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Mitochondrial Metabolism In Blood More Reliably Predicts Whole-Animal Energy Needs Compared To Other Tissues, Stefania Casagrande, Maciej Dzialo, Lisa Trost, Kasja Malkoc, Edyta T. Sadowska, Michaela Hau, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. McWilliams, Ulf Bauchinger 2023 Evolutionary Physiology Research Group

Mitochondrial Metabolism In Blood More Reliably Predicts Whole-Animal Energy Needs Compared To Other Tissues, Stefania Casagrande, Maciej Dzialo, Lisa Trost, Kasja Malkoc, Edyta T. Sadowska, Michaela Hau, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Ulf Bauchinger

Biology Faculty Publications

Understanding energy metabolism in free-ranging animals is crucial for ecological studies. In birds, red blood cells (RBCs) offer a minimally invasive method to estimate metabolic rate (MR). In this study with European starlings Sturnus vulgaris, we examined how RBC oxygen consumption relates to oxygen use in key tissues (brain, liver, heart, and pectoral muscle) and versus the whole-organism measured at basal levels. The pectoral muscle accounted for 34-42% of organismal MR, while the heart and liver, despite their high mass-specific metabolic rate, each contributed 2.5-3.0% to organismal MR. Despite its low contribution to organismal MR (0.03-0.04%), RBC MR best predicted …


Assessing The Role Of The Microbiome, Parasite Infections, And Movement In Avian Health, Olivia N. Choi 2023 University of Maine

Assessing The Role Of The Microbiome, Parasite Infections, And Movement In Avian Health, Olivia N. Choi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Avian health encompasses the physical, physiological, and behavioral well-being of birds. Assessing avian health is not only important for the conservation and management of wild birds and the recreational economy, but also for the management of infectious diseases that threaten public health and agriculture. Birds, comprising approximately 10,000 species and an estimated 50 billion individuals worldwide, are known to be involved in the spread of pathogens, some of which are zoonotic (from animals to humans), such as avian influenza and West Nile viruses. Individual measures of avian health may include physical measurements (e.g., body mass, wing length), pathogen infection status, …


Assessing The Effects Of The Spring Hunting Season Start Date On Wild Turkey Seasonal Productivity And Hunter Behavior, Joseph Quehl 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Assessing The Effects Of The Spring Hunting Season Start Date On Wild Turkey Seasonal Productivity And Hunter Behavior, Joseph Quehl

Masters Theses

Many states throughout the Southeast have documented declines in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) harvest and estimates of recruitment in poult-per-hen ratios. Wild turkey populations are driven by seasonal productivity, so the decline in these parameters may indicate a decline in the overall population. One hypothesis as to why we are seeing a reduction in productivity and a potential population decline is that the spring hunting season is disrupting the reproductive cycle by harvesting too many males before they have had the opportunity to breed, or by harvesting dominant males and disrupting the social hierarchy of the flock. Our …


Vulnerabilities Of Greater Prairie Chicken And Tier 1 At-Risk Species In Nebraska Caused By Grassland Transition To Woody Dominance, Robert Peterson 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Vulnerabilities Of Greater Prairie Chicken And Tier 1 At-Risk Species In Nebraska Caused By Grassland Transition To Woody Dominance, Robert Peterson

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Woody plant encroachment is a global threat and has been transitioning grasslands to woody dominance at a biome scale. This threat is present in the Great Plains grassland biome which is currently experiencing grassland biome collapse as the alternative woody biome advances northwest. Nebraska, which contains the most intact temperate grassland in the world, is currently at the front lines of this large-scale transition making this state’s management decisions vital for the remaining grasslands and the species which rely on these ecosystems. In this study, we assess the vulnerability of Greater Prairie Chicken and Tier 1 at-risk species in Nebraska …


Differential Migration Timing And The Form And Function Of Avian Wings, Jessica E. Deakin 2023 Western University

Differential Migration Timing And The Form And Function Of Avian Wings, Jessica E. Deakin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A common differential migration strategy in birds is protandry, whereby males arrive earlier than females. The probable causes of protandry are well studied from the perspective of innate and physical environmental cues, but the influence of the social environment and wing morphology are less known. Theoretical models propose that sex ratio influences protandry; male-biased sex ratios are predicted to advance timing in males due to increased intrasexual competition. To empirically test this, I investigated the spring migration traits of male Yellow-rumped Warblers Setophaga coronata under differing sex ratios. An integrated automated telemetry approach was used, where locomotor movement of captive …


