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Strategic Nutritional Interventions With Probiotics And Their Relationship To Performance, Feeding Behavior, And Reticulorumen Environment In Cows And Calves Under Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Risk, Gustavo Mazon Correa Alves 2024 University of Kentucky

Strategic Nutritional Interventions With Probiotics And Their Relationship To Performance, Feeding Behavior, And Reticulorumen Environment In Cows And Calves Under Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Risk, Gustavo Mazon Correa Alves

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a digestive disorder in ruminants characterized by extended periods of low reticulorumen pH. This digestive disorder is commonly observed in ruminants fed diets with elevated proportions of non-fibrous carbohydrates. This disorder has been vastly studied in adult dairy cattle and has been associated with losses in milk production, changes in feeding behavior, damage to the gastrointestinal tract, and premature culling. Although vastly studied in adult cattle, there is limited research on the effects of SARA in calves. SARA might be prevented by modifying the reticulorumen environment with probiotic supplements containing lactateutilizing bacteria such as Megasphaera …


Comprehensive Assessment Of Economic, Productive, Phenotypic, And Morphometric Traits In Azikheli Buffalo Breed Of Northern Pakistan, Nadar Khan, Bakhtawara Bibi, Tariq Ahmad, Salman Khan, Aamir Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim 2023 Livestock and Dairy Development Department (Research) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Comprehensive Assessment Of Economic, Productive, Phenotypic, And Morphometric Traits In Azikheli Buffalo Breed Of Northern Pakistan, Nadar Khan, Bakhtawara Bibi, Tariq Ahmad, Salman Khan, Aamir Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim

Journal of Bioresource Management

The study was conducted to illuminate the phenotypic, morphometric, and productive characteristics of the Azikheli buffalo breed. One thousand two hundred pure Azikheli buffaloes (male: female) were randomly selected from the main hub of the Azikheli buffalo breed in Swat (Azikhel). The data were analyzed for comparison and frequency distribution. Phenotypic characteristic of the female buffalo shows that more than 73 % of the body color was golden yellowish. In contrast, in males, this value was 83 %, followed by white-albino and grayish colors. The shape of horns were semi sickle and grayish in color. Morphometric parameters of the breed …


Optimizing Conservation Of Nili Ravi Buffaloes In Southern Region Of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: A Comprehensive Evaluation Of Phenotypic, Morphometric, And Productive Traits, Arsalan Khan, Israr ud Din, Hafiz Abdul Majid, Amjad Ali, Akhtar Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Waseem Ullah, Shah Zeb, Safi Ullah, Imran Khan, Abid Ullah 2023 Livestock Research and Development Station, Paharpur, Dera Ismail Khan-29050-Pakistan

Optimizing Conservation Of Nili Ravi Buffaloes In Southern Region Of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: A Comprehensive Evaluation Of Phenotypic, Morphometric, And Productive Traits, Arsalan Khan, Israr Ud Din, Hafiz Abdul Majid, Amjad Ali, Akhtar Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Waseem Ullah, Shah Zeb, Safi Ullah, Imran Khan, Abid Ullah

Journal of Bioresource Management

In Pakistan, Nili Ravi buffalo is highly valued breed due to its high milk yield. Native to Punjab province, the breed is now extensively distributed throughout the country. To assess and optimize the conservation strategies for Nili Ravi buffaloes in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by evaluating their phenotypic, morphometric, productive, and reproductive characteristics. Buffaloes were maintained at Livestock Research and Development Station in Paharpur, Dera Ismail Khan from 2010-2023, under breed conservation program. A sum of 298 records Nili Ravi buffaloes were used for the investigation. The research examined physical attributes such as coat color, horn morphology, and other qualitative characteristics. …


Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Elisha Ogbebor 2023 Western Kentucky University

Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Elisha Ogbebor

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bovine mastitis is caused by a wide range of pathogens which results in a substantial economic loss for the dairy cattle livestock industry. β-defensins are a part of the innate immune system and act as the first line of defense against mastitis in bovine. β-defensins (~6- 10kDa) are antimicrobial peptides that contain about 28 to 67 amino acids, the presence of six cysteine residues results in their three disulfide bonds and a β-sheet structure. A few β- defensins have been identified in cows based on the site of occurrence and time of expression in tissue, but not in milk. A …


Towards The Quantification Of Estrone And 17Β-Estradiol Conjugates In Dairy Cattle Urine Sorptive Stir Bar Extraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry, S.M. Istiak Ahmed 2023 Western Kentucky University

Towards The Quantification Of Estrone And 17Β-Estradiol Conjugates In Dairy Cattle Urine Sorptive Stir Bar Extraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry, S.M. Istiak Ahmed

