powders, such as skim milk powder (SMP), nonfat dry milk (NDM), and milk protein concentrates (MPC), can result in a variation in the functional properties of the powders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the storage of various milk powders (SMP, NDM, MPC40, and MPC70) on their functional properties. Three different lots of the powders were collected from US manufacturers and were analyzed for functional properties after 3, 9, and 15 months of storage at 25 °C. Additionally, this study also evaluated the effects of seasonal …


Use Of Livestock Risk Protection Insurance For Cattle Continues To Grow, Jay Parsons 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Use Of Livestock Risk Protection Insurance For Cattle Continues To Grow, Jay Parsons

Cornhusker Economics

When used as a regular part of a market risk management plan, livestock risk protection (LRP) insurance can help protect profits in years where markets turn for the worse. The recent changes to the program have made LRP insurance more appealing to cattle producers and sales of LRP have subsequently increased dramatically. Strong price increases may make LRP unnecessary, but it is difficult to predict when the price increases will end. LRP insurance is a safety net, reducing downside price risk by providing a floor on national price expectations while also allowing producers to take advantage of higher national prices …


Genetic Variations In The Myostatin Gene Among Irish Cattle Breeds, Cliona Ann Ryan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Genetic Variations In The Myostatin Gene Among Irish Cattle Breeds, Cliona Ann Ryan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

No abstract provided.


The Incidence Of Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis In Maine Dairy Cattle, Morgan Belvin 2022 University of Maine - Main

The Incidence Of Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis In Maine Dairy Cattle, Morgan Belvin

Honors College

This project investigated the factors surrounding the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) mastitis in Maine dairy cattle. This type of mastitis is driven by an antibiotic resistant pathogen that is very contagious among cattle, though farmers are often unaware of how common this type of mastitis is and that it could be present in their herds. My hypothesis was that specific farm factors, like milkers performing other tasks during milking, as well as the act of pre-dipping versus not pre-dipping, would explain the increase in SA mastitis. A thirty-seven-question IRB-approved survey was subsequently distributed to farmers in the University of …


How Weather Affects Total Mixed Rations And Why It Is Significant To Dairy Cattle, Juliana Baranowski 2022 University of Maine - Main

How Weather Affects Total Mixed Rations And Why It Is Significant To Dairy Cattle, Juliana Baranowski

Honors College

The objective of this study was to determine how weather affects the dry matter percentage of a TMR fed to dairy cattle. Daily feed samples were collected from the University of Maine’s J.F. Witter Teaching and Research Center and stored in a freezer until dry matters could be determined. The feed samples were later thawed out, then placed in an oven at 60oC for a minimum of three days. This allowed all the moisture to be evaporated so the DM could be calculated. The maximum, minimum and average temperatures, as well as the precipitation and humidity were obtained daily from …


Impact Of Ph And Palmitic Acid On Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Community Composition, Lexie Padilla 2022 Utah State University

Impact Of Ph And Palmitic Acid On Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Community Composition, Lexie Padilla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary palmitic acid and pH on rumen fermentation, fiber digestibility, and bacterial community composition. The two factors in the experiment were palmitic acid treatment and pH treatment. Palmitic acid treatments included a control diet compared to a diet containing 1.5% palmitic acid. pH treatments included normal pH (6.6 to 7.0) compared to low pH (6.0 to 6.4). Rumen fluid from a cow was added to artificial rumens to study the effects of the two treatments relative to fermentation and changes within the microbial community. Results of the study showed …


Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Symone T. Whalin 2022 Western Kentucky University

Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Symone T. Whalin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bovine mastitis, caused by a wide array of pathogens, results in a substantial economic loss for the dairy cattle livestock industry. β-defensins are a part of the bovine’s innate immune system and act as the first line of defense against mastitis. Only foundational research has been done on β-defensins’ ability to treat and prevent mastitis. There have been no analytical methods reported in the literature for analyzing β-defensins in bovine milk. This research aims to create an analytical approach to determine β-defensins in bovine milk. It is challenging to determine an analyte in a complex sample matrix, and milk is …


Effects Of Feeding Probiotics To Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves, Sara Tomis 2022 University of Connecticut

Effects Of Feeding Probiotics To Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves, Sara Tomis

Honors Scholar Theses

Pre-ruminant calves are particularly susceptible to pathological and environmental stressors that may have negative effects on their health and growth. Supplementing probiotics to this vulnerable population may have positive implications for the dairy industry, as probiotics may encourage improved growth rates and enhanced health in dairy neonates. However, there is variation in existing literature with regard to effectiveness. This study seeks to explore the impact of dietary probiotic supplement on health and growth parameters in pre-weaned dairy calves. Holstein and Jersey calves (n=30) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups, receiving either 0 or 5 grams of probiotic containing …


Importance Of A Dietary Cation-Anion Difference In Peripartum Dairy Cows, Laura A. Motsinger, Jacob Hadfield 2022 Utah state University

Importance Of A Dietary Cation-Anion Difference In Peripartum Dairy Cows, Laura A. Motsinger, Jacob Hadfield

All Current Publications

At calving, nutrient requirements of dairy cows increase to support milk synthesis. Energy and protein requirements are increased at the initiation of lactation (Moore et al., 2000). Additionally, calcium requirements increase tremendously to meet the demands of lactation (Moore et al., 2000). Calving and subsequent milk synthesis can cause calcium concentrations in the blood to drop. When the demand for calcium exceeds the cow’s ability to mobilize calcium, hypocalcemia (low blood calcium) occurs, which can negatively impact production. This fact sheet reviews hypocalcemia in dairy cows and how to implement hypocalcemia prevention strategies.