A Mathematical Model Of Acanthocephalan Parasite Infection In Gull-Billed Terns, Charlotte Moser 2023 Illinois State University

A Mathematical Model Of Acanthocephalan Parasite Infection In Gull-Billed Terns, Charlotte Moser

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Observations On A 40-Year January Bird Census In Boone County, Nebraska, 1978–2017, Wayne Mollhoff 2023 Nebraska Ornithologists' Union

Observations On A 40-Year January Bird Census In Boone County, Nebraska, 1978–2017, Wayne Mollhoff

Zea E-Books Collection

For 40 years Wayne Mollhoff conducted a personal bird census every January. He explains: "After having run several Breeding Bird Survey routes, and participated in several Christmas Bird Counts, I became curious to see what might be found on a winter count under the more tightly controlled parameters of a census, as contrasted with Christmas counts done with variable numbers of observers."

The count was set up similarly to the USGS Breeding Bird Survey routes with 50 stops, one-half mile (800 meters) apart, all birds counted for 3 minutes, with birds counted at one stop not counted again at following …


Random Mating In The Face Of Balancing Selection At The Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I In Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia), Scout R.L Thompson 2023 Western University

Random Mating In The Face Of Balancing Selection At The Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I In Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia), Scout R.L Thompson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large group of genes encoding cell-surface proteins that recognize and bind pathogens to initiate an adaptive immune response. MHC loci experience intense pathogen-mediated selection which may be directional, where specific alleles provide the best disease protection, or balancing, where rare alleles or diverse combinations are most protective. However, balancing selection (specifically heterozygote advantage) is more common and often accompanied by disassortative mating. I sought to use genetic and behavioural information to evaluate whether balancing selection and disassortative mating occur at MHC class I (MHCI) in a population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia …


The Role Of Serotonin In The Estradiol-Dependent Selectivity Of Auditory Regions In Songbirds, Calista J. Henry 2023 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of Serotonin In The Estradiol-Dependent Selectivity Of Auditory Regions In Songbirds, Calista J. Henry

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Breeding-typical levels of estradiol in songbirds has been shown to lead to selective auditory processing and induce a release of serotonin in auditory regions of the forebrain. These findings triggered the question of whether auditory discrimination is driven by estradiol directly, or by the associated release of serotonin. I treated non-breeding female white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) with either blank implants, 17β-estradiol, serotonin enhancer and blank implants, or serotonin antagonist and 17β-estradiol implants. Birds then heard male conspecific songs or control tones, and ZENK-immunoreactivity was quantified in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM). While I did not …


Characterization Of Antimicrobial Properties Of Excrement And Functional Microbiome Of Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus), Bridgette Gray 2023 Jacksonville State University

Characterization Of Antimicrobial Properties Of Excrement And Functional Microbiome Of Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus), Bridgette Gray

Theses

Black vultures, Coragyps atratus, are obligate scavenging birds that consume and dispose of decaying carcasses and carrion. They fulfill a key ecological niche in the environments in which they live. It has been observed that these vultures sometimes excrete bodily waste onto their legs. This adaptive behavior could help aid them in controlling bacteria and other microbes they encounter while stepping into a carcass to eat. This study directly examined the antimicrobial properties of the excrement of black vultures across various bacterial species utilizing a zone of inhibition test and a nematode species utilizing a survival assay. The black vulture …


Preliminary Evidence Of Anticoagulant Rodenticide Exposure In American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius) In The Western United States, Evan R. Buechley, Dave Oleyar, Jesse L. Watson, Jennifer Bridgeman, Steven Volker, David A. Goldade, Catherine E. Swift, Barnett A. Rattner 2023 National Zoological Park

Preliminary Evidence Of Anticoagulant Rodenticide Exposure In American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius) In The Western United States, Evan R. Buechley, Dave Oleyar, Jesse L. Watson, Jennifer Bridgeman, Steven Volker, David A. Goldade, Catherine E. Swift, Barnett A. Rattner

