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Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette 2023 Murray State University

Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette

Honors College Theses

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a substance that has been used in complementary medicine for many years. However, modern medicine has little knowledge of how this substance is utilized and metabolized in ruminant animals. Regulations on quality assurance and use in animals are lacking, and CBD supplementation in livestock is not approved. If CBD supplements can be shown to be safe and effective, detection in the animal will be important for determining regulation of use. A withdrawal period can then be established to allow time for deterioration of product to safe levels before livestock products enter human markets. This study sought to …


Is There An Economic Advantage To Planting Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures?, Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch, Ray Smith, Kenny Burdine, Edwin Ritchey, Eric Vanzant 2022 USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit

Is There An Economic Advantage To Planting Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures?, Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch, Ray Smith, Kenny Burdine, Edwin Ritchey, Eric Vanzant

The Journal of Extension

This study examined economic implications of planting summer annual mixtures of grasses, legumes, and forbs at varying nitrogen rates. No differences in yield occurred between the three mixtures, indicating that mixtures with lowest seed cost will be most economical. Applying N resulted in yield increases of 12.26 lb DM per lb N applied. Although yield responses to N were positive, sensitivity analyses showed that applying N resulted in positive net returns only when hay prices were high and N prices were low. When utilization rates are accounted for, enterprise budgets determined grazing to be 18% cheaper to implement than haying.


An Evaluation Of Bovine Reproductive Function From The Microrna Expression In The Female To Performance Testing In The Male, Erin Amiss 2022 Clemson University

An Evaluation Of Bovine Reproductive Function From The Microrna Expression In The Female To Performance Testing In The Male, Erin Amiss

All Theses

Reproductive function is crucial to the success of a beef or dairy herd. Both the female and male play significant roles in the outcome of bovine reproduction. The bull contributes to reproductive success in many ways, such as genetics. The initial role that the bull has in reproductive success is fertilization, whether natural or by artificial insemination. One method of assessing bull performance are central bull test stations, which are traditionally administered by a university, extension center, or are privately owned. Central bull tests assess the performance of bulls from various management systems, breeds, and ages. Some measurements taken during …


Predicting Immunization Status At Arrival In Tennessee Stocker Calves, Claire E. Hunkler 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Predicting Immunization Status At Arrival In Tennessee Stocker Calves, Claire E. Hunkler

Masters Theses

Bovine respiratory disease is a multifaceted disease with agent, host, and environmental factors. Stocker calves are at high risk of contracting the disease through many stressors like weaning, transportation, commingling, etc. The purpose of this project was to test if externally observed physical characteristics of calves on arrival at a stocker facility can be used to predict calfhood vaccination status determined based on antibody titer levels. Knowledge of highly correlated characteristics could allow stocker operators to reduce the occurrence of BRD through targeted management strategies, thus lowering morbidity, mortality, and treatment costs. Ear notches, blood, and visual characteristics were collected …


Microbial Community Structure From Southern High Plains Beef Cattle Feedyard Manure And Relationship With Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Heidi Waldrip, David Parker, Sierra Miller, Lisa M. Durso, Byeng R. Min, Daniel N. Miller, Kenneth Casey, Bryan Woodbury, Mindy J. Spiehs 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Microbial Community Structure From Southern High Plains Beef Cattle Feedyard Manure And Relationship With Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Heidi Waldrip, David Parker, Sierra Miller, Lisa M. Durso, Byeng R. Min, Daniel N. Miller, Kenneth Casey, Bryan Woodbury, Mindy J. Spiehs

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Modern molecular techniques enable characterization of the microbial biome in livestock manure, from which there is particular concern over emission of greenhouse gases. This study evaluated how sampling depth, time, temperature, and artificial rainfall affected microbial community structure in feedyard manure, and relationships between the manure biome and known parameters related to nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. In three large incubation chambers, maintained at different temperatures that received two applications of artificial rainfall, we evaluated manure microbiome composition and abundance of N2O-producing enzymes (nirK and nirS) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). These data were …