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The global concern regarding the presence of compounds with estrogenic properties in the environment has grown significantly. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are environmental pollutants that disrupt the endocrine systems of both wildlife and humans. Estrogens, with their potent estrogenic effects, are particularly noteworthy among the various substances with endocrine-disrupting properties. They are of concern due to their prevalence in the environment, especially due to dairy waste contamination. These lipophilic compounds can accumulate in livestock fat tissues, potentially entering the human food chain. Sulfated forms of estrone and β- estriol, which exhibit a higher degree of saturation than their non-conjugated counterparts, have …


Factors Affecting Forage Quality And The Subsequent Response In Production And Energy Metabolism In Lactating Jersey Cows, Kassidy Kate Buse 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Factors Affecting Forage Quality And The Subsequent Response In Production And Energy Metabolism In Lactating Jersey Cows, Kassidy Kate Buse

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Forage quality is the potential of a forage to produce a production response in animals. Because of how essential they are in dairy cattle rations, forages can have major influence on the behavior and production of dairy cattle. In experiment 1, the effect of forage fragility on the rumen environment and digestibility was evaluated. Increasing the inclusion of a less fragile forage led to greater rumen retention time, which resulted in lower rumen pH and greater NDF digestibility. Experiment 2 evaluated the effects of diets high in either corn silage or alfalfa haylage supplemented with either corn- or soybased protein …


The Evaluation Of Feed Additives On Reducing Enteric Methane Production From Cattle, Reba L. Colin 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Evaluation Of Feed Additives On Reducing Enteric Methane Production From Cattle, Reba L. Colin

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Environmental sustainability can be positively impacted by the inclusion of feed additives to reduce enteric methane production from cattle. Methane production can be affected by feed additives that either alter the rumen environment or act as methanogenesis inhibitors. A reduction in methane from cattle can contribute to meeting carbon neutrality.

A metabolism study was conducted to evaluate Alga 1.0, a product containing bromoform, fed to cattle to evaluate the effects on gas emissions. Treatments were (0, 69, or 103 g/d Alga 1.0) fed in a corn-based diet. Headbox-style indirect calorimeters were used to measure gas emissions. Feeding Alga 1.0 linearly …


Characterization Of Enterovirus D68 In A Mouse Model And Evaluation Of Antiviral Therapies, Zoe K. Taylor 2023 Utah State University

Characterization Of Enterovirus D68 In A Mouse Model And Evaluation Of Antiviral Therapies, Zoe K. Taylor

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a virus that causes respiratory disease. Children are most commonly affected by EV-D68 but immunocompromised adults can also get infected and develop severe disease signs. In 2014, the United States experienced an unprecedented outbreak of EV-D68. Similar outbreaks were also observed in 2016, 2018 and 2022. Interestingly, few EV-D68 infections were observed in 2020, likely due to public health measures put in place to reduce the spread of another respiratory disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). EV-D68 is in the same virus family as polio, and one of the most concerning findings from these outbreaks is that …


Characterisation Of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy In Female Cattle Using Genotype Information, Cliona Ryan 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark, Cork, Ireland.

Characterisation Of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy In Female Cattle Using Genotype Information, Cliona Ryan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Aneuploidy is a genetic condition characterized by the loss (monosomy) or gain (trisomy) of one or more chromosomes. Aneuploidy affecting the sex chromosomes often leads to infertility. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sex chromosome aneuploidy in a large juvenile population using routinely available genotype intensity information.

Methods

Genotype and genotype intensity data was available on 145,476 female dairy and beef cattle below 15 months of age at the time of genotyping, with no recorded progeny. Genotype intensity data included the LogR Ratio (LRR), R-value (the sum of X and Y SNP probe intensities), …


Homogenization And Thermal Processing Reduce The Concentration Of Extracellular Vesicles In Bovine Milk, Anna P. Colella, Anuradha Prakash, John Miklavcic 2023 Chapman University

Homogenization And Thermal Processing Reduce The Concentration Of Extracellular Vesicles In Bovine Milk, Anna P. Colella, Anuradha Prakash, John Miklavcic

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in bovine milk confer beneficial physiologic effects to consumers. Industrial processing treatments may affect the amount or bioactivity of EVs intrinsic to bovine milk. We investigated how the content and concentration of EVs were affected by homogenization and thermal processing of raw bovine milk. Raw milk was processed by homogenization, low-temperature (LT) heat, or pasteurization [high-temperature short-time (HTST) and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)] in a pilot processing facility. EVs were isolated from the raw and processed bovine milk using differential ultracentrifugation and quantified using a nanoparticle tracking analyzer. Bovine milk EVs were assessed for total miRNA and protein concentrations …


Kluyveromyces Marxianus Prepared As A Ready To Use Supplemental Food (Rusf), Zachary Christman 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Kluyveromyces Marxianus Prepared As A Ready To Use Supplemental Food (Rusf), Zachary Christman

Applied Science Program: Theses

Ready to Use Supplemental Food (RUSF) is a nutrient dense paste or compressed bar used to supplement a person’s nutritional needs because of malnutrition or due to food shortages. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate some methods of how the dairy organism Kluyveromyces marxianus can be used to enrich the protein value of bread or ferment a substrate such as wheat bran into a more digestible form.


