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Anthelmintic Resistance In Sheep Across Ireland And The Uk: A Literature Review Of The In Vivo Versus In Vitro Methods, Megan Tumulty 2022 Technological University of the Shannon

Anthelmintic Resistance In Sheep Across Ireland And The Uk: A Literature Review Of The In Vivo Versus In Vitro Methods, Megan Tumulty

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Background: The animal welfare and production consequences of gastrointestinal nematode infections, namely Nematodirus battus, on sheep are compelling. The control of gastrointestinal infections has been heavily reliant on the administration of anthelmintics since their introduction into mainstream use in 1960. However, their frequent and often excessive use has resulted in anthelmintic resistance being reported extensively in several gastrointestinal nematode species. The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance as well as the increase in the number of cases of multiple-drug resistance in nematode populations now poses substantial hindrance on the viability of sheep production systems. However, despite the threat N. battus poses …


Is There An Economic Advantage To Planting Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures?, Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch, Ray Smith, Kenny Burdine, Edwin Ritchey, Eric Vanzant 2022 USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit

Is There An Economic Advantage To Planting Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures?, Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch, Ray Smith, Kenny Burdine, Edwin Ritchey, Eric Vanzant

The Journal of Extension

This study examined economic implications of planting summer annual mixtures of grasses, legumes, and forbs at varying nitrogen rates. No differences in yield occurred between the three mixtures, indicating that mixtures with lowest seed cost will be most economical. Applying N resulted in yield increases of 12.26 lb DM per lb N applied. Although yield responses to N were positive, sensitivity analyses showed that applying N resulted in positive net returns only when hay prices were high and N prices were low. When utilization rates are accounted for, enterprise budgets determined grazing to be 18% cheaper to implement than haying.


Microbial Community Structure From Southern High Plains Beef Cattle Feedyard Manure And Relationship With Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Heidi Waldrip, David Parker, Sierra Miller, Lisa M. Durso, Byeng R. Min, Daniel N. Miller, Kenneth Casey, Bryan Woodbury, Mindy J. Spiehs 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Microbial Community Structure From Southern High Plains Beef Cattle Feedyard Manure And Relationship With Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Heidi Waldrip, David Parker, Sierra Miller, Lisa M. Durso, Byeng R. Min, Daniel N. Miller, Kenneth Casey, Bryan Woodbury, Mindy J. Spiehs

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Modern molecular techniques enable characterization of the microbial biome in livestock manure, from which there is particular concern over emission of greenhouse gases. This study evaluated how sampling depth, time, temperature, and artificial rainfall affected microbial community structure in feedyard manure, and relationships between the manure biome and known parameters related to nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. In three large incubation chambers, maintained at different temperatures that received two applications of artificial rainfall, we evaluated manure microbiome composition and abundance of N2O-producing enzymes (nirK and nirS) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). These data were …


Sheep And Goat Industry Funding Scheme Annual Report 2021/2022, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia, Sheep and Goat Industry Funding Scheme 2022 Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia

Sheep And Goat Industry Funding Scheme Annual Report 2021/2022, Department Of Primary Industries And Regional Development, Western Australia, Sheep And Goat Industry Funding Scheme

Miscellaneous Publications

No abstract provided.


Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler 2022 University of Maine

Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Animals have trillions of microorganisms living in or on many body sites, these communities of microorganisms are called microbiomes. Microbiomes are typically host-specific, and a lot of information about the host can be determined from investigating them. Microbiome research has many real-world applications, and this thesis utilizes the One Health perspective, which acknowledges the connection of humans, animals, and environments, and emphasizes the need for collaborative, interdisciplinary research. The first interdisciplinary project is an investigation into the bacteria in wild and cultured Atlantic deep-sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus larvae. Adults in hatcheries can be induced to spawn, but the last two …


Using Condensed Tannin To Mitigate Tall Fescue Toxicosis, Ally Jo Grote 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Condensed Tannin To Mitigate Tall Fescue Toxicosis, Ally Jo Grote