Maternal Nutrient Restriction And Melatonin Supplementation Alter Neurotransmitter Pathways In Bovine Fetal And Placental Tissues, Allison R. Harman 2022 Mississippi State University

Maternal Nutrient Restriction And Melatonin Supplementation Alter Neurotransmitter Pathways In Bovine Fetal And Placental Tissues, Allison R. Harman

Theses and Dissertations

Nutrient restriction is a relatively common production insult to pregnancy in cattle. Recently, melatonin supplementation has been investigated as a possible therapeutic to rescue the negative effects of nutrient restriction. Neurotransmitters have been implicated as having negative programming effects in mouse and human pregnancies, manifested as metabolic and neurologic disorders. The role of neurotransmitters in fetal development has only begun to be understood in mice and humans. Neurotransmitters have not been analyzed in cattle, much less within the context of a compromised pregnancy. Brangus heifers were allotted to one of four treatments (ADQ-CON, RES-CON, ADQ-MEL, RES-MEL) in either Fall 2019 …


Incorporating Follicle Stimulating Hormone To Stimulate Multiple Corpora Lutea For Embryo Transfer In Beef Cattle, Bryan Carter 2022 Mississippi State University

Incorporating Follicle Stimulating Hormone To Stimulate Multiple Corpora Lutea For Embryo Transfer In Beef Cattle, Bryan Carter

Theses and Dissertations

Assisted reproductive technologies, such as estrus synchronization and embryo transfer, can aid producers in improving genetics by increasing the number of progeny produced from elite females. The success of embryo transfer is dependent on a viable, competent embryo and a recipient with a receptive uterine environment. Follicular development and luteinization are pertinent for the recipient to establish a functional corpus luteum (CL) that can produce adequate concentrations of progesterone (P4) and provide a uterine environment conducive for the establishment of pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine if exogenous follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), would increase the number of …


The Benefits Of Growth-Promoting Implants For Beef Cattle, Caleb C. Reichhardt, Reganne K. Briggs, Laura Motsinger, Kara Thornton-Kurth, Matthew D. Garcia 2022 Utah State University

The Benefits Of Growth-Promoting Implants For Beef Cattle, Caleb C. Reichhardt, Reganne K. Briggs, Laura Motsinger, Kara Thornton-Kurth, Matthew D. Garcia

All Current Publications

Growth-promoting implants have been used in the cattle industry for decades. Their benefits allow cattle producers to become more sustainable by decreasing the amount of resources used. Resources such as water and land are decreased when using growth-promoting implants in beef cattle.


Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler 2022 University of Maine

Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Animals have trillions of microorganisms living in or on many body sites, these communities of microorganisms are called microbiomes. Microbiomes are typically host-specific, and a lot of information about the host can be determined from investigating them. Microbiome research has many real-world applications, and this thesis utilizes the One Health perspective, which acknowledges the connection of humans, animals, and environments, and emphasizes the need for collaborative, interdisciplinary research. The first interdisciplinary project is an investigation into the bacteria in wild and cultured Atlantic deep-sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus larvae. Adults in hatcheries can be induced to spawn, but the last two …


Effects Of An Injectable Zinc Solution At Weaning As An Alternative Castration Method In Beef Cattle, Reagan Nicole Cauble 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of An Injectable Zinc Solution At Weaning As An Alternative Castration Method In Beef Cattle, Reagan Nicole Cauble