The Effect Of Slow-Release Milk Replacer Feeding On Health And Behaviour Parameters In Dairy Breed Calves, Lea Krump, Ríona G. Sayers, Katie Sugrue, Emer Kennedy, Jim O'Mahony, Gearoid Sayers 2023 Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Tralee, Ireland

The Effect Of Slow-Release Milk Replacer Feeding On Health And Behaviour Parameters In Dairy Breed Calves, Lea Krump, Ríona G. Sayers, Katie Sugrue, Emer Kennedy, Jim O'Mahony, Gearoid Sayers

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The aim of this research paper was to evaluate the effect of a slow-release milk replacer on health and behaviour of neonatal dairy calves. This was done with the potential benefits to welfare during transport in mind. A total of 15 calves were randomly divided into three groups of 5, namely, a control group fed twice in 24 h with 3 l of a conventional milk replacer, a slow-release group fed once in 24 h with 2 l of conventional milk replacer and 1 litre of a specialised micro-encapsulated feed and an enriched-replacer group fed once in 24h with 3L …


Effects Of Wilting Extent On The Phytoestrogen Levels, Nutritional Value, Microbial Populations, And In Vitro Ruminal Methane Emissions Of Red Clover Hay And Silage Across Stages, Diego Zamudio Ayala 2023 Univesity of Maine

Effects Of Wilting Extent On The Phytoestrogen Levels, Nutritional Value, Microbial Populations, And In Vitro Ruminal Methane Emissions Of Red Clover Hay And Silage Across Stages, Diego Zamudio Ayala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The main objective of this thesis is to improve the understanding and awareness of methodologies to decrease phytoestrogens in conserved legumes without sacrificing forage nutritive value. In chapter 1, we discussed the main factors influencing each stage of hay production and our current understanding of the hay microbiome dynamics. The primary objective of haymaking is to dry forage enough (80-85% DM) to inhibit the growth of undesirable microbes and halt residual plant enzymatic activity that causes nutrient losses. During the field and storage phases of haymaking, the environment, management practices, and other factors influence the extent of DM losses. This …


Management And Investment: Two Pillars Of Automatic Milking Systems Efficiency, Abby N. McCalmon 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Management And Investment: Two Pillars Of Automatic Milking Systems Efficiency, Abby N. Mccalmon

Masters Theses

Fetch cows, dairy cattle that do not voluntarily enter automated milking systems (AMS), increase labor costs, and decrease efficiency. The objective of this study was to describe fetch cows based on fetch lists and herd-management software data. This study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm (n = 510 cows) using 8 AMS from October 1, 2021, to May 10, 2022. Data were collected via PCDART, DairyComp, and a proprietary interface. Two fetch categories by cow, EverFetch (EF) and NeverFetch (NF), and three status groups by cow by day, True Fetch (on fetch list …


Effect Of Authentic Kefir And Nigella Sativa On Broilers Challenged By Coccidia And Clostridium Perfringens, Julian E. Nixon 2023 Clemson University

Effect Of Authentic Kefir And Nigella Sativa On Broilers Challenged By Coccidia And Clostridium Perfringens, Julian E. Nixon

All Dissertations

Black seed oil concentrations of 0%, 0.1%, 1% and 5% were added to milk inoculated with kefir grains and incubated at 25°C for 22 h. The pH and microbial count indicated 1% black seed oil caused low inhibition (P > 0.05) of fermentation, but 5% black seed oil caused significant inhibition of the kefir microorganisms (P < 0.05).