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue, [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Shreb.)] produces ergot alkaloids. Condensed tannins could bind to ergot alkaloids and render them ineffective. The first objective was to improve the health of sheep offered endophyte-infected tall fescue by binding toxins in the rumen with condensed tannins. Non-toxic novel-endophyte infected tall fescue (NE) or toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue forage was harvested, baled at targeted moisture of 55%, wrapped within 8 hours of baling with 2 layers of net wrap and 20 layers of plastic, and ensiled for at least 60 days. Prior to feeding, forages were chopped and packed into plastic trash …


Evaluating The Shelf Life And Sensory Properties Of Beef Steaks From Cattle Raised On Different Grass Feeding Systems In The Western United States, Toni L. Duarte, Bakytzhan Bolkenov, Sarah C. Klopatek, James W. Oltjen, D. Andy King, Steven D. Shackelford, Tommy L. Wheeler, Xiang Yang 2022 University of California—Davis

Evaluating The Shelf Life And Sensory Properties Of Beef Steaks From Cattle Raised On Different Grass Feeding Systems In The Western United States, Toni L. Duarte, Bakytzhan Bolkenov, Sarah C. Klopatek, James W. Oltjen, D. Andy King, Steven D. Shackelford, Tommy L. Wheeler, Xiang Yang

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Consumer interest in grass-fed beef has been steadily rising due to consumer perception of its potential benefits. This interest has led to a growing demand for niche market beef, particularly in the western United States. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of feeding systems on the change in microbial counts, color, and lipid oxidation of steaks during retail display, and on their sensory attributes. The systems included: conventional grain-fed (CON), 20 months-grass-fed (20GF), 25-months-grass-fed (25GF) and 20-months-grass-fed + 45-day-grain-fed (45GR). The results indicate that steaks in the 20GF group displayed a darker lean and fat …


Genes Involved In Feed Efficiency Identified In A Meta-Analysis Of Rumen Tissue From Two Populations Of Beef Steers, Amanda K. Lindholm-Perry, Allison M. Meyer, Rebecca J. Kern-Lunbery, Hannah C. Cunningham-Hollinger, Taran H. Funk, Brittney N. Keel 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Genes Involved In Feed Efficiency Identified In A Meta-Analysis Of Rumen Tissue From Two Populations Of Beef Steers, Amanda K. Lindholm-Perry, Allison M. Meyer, Rebecca J. Kern-Lunbery, Hannah C. Cunningham-Hollinger, Taran H. Funk, Brittney N. Keel

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

In cattle, the rumen is an important site for the absorption of feed by-products released by bacterial fermentation, and variation in ruminal function plays a role in cattle feed efficiency. Studies evaluating gene expression in the rumen tissue have been performed prior to this. However, validating the expression of genes identified in additional cattle populations has been challenging. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ruminal transcriptome of two unrelated populations of animals to identify genes that are involved in feed efficiency across populations. RNAseq data from animals with high and low residual feed intake …


Prenatal Transportation Stress Did Not Impact Ovarian Follicle Count For Three Generations Of Female Brahman Offspring, Lacey K. Quail, Ronald D. Randel, Thomas H. Welsh Jr., Robert A. Cushman, Hannah K. Yake, Rui A. d'Orey Branco, Donald A. Neuendorff, Charles R. Long, George A. Perry 2022 Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University

Prenatal Transportation Stress Did Not Impact Ovarian Follicle Count For Three Generations Of Female Brahman Offspring, Lacey K. Quail, Ronald D. Randel, Thomas H. Welsh Jr., Robert A. Cushman, Hannah K. Yake, Rui A. D'Orey Branco, Donald A. Neuendorff, Charles R. Long, George A. Perry

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

As prenatal transportation stress altered behavior and adrenal glucocorticoid secretion of calves, we hypothesized that prenatal transportation stress would decrease ovarian reserve size and negatively impact female offspring fertility. The impact of prenatal transportation stress on ovarian follicle numbers in female offspring for three generations was studied. Brahman cows were transported for 2 h on day 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 of gestation. Ovaries were collected from offspring of transported or non-transported dams at multiple ages. Primordial, primary, secondary, and antral follicles were histologically analyzed. Antral follicle numbers were …