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Two experiments were conducted to investigate a 1 mL intratesticular zinc (100 mg Zn) injection administered into each testicle at weaning (Z) and its effects on growth, health, behavior and testosterone. In the first experiment, beef bulls were assigned randomly to treatment at birth: 1) surgically castrated at birth (S; n = 37) or 2) Z (n = 37). Testicular thickness differed by day (P < 0.01) for Z. Testosterone concentrations were greater in Z by d 77 and remained so through d 280 (P = 0.02) compared to S. Zinc injected calves were heavier at the trail’s conclusion (P ≤ 0.04), had greater ADG overall (P < 0.01), heavier hot carcass weight (P = 0.01), and greater lean muscle area (P = 0.01) compared to S; but a lower marbling score (P < 0.01). Yield Grade, dressed carcass yield and fat thickness were similar (P ≥ 0.14). Zinc injected calves had greater haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations (P < 0.01). Zinc injected calves had greater concentrations of white blood cells on d 1 and 2 and greater concentrations and proportions of neutrophils on d 1, 2 and 3 (P < 0.01). Conversely, S had a greater percentage of lymphocytes on d 1, 2 and 3 and a lower ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes during that same time (P < 0.01). Zinc injected calves spent more time on their side or sternum on d 1 and more time on their side on d 2 while S spend more time standing during that time (P < 0.01). During d 3, 4, 5, and 6, Z stood more while S laid on their sternum (P < 0.01). In trail 2, beef bulls were allocated randomly to treatment one week post weaning: 1) banded (B; n = 42) or 2) Z (n = 39). Body weights were similar (P ≥ 0.39) but ADG improved for Z compared to B (P = 0.05). Testosterone concentrations were greater in Z compared to B (P ≤ 0.02). Testicular width in Z differed by d (P < 0.01). Zinc castrated calves spent more time on their side compared to B one day post castration (P = 0.03) until d 3 and 4 where B spent more time on their side (P ≤ 0.02). Banded calves stood more the first two days (P ≤ 0.01). On days 3, 4, 5, and 6, Z stood more (P ≤ 0.01) while B were on their sternum (P ≤ 0.03). Banded calves had lower Hp concentrations compared to Z (P ≤ 0.01). Total white blood cell concentrations, proportions and concentrations of neutrophils, and proportion of lymphocytes were greater in Z compared to B on d 1, 2, and 3 (P ≤ 0.01). There was no interaction between treatments over time for IL1β, IL6, and TNFα expression (P ≥ 0.83). The findings in both studies indicate that intratesticular Zn injections at weaning can improve growth performance and some carcass attributes but produce a heightened inflammatory and immune response and cause discomfort. Injecting zinc, as formulated and administered in these trails, does not result in complete castration of beef calves at this age and therefore cannot be considered a true castration alternative.


Efficacy Of Sequential Estrus Synchronization And Timed Artificial Insemination In Beef Cattle Beginning 19 Days After An Initial Timed Artificial Insemination, Courtnie Carter Bridges 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Efficacy Of Sequential Estrus Synchronization And Timed Artificial Insemination In Beef Cattle Beginning 19 Days After An Initial Timed Artificial Insemination, Courtnie Carter Bridges

Masters Theses

A breeding program utilizing single fixed-timed artificial insemination (AI) was compared to a resynchronization program for a second fixed-timed AI. Angus and Angus cross primiparous and multiparous cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatment regimens; either single TAI (CON; n=468) or two sequential TAI (RS; n=473). The main objectives were assessing pregnancy rates and analyzing fetal age to estimate calving distribution rates between the two treatment groups. The 7-day CO-synch + CIDR protocol was utilized in both treatment groups to synchronize estrus for TAI-1 at 60h - 66h post- Prostaglandin injection (PGf2α). Animals in the RS treatment groups …


Optimal Stocker Production Strategies For Spring And Fall Calving Cow Herds, Cora Beth Key 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Optimal Stocker Production Strategies For Spring And Fall Calving Cow Herds, Cora Beth Key

Masters Theses

This thesis consists of two chapters discussing the economics of raising stocker beef cattle in the southeast United States. The objective of the first chapter is to estimate supplemental feed cost for spring-calving cows, spring-born stockers, cows calving in the fall, and fall-born stockers, while considering the seasonality of forage production and nutritional needs. The chapter explores ways producers can lower their feed costs and demonstrates the importance of managing hay expenses for cattle producers to control cost. The objective of chapter two is to determine the profit-maximizing stocker period in an integrated cow-calf and stocker operation with both fall- …