The Rise Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Their Effects, And How We Can Stop Their Growth, Andrea Prisco 2022 Penn State Dickinson Law

The Rise Of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Their Effects, And How We Can Stop Their Growth, Andrea Prisco

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

Dramatic changes in the agricultural industry over the last century have led to the rise of concentrated animal feeding operations– industrial facilities that raise a large number of animals in confined spaces. Animals raised in these facilities suffer from poor quality of life and abuse. For humans, these facilities have had adverse effects on the environment and public health, but they are also associated with high productivity and low food costs. This Comment analyzes the effects of concentrated animal feeding operations on animal well-being, the environment, and public health. This Comment also analyzes current federal legislation that helps combat the …


Improving The Longevity Of Dairy Cattle: An Important Initiative For The Swiss Dairy Industry, Frances McMillan 2022 SIT Study Abroad

Improving The Longevity Of Dairy Cattle: An Important Initiative For The Swiss Dairy Industry, Frances Mcmillan

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Swiss dairy cattle rarely live a productive life of longer than 5 years- sometimes even less, and therefore fail to reach their maximum lactation potential. They are often prematurely culled due to udder diseases, fertility problems, lameness, or the farmer’s need to make room for a calving heifer. However, farmers rarely record the real reasons for removing a cow from the herd, due to a sense of pressure and obligation to produce and a lack of universal standards regarding longevity to assist in this decision. This is a monumental problem, from both an environmental and animal welfare point of view, …


Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie

Doctoral Dissertations

Major subpopulations of gamma delta T cells within ruminant and pigs are defined by expression of WC1, a hybrid pattern recognition receptor/co-receptor to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is known that when WC1 is knocked down cells fail to respond. Showing that WC1 plays an active role in the stimulation of bovine gamma delta T cells. Here we explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of WC1 and TCR interaction using imaging flow cytometry and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. We found that in quiescent gamma delta T cells both WC1 and TCR existed in separate protein domains (protein islands) but after activation …


Perspective Of Dairy Producers From California, Idaho, South Dakota, And Washington: Health And Business Implications Of The Covid-19 Pandemic During The Second Wave, Ainhoa Valldecabres, J. Wenz, Fernanda Ferreira, Mireille Chahine, Joseph Dalton, Mario E. de Haro-Martí, Maristela Rovai, Noelia Silva-del-Rio 2022 University of California, Davis

Perspective Of Dairy Producers From California, Idaho, South Dakota, And Washington: Health And Business Implications Of The Covid-19 Pandemic During The Second Wave, Ainhoa Valldecabres, J. Wenz, Fernanda Ferreira, Mireille Chahine, Joseph Dalton, Mario E. De Haro-Martí, Maristela Rovai, Noelia Silva-Del-Rio

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

The aim of this study was to document California, Idaho, South Dakota, and Washington dairy producers' perspectives on the health and business implications of COVID-19 during the pandemic second wave. Dairy producers were reached by a 14-question anonymous mail survey during June and July of 2020. We obtained 226 responses (response rate: 9.3% CA, 8.6% ID, 31.4%, and 10.0% WA). Responses were grouped by state (CA: 48.7%, ID: 15.9%, SD: 21.7%, or WA: 13.7%) and dairy size [based on number of cows; small (<100): 14.1%, medium (100–499): 27.7%, medium-large (500–1,999): 33.2%, or large (≥2,000): 25.0%]. Survey responses were summarized, and multiple correspondence analysis was used to map responses and identify data clusters. At the time of the survey, some respondents suspected (3%) or had confirmed (9%) COVID-19 cases on their premises. Respondents were somewhat or very concerned about the health (75%) and business (92%) implications associated with COVID-19. Producers were concerned about the health of their families, employees, and employees' families; having to reduce production; workforce shortage; limited goods availability; and lack of services. Producers perceived that their employees were somewhat or very concerned (74%) with the pandemic. There was COVID-19 safety information or training provided (78%) or intended (4%) in English (22%), Spanish (23%), or both (55%). The focus of training was as follows: how to remain healthy at work (91%) and at home (60%), what to do if a worker gets sick (77%), and sick leave information (54%). Nevertheless, 18% of the respondents answered that training was not going to be provided. The following control measures implemented: providing hand sanitizer or disinfectant wipes (78%), instruction on frequent hand-washing (76%), social distancing (59%), prevention of employee gatherings (54%), providing and requiring the use of face masks (49%), and limiting on-farm visitors (44%). Multiple correspondence analysis showed that concern with health …


Dairy Digest 2022 : A Hoofprint In Time, South Dakota State University Dairy Club 2022 South Dakota State University

Dairy Digest 2022 : A Hoofprint In Time, South Dakota State University Dairy Club

Dairy Digest

This is the 2022 Dairy Digest. The Diary Digest is published annually by the South Dakota State University Dairy Club. The Digest contains information and news about the activities and members of the SDSU Dairy Club for the academic year 2021 - 2022.


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