Efficacy Of Antimicrobial Interventions Used In Meat Processing Plants Against Antimicrobial Tolerant Non–Antibiotic-Resistant And Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella On Fresh Beef, Norasak Kalchayanand, Sapna Chitlapilly Dass, Yangjunna Zhang, Eric L. Oliver, Bing Wang, Tommy L. Wheeler 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Efficacy Of Antimicrobial Interventions Used In Meat Processing Plants Against Antimicrobial Tolerant Non–Antibiotic-Resistant And Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella On Fresh Beef, Norasak Kalchayanand, Sapna Chitlapilly Dass, Yangjunna Zhang, Eric L. Oliver, Bing Wang, Tommy L. Wheeler

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Salmonella is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and several strains of Salmonella have been identified as resistant to antibiotics. It is not known whether strains that are antibiotic resistant (ABR) and that have some tolerance to antimicrobial compounds are also able to resist the inactivation effects of antimicrobial interventions used in fresh meat processing. Sixty-eight Salmonella isolates (non-ABR and ABR strains) were treated with half concentrations of lactic acid (LA), peracetic acid (PAA), and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), which are used in beef processing plants to screen for tolerant strains. Six strains each from non-ABR and …


Effects Of Administration Of A Growth Promoting Implant During The Suckling Phase Or At Weaning On Growth, Reproduction, And Ovarian Development In Replacement Heifers Grazing Native Range, Shelby L. Rosasco, Emily A. Melchior-Tiffany, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Shad H. Cox, Richard L. Dunlap, Jennifer A. Hernandez Gifford, Eric J. Scholljegerdes, Robert A. Cushman, Adam F. Summers 2022 New Mexico State University

Effects Of Administration Of A Growth Promoting Implant During The Suckling Phase Or At Weaning On Growth, Reproduction, And Ovarian Development In Replacement Heifers Grazing Native Range, Shelby L. Rosasco, Emily A. Melchior-Tiffany, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Shad H. Cox, Richard L. Dunlap, Jennifer A. Hernandez Gifford, Eric J. Scholljegerdes, Robert A. Cushman, Adam F. Summers

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Management strategies utilized during pre-breeding development of replacement heifers can impact fertility and the ovarian reserve. Angus- Hereford crossbred heifers (n = 233) were utilized over a 3-yr period to determine the effects of administration of a growth promoting implant at either branding or weaning on growth, reproduction, and ovarian development. Heifer calves were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: 1) nonimplanted controls (CON; n = 79), 2) implanted at approximately 2 mo of age (average calf age = 58 d) with Synovex-C (BIMP, n = 82), or 3) implanted at approximately 7 mo of age (average calf …


Interaction Of Replacing Corn Silage With Soyhulls As A Roughage Source With Or Without 3% Added Wheat Straw In The Diet: Impacts On Intake, Digestibility, And Ruminal Fermentation In Steers Fed High-Concentrate Diets, Bryan W. Neville, Wayde J. Pickinpaugh, Lea J. Mittleider, Rebecca L. Moore, Kendall C. Swanson, Joel S. Caton 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service, North Dakota State University

Interaction Of Replacing Corn Silage With Soyhulls As A Roughage Source With Or Without 3% Added Wheat Straw In The Diet: Impacts On Intake, Digestibility, And Ruminal Fermentation In Steers Fed High-Concentrate Diets, Bryan W. Neville, Wayde J. Pickinpaugh, Lea J. Mittleider, Rebecca L. Moore, Kendall C. Swanson, Joel S. Caton

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Six ruminally cannulated steers [475.0 ± 49.6 kg initial body weight (BW)] were used in a 6 × 3 incomplete Latin square design (six treatments and three periods), to evaluate the impacts replacing of corn silage with pelleted soyhulls as roughage in high-concentrate finishing diets containing 30% modified distillers grains with solubles. Treatments were based on increasing dietary inclusion of soyhulls and consisted of: (1) Control (0), roughage supplied by dietary inclusion of 20% corn silage [dry matter (DM) basis]; (2) 50% replacement of corn silage with soyhulls (50); (3) 100% replacement of corn silage with soyhulls (100), and the …


Assessing The Microbiological Profile Of Raw Goat Milk And Understanding Producer Practices And Perceptions, Jacinda Skye Leopard 2022 Mississippi State University