Evaluating The Shelf Life And Sensory Properties Of Beef Steaks From Cattle Raised On Different Grass Feeding Systems In The Western United States, Toni L. Duarte, Bakytzhan Bolkenov, Sarah C. Klopatek, James W. Oltjen, D. Andy King, Steven D. Shackelford, Tommy L. Wheeler, Xiang Yang 2022 University of California—Davis

Evaluating The Shelf Life And Sensory Properties Of Beef Steaks From Cattle Raised On Different Grass Feeding Systems In The Western United States, Toni L. Duarte, Bakytzhan Bolkenov, Sarah C. Klopatek, James W. Oltjen, D. Andy King, Steven D. Shackelford, Tommy L. Wheeler, Xiang Yang

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Consumer interest in grass-fed beef has been steadily rising due to consumer perception of its potential benefits. This interest has led to a growing demand for niche market beef, particularly in the western United States. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of feeding systems on the change in microbial counts, color, and lipid oxidation of steaks during retail display, and on their sensory attributes. The systems included: conventional grain-fed (CON), 20 months-grass-fed (20GF), 25-months-grass-fed (25GF) and 20-months-grass-fed + 45-day-grain-fed (45GR). The results indicate that steaks in the 20GF group displayed a darker lean and fat …


Clearing The Air Between Methane And Commercial Beef Cattle In Ireland, Clodagh V. Ryan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Clearing The Air Between Methane And Commercial Beef Cattle In Ireland, Clodagh V. Ryan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Rumen methanogenesis is the single most significant source of anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions. This research aimed to analyse CH4 data recorded by GreenFeed systems by assessing the repeatability of such phenotypic measures, estimating the heritability of CH4, and generating CH4 estimated breeding values (EBVs) for inclusion in the national breeding index.

Methods

CH4 measurements were recorded on 979 cattle for 20 to 83 days using GreenFeed machines, resulting in 211,136 individual CH4 observations. The phenotypic repeatability of CH4 was estimated for six different averaging periods using a linear mixed …


Genetic Variations In The Myostatin Gene Among Irish Cattle Breeds, Cliona Ann Ryan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Genetic Variations In The Myostatin Gene Among Irish Cattle Breeds, Cliona Ann Ryan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

No abstract provided.


Mining Of Producer Recorded Data; Using Beef Calf And Cow Live-Weight Data As A Case Study, Shauna Walsh 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark, Cork, Ireland

Mining Of Producer Recorded Data; Using Beef Calf And Cow Live-Weight Data As A Case Study, Shauna Walsh

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Animal live-weight contributes to profitability in beef herds and is a key determinant of overall efficiency of the beef sector. The objective was to develop a novel editing criteria for anomaly detection of beef cow and calf live-weight data. Live-weight data from five sources (i.e., professionally-recorded, owned-scales, borrowed-scales, scales hired from a depot, other) were available from the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation.

A number of alternative methods were used for anomaly detection including: generation of within-herd regression estimates, partial correlations between cow and calf live-weight records and mahalanobis distance. Across each method a value was calculated for each herd based …


Genes Involved In Feed Efficiency Identified In A Meta-Analysis Of Rumen Tissue From Two Populations Of Beef Steers, Amanda K. Lindholm-Perry, Allison M. Meyer, Rebecca J. Kern-Lunbery, Hannah C. Cunningham-Hollinger, Taran H. Funk, Brittney N. Keel 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Genes Involved In Feed Efficiency Identified In A Meta-Analysis Of Rumen Tissue From Two Populations Of Beef Steers, Amanda K. Lindholm-Perry, Allison M. Meyer, Rebecca J. Kern-Lunbery, Hannah C. Cunningham-Hollinger, Taran H. Funk, Brittney N. Keel

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

In cattle, the rumen is an important site for the absorption of feed by-products released by bacterial fermentation, and variation in ruminal function plays a role in cattle feed efficiency. Studies evaluating gene expression in the rumen tissue have been performed prior to this. However, validating the expression of genes identified in additional cattle populations has been challenging. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ruminal transcriptome of two unrelated populations of animals to identify genes that are involved in feed efficiency across populations. RNAseq data from animals with high and low residual feed intake …