Cobb 500 male chicks (n = 256) were distributed in a randomized block design and received one of four treatments: CTRL1 (Non-medicated, no kefir, no Clostridium perfringens), CTRL2 (Non-medicated, no kefir, C. perfringens inoculated), CTRL3 (BMD medicated, no kefir, C. perfringens inoculated), KTRT (Non-medicated, …


Assessing The Needs Of Utah Dairy Farmers To Inform Extension Programming, Bruce F. Richards, Lendel Narine, Justin Clawson, Kalen Taylor, Jacob Hadfield, Jody Gale 2023 Utah State University

Assessing The Needs Of Utah Dairy Farmers To Inform Extension Programming, Bruce F. Richards, Lendel Narine, Justin Clawson, Kalen Taylor, Jacob Hadfield, Jody Gale

Outcomes and Impact Quarterly

A needs assessment was conducted by the Utah State University Dairy Extension Team to identify the most urgent issues faced by Utah dairy farmers. The assessment found that the top five priority needs were implementing new technology, improving public perception of water use, managing risk, succession planning, and reducing feed costs. The results will guide dairy Extension programming in Utah. Several workshops and events have already been planned to address these needs. Overall, the assessment will help USU Extension provide research-based educational programs to meet the needs of the dairy industry in Utah.


Students’ Knowledge Of And Attitudes Toward Dairy Production: A Survey Methodology Report, Heather Akin, Babatope Akinyemi, Julia McQuillan, Tami Brown-Brandl 2023 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Students’ Knowledge Of And Attitudes Toward Dairy Production: A Survey Methodology Report, Heather Akin, Babatope Akinyemi, Julia Mcquillan, Tami Brown-Brandl

Department of Agricultural Leadership, Education, and Communication: Faculty Publications

This report presents findings from a pilot survey conducted among undergraduate and graduate students (N = 410) at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln about students’ perspectives on technology usage, consumption, and sustainability in dairy production systems. An interdisciplinary research team developed the survey instrument and report. The main purpose of this pilot study was to create and administer survey items to support further research on experiential education and outreach opportunities related to robotics in small-scale dairy production and rural economic development. Descriptive findings indicated that most students had some familiarity with dairy production and the nutritional aspects of dairy products …


Mice As An Animal Model For Japanese Encephalitis Virus Research: Mouse Susceptibility, Infection Route, And Viral Pathogenesis, Jordan C. Frank, Byung-Hak Song, Young-Min Lee 2023 Utah State University

Mice As An Animal Model For Japanese Encephalitis Virus Research: Mouse Susceptibility, Infection Route, And Viral Pathogenesis, Jordan C. Frank, Byung-Hak Song, Young-Min Lee

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic flavivirus, is principally transmitted by hematophagous mosquitoes, continually between susceptible animals and incidentally from those animals to humans. For almost a century since its discovery, JEV was geographically confined to the Asia-Pacific region with recurrent sizable outbreaks involving wildlife, livestock, and people. However, over the past decade, it has been detected for the first time in Europe (Italy) and Africa (Angola) but has yet to cause any recognizable outbreaks in humans. JEV infection leads to a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic conditions to self-limiting febrile illnesses to life-threatening neurological complications, particularly …


Effect Of Increasing Levels Of Gossypol And Fatty Acids Coming From Whole Cottonseed On Rumen Fermentation, Nutrient Digestibility And Microbial Community Composition In Continuous Culture Fermenters, Camila Castro Veloz 2023 Utah State University

Effect Of Increasing Levels Of Gossypol And Fatty Acids Coming From Whole Cottonseed On Rumen Fermentation, Nutrient Digestibility And Microbial Community Composition In Continuous Culture Fermenters, Camila Castro Veloz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

In this study we determined the impact of increasing dietary whole cottonseed (WCS) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and microbial community composition. This study contributes novel information to the dairy community deepening the understanding of how including different levels of WCS can affect the rumen environment. This research was conducted in continuous culture fermenters. Treatments included a control diet without WCS, or the control diet plus 5, 10, or 15% (dry matter) WCS. The control diet was a 50:50 orchardgrass hay:concentrate mixture fed twice daily. In the second experiment, soybean meal and cottonseed meal (CSM) were included, and rations were …


Fatty Acid, Carotenoid And Fat-Soluble Vitamin Composition Of Multispecies Swards Grown In Ireland—Implications For A Sustainable Feed In Dairy Farming, Samuel Rapisarda, Graham O'Neill, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2023 Technological University Dublin

Fatty Acid, Carotenoid And Fat-Soluble Vitamin Composition Of Multispecies Swards Grown In Ireland—Implications For A Sustainable Feed In Dairy Farming, Samuel Rapisarda, Graham O'Neill, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

Although traditional ryegrass pastures are still commonly used, they require intense management and input and do not perform well during the summer months. Multispecies systems have been recognised as more sustainable, needing less fertiliser and being tolerant to drought and heat. While data on monoculture system fat composition exist, information for multispecies is scarce. The present study compared the fatty acid (FA), carotenoid and fat-soluble composition of a multispecies system (consisting of perennial ryegrass, timothy, white clover, red clover, chicory and plantain) (MULTI) with two other conventional grazing systems (monoculture perennial ryegrass (PRG) and a binary mixture of perennial ryegrass …


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