Assessing The Microbiological Profile Of Raw Goat Milk And Understanding Producer Practices And Perceptions, Jacinda Skye Leopard

Theses and Dissertations

Raw milk sales are legal in 30 states, including Mississippi, where regulations are largely management-based and not food-safety related. The research objectives were to analyze the microbial profile of raw goat milk from Mississippi farms and assess food safety practices and perceptions of dairy goat farmers. Deficiencies and opportunities for improvement in raw goat milk safety were identified. Staphylococcus spp. was present in most (70%) milk samples but aligned with drying-off. E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and coliforms were observed in 4, 10, and 12 samples, respectively; no Salmonella spp. or Listeria monocytogenes were detected. The survey highlighted farmers' need for …


Development And Validation Of High-Resolution Melting Assays For The Detection Of Potentially Virulent Strains Of Escherichia Coli O103 And O121, Frank J. Velez, Joseph M. Bosilevac, Sabine Delannoy, Patrick Fach, Ravinder Nagpal, Prashant Singh 2022 Florida State University

Development And Validation Of High-Resolution Melting Assays For The Detection Of Potentially Virulent Strains Of Escherichia Coli O103 And O121, Frank J. Velez, Joseph M. Bosilevac, Sabine Delannoy, Patrick Fach, Ravinder Nagpal, Prashant Singh

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Virulent strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups O103 and O121 are considered adulterants in beef. Two high-resolution melting (HRM) real-time PCR assays were standardized for the specific detection and discrimination of potentially virulent and avirulent strains of E. coli O103 and O121. The O103 HRM assay offered the possibility to distinguish clearly STEC O103:H2 from STEC O103:H25. The two standardized assays were extensively validated using 215 pure culture strains, laboratory inoculated food samples, and naturally contaminated beef (n = 84) and pork (n = 84) enrichments collected from the red meat surveillance program. Both HRM assays showed 100% …


Impacts Of Added Roughage On Growth Performance, Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation, And Ruminal Ph Of Feedlot Steers Fed Wheat-Based Feedlot Diets Containing 30% Modified Distillers Grains With Solubles, Wayde J. Pickinpaugh, Bryan W. Neville, Rebecca L. Moore, Joel S. Caton 2022 North Dakota State University

Impacts Of Added Roughage On Growth Performance, Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation, And Ruminal Ph Of Feedlot Steers Fed Wheat-Based Feedlot Diets Containing 30% Modified Distillers Grains With Solubles, Wayde J. Pickinpaugh, Bryan W. Neville, Rebecca L. Moore, Joel S. Caton

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the inclusion rate roughage in wheat-based diets containing modified distillers grains with solubles (MDGS) on feedlot performance (Feedlot Experiment), as well as digestibility, ruminal pH, and ruminal fermentation characteristics (Digestibility Experiment). The feedlot experiment utilized 72 Angus steers (392 ± 46.3 kg initial body weight) which were randomly assigned to 1 of 12 pens, 3 pens per treatment, to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Dietary treatments were 1) control; 10% roughage, 2) 12% roughage, 3) 14% roughage, and 4) 16% roughage. The digestibility experiment used four ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (393 ± …


The Effects Of Poor Maternal Nutrition During Gestation In Sheep On The Reproductive Efficiency Of The Offspring, Morgan Dougherty 2022 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Poor Maternal Nutrition During Gestation In Sheep On The Reproductive Efficiency Of The Offspring, Morgan Dougherty

Honors Scholar Theses

Poor maternal nutrition during gestation negatively impacts fetal programming and the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in the offspring. Reproductive health of ewes can be characterized by concentrations of reproductive hormones including follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and progesterone, particularly during the estrous cycle. We hypothesized that ewes born to dams that experienced poor maternal nutrition during gestation would have reduced reproductive capability and efficiency. This means that they would take longer to become pregnant and have reduced concentrations of reproductive hormones compared with those born to mothers fed the control diet. Pregnant dams (F0) were fed one …


Oestrogenic Subterranean Clover Guide. Identification And Remediation, Kevin J. Foster, Megan H. Ryan, Daniel R. Kidd 2022 Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia

Oestrogenic Subterranean Clover Guide. Identification And Remediation, Kevin J. Foster, Megan H. Ryan, Daniel R. Kidd