Prenatal Transportation Stress Did Not Impact Ovarian Follicle Count For Three Generations Of Female Brahman Offspring, Lacey K. Quail, Ronald D. Randel, Thomas H. Welsh Jr., Robert A. Cushman, Hannah K. Yake, Rui A. d'Orey Branco, Donald A. Neuendorff, Charles R. Long, George A. Perry 2022 Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University

Prenatal Transportation Stress Did Not Impact Ovarian Follicle Count For Three Generations Of Female Brahman Offspring, Lacey K. Quail, Ronald D. Randel, Thomas H. Welsh Jr., Robert A. Cushman, Hannah K. Yake, Rui A. D'Orey Branco, Donald A. Neuendorff, Charles R. Long, George A. Perry

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

As prenatal transportation stress altered behavior and adrenal glucocorticoid secretion of calves, we hypothesized that prenatal transportation stress would decrease ovarian reserve size and negatively impact female offspring fertility. The impact of prenatal transportation stress on ovarian follicle numbers in female offspring for three generations was studied. Brahman cows were transported for 2 h on day 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 of gestation. Ovaries were collected from offspring of transported or non-transported dams at multiple ages. Primordial, primary, secondary, and antral follicles were histologically analyzed. Antral follicle numbers were …


Efficacy Of Antimicrobial Interventions Used In Meat Processing Plants Against Antimicrobial Tolerant Non–Antibiotic-Resistant And Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella On Fresh Beef, Norasak Kalchayanand, Sapna Chitlapilly Dass, Yangjunna Zhang, Eric L. Oliver, Bing Wang, Tommy L. Wheeler 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Efficacy Of Antimicrobial Interventions Used In Meat Processing Plants Against Antimicrobial Tolerant Non–Antibiotic-Resistant And Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella On Fresh Beef, Norasak Kalchayanand, Sapna Chitlapilly Dass, Yangjunna Zhang, Eric L. Oliver, Bing Wang, Tommy L. Wheeler

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Salmonella is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and several strains of Salmonella have been identified as resistant to antibiotics. It is not known whether strains that are antibiotic resistant (ABR) and that have some tolerance to antimicrobial compounds are also able to resist the inactivation effects of antimicrobial interventions used in fresh meat processing. Sixty-eight Salmonella isolates (non-ABR and ABR strains) were treated with half concentrations of lactic acid (LA), peracetic acid (PAA), and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), which are used in beef processing plants to screen for tolerant strains. Six strains each from non-ABR and …


Effects Of Administration Of A Growth Promoting Implant During The Suckling Phase Or At Weaning On Growth, Reproduction, And Ovarian Development In Replacement Heifers Grazing Native Range, Shelby L. Rosasco, Emily A. Melchior-Tiffany, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Shad H. Cox, Richard L. Dunlap, Jennifer A. Hernandez Gifford, Eric J. Scholljegerdes, Robert A. Cushman, Adam F. Summers 2022 New Mexico State University

Effects Of Administration Of A Growth Promoting Implant During The Suckling Phase Or At Weaning On Growth, Reproduction, And Ovarian Development In Replacement Heifers Grazing Native Range, Shelby L. Rosasco, Emily A. Melchior-Tiffany, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Shad H. Cox, Richard L. Dunlap, Jennifer A. Hernandez Gifford, Eric J. Scholljegerdes, Robert A. Cushman, Adam F. Summers

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Management strategies utilized during pre-breeding development of replacement heifers can impact fertility and the ovarian reserve. Angus- Hereford crossbred heifers (n = 233) were utilized over a 3-yr period to determine the effects of administration of a growth promoting implant at either branding or weaning on growth, reproduction, and ovarian development. Heifer calves were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: 1) nonimplanted controls (CON; n = 79), 2) implanted at approximately 2 mo of age (average calf age = 58 d) with Synovex-C (BIMP, n = 82), or 3) implanted at approximately 7 mo of age (average calf …


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