Bulletins 4000 -

Subterranean clover (subclover, Trifolium subterraneum L.) is an annual pasture legume that provides high quality feed for livestock. It is estimated to be sown over 30 million hectares across southern Australia, with cultivars developed for the low, medium and high rainfall zones. Unfortunately, some older cultivars contain high levels of phytoestrogen which can affect the reproductive system of sheep and cause other health issues. This became a significant issue for sheep producers from the 1940s as new land was cleared and sheep grazed subclover-dominant pastures. There was a collection of livestock issues observed and these were grouped together under the …


Evaluation Relativity Variation And Some Minerals Concentration During Lactation Stage Of Syrian Mountains Goat Milk Under Grazing System, تقدير التغيرات النسبية ومستوى تراكيز بعض المعادن خلال مرحلة إنتاج حليب الماعز الجبلي السوري تحت نظام الرعاية السرحي, Osama Diab, Samuel Mossa, Shehadeh Qaskos 2022 Dep. of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Syria.

Evaluation Relativity Variation And Some Minerals Concentration During Lactation Stage Of Syrian Mountains Goat Milk Under Grazing System, تقدير التغيرات النسبية ومستوى تراكيز بعض المعادن خلال مرحلة إنتاج حليب الماعز الجبلي السوري تحت نظام الرعاية السرحي, Osama Diab, Samuel Mossa, Shehadeh Qaskos

Arab Journal of Arid Environments المجلة العربية للبيئات الجافة

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lactation stage on chemical composition and some minerals concentration of Syrian mountains Goat milk using grazing system in Al-Quneitera area (Syria) in year 2013. Twenty mountains Syrian goats were used to evaluate milk production and composition (fat, protein, lactose, and non-fat solids) and some minerals concentration (Ca, P, Na, K, Cu, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, cl) during lactation. Using SPSS program, data were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measures. Daily milk yield was 1473.1 ± 297.42 g/head, while the total milk was 342.02 ± 135.6 Kg/head. The results of …


Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Wc1 And Tcr Interactions For Γδ T Cell Activation, Alexandria Gillespie

Doctoral Dissertations

Major subpopulations of gamma delta T cells within ruminant and pigs are defined by expression of WC1, a hybrid pattern recognition receptor/co-receptor to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is known that when WC1 is knocked down cells fail to respond. Showing that WC1 plays an active role in the stimulation of bovine gamma delta T cells. Here we explored the spatio-temporal dynamics of WC1 and TCR interaction using imaging flow cytometry and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. We found that in quiescent gamma delta T cells both WC1 and TCR existed in separate protein domains (protein islands) but after activation …


Greater Numbers Of Antral Follicles In The Ovary Are Associated With Increased Concentrations Of Glucose In Uterine Luminal Fluid Of Beef Heifers, Alexandria P. Snider, Matthew S. Crouse, Shelby L. Rosasco, Kaitlin M. Epperson, Emmalee J. Northrop-Albrecht, Jerica J.J. Rich, Chadwick C. Chase Jr., Jeremy R. Miles, George A. Perry, Adam F. Summers, Robert A. Cushman 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Greater Numbers Of Antral Follicles In The Ovary Are Associated With Increased Concentrations Of Glucose In Uterine Luminal Fluid Of Beef Heifers, Alexandria P. Snider, Matthew S. Crouse, Shelby L. Rosasco, Kaitlin M. Epperson, Emmalee J. Northrop-Albrecht, Jerica J.J. Rich, Chadwick C. Chase Jr., Jeremy R. Miles, George A. Perry, Adam F. Summers, Robert A. Cushman

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Increased antral follicles are associated with greater fertility and a uterine environment that is more supportive of early embryonic development in beef heifers. Glucose is a primary energy source for embryos, and glucose concentrations are elevated in uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of pregnant heifers. We hypothesized that ULF glucose concentrations and endometrial transcript abundance for glucose transporters on d16 after insemination would be greater in heifers with increased numbers of antral follicles. Heifers classified with either increased or diminished antral follicle counts were artificially inseminated following the CO-Synch protocol (d0). On d16 after insemination, reproductive tracts of heifers were collected …


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