United States Geological Survey: Staff Publications

Although there is extensive evidence of declines in the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) population across North America, the cause of such declines remains a mystery. One hypothesized driver of decline is anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) exposure, which could potentially cause mortality or reduced fitness. We investigated AR exposure in wild American Kestrels in Utah, USA. We collected and tested for AR residues in liver samples (n = 8) from kestrels opportunistically encountered dead and in blood samples (n = 71) from live wild kestrels, both nestlings and adults. We found high detection rates in both tissues. Adult …


Nou Spring Field Days And Annual Meeting. Valentine, May 5-7, 2023, 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Nou Spring Field Days And Annual Meeting. Valentine, May 5-7, 2023

Nebraska Bird Review

The NOU Annual Meeting and Spring Field Days was held in Valentine on May 5-7, 2023, with 50 in attendance. Our meetings and meals took place in the Niobrara Lodge. Field trips were led by Robin Harding, William Flack, T. J. Walker, Dave Heidt, Mark Brogie and Don and Janis Paseka. Destinations included Thomas Creek WMA, Cub Creek Recreation Area, the Niobrara Valley Preserve (TNC Property), the river road from Meadville (SW of Springview) to Norden, the Valentine City Park, Valentine Fish Hatchery, Ft. Niobrara NWR, Anderson Bridge WMA, the Minnechaduza Creek crossing north of Kilgore, Steer Creek, Merritt Reservoir, …


Spring Field Report, March - May 2023, W. Ross Silcock 2023 Nebraska Ornithologists' Union

Spring Field Report, March - May 2023, W. Ross Silcock

Nebraska Bird Review

First off, I want to reiterate that reports compiled for this Spring Seasonal Report are evaluated against current knowledge as presented in Birds of Nebraska-Online (“BONO”; https://birds.outdoornebraska.gov/). Species whose reports do not add new information on distribution, early or late dates, etc., are listed as having “Routine reports”. Please let me know at silcock@rosssilcock.com if you have information that is not in BONO, or if you have additions and/or corrections of information in BONO. Another reminder: if evidence of breeding is observed, please enter the appropriate descriptor in your eBird checklist under “Breeding and Behavior Code”. These descriptors can be …


Statistical And Biological Analyses Of Acoustic Signals In Estrildid Finches, Moises Rivera 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Statistical And Biological Analyses Of Acoustic Signals In Estrildid Finches, Moises Rivera

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Acoustic communication is a process that involves auditory perception and signal processing. Discrimination and recognition further require cognitive processes and supporting mechanisms in order to successfully identify and appropriately respond to signal senders. Although acoustic communication is common across birds, classical research has largely disregarded the perceptual abilities of perinatal altricial taxa. Chapter 1 reviews the literature of perinatal acoustic stimulation in birds, highlighting the disproportionate focus on precocial birds (e.g., chickens, ducks, quails). The long-held belief that altricial birds were incapable of acoustic perception in ovo was only recently overturned, as researchers began to find behavioral and physiological evidence …


Habitat Use And Winter Site Fidelity Of Lincoln’S Sparrow (Melospiza Lincolnii) In The Lower Rio Grande Valley Of Texas, Timothy Brush, Hugh E. Conway, Catherine C. Brush 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Habitat Use And Winter Site Fidelity Of Lincoln’S Sparrow (Melospiza Lincolnii) In The Lower Rio Grande Valley Of Texas, Timothy Brush, Hugh E. Conway, Catherine C. Brush

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

No abstract provided.


Rethinking The Status And Temporal Occurrence Of The American Woodcock In Nebraska Because Of Its Unusual Life History, Joel G. Jorgensen, Stephen J. Brenner 2023 Nebraska Game and Parks Commission

Rethinking The Status And Temporal Occurrence Of The American Woodcock In Nebraska Because Of Its Unusual Life History, Joel G. Jorgensen, Stephen J. Brenner

Nebraska Bird Review

Historical distribution and range expansion -- We reviewed existing information to evaluate conclusions by previous authors (e.g., Sharpe et al. 2001, Silcock and Jorgensen 2023) that woodcock have expanded their range west since settlement of Nebraska by Euro-Americans. We also provide additional context about the species’ distribution over time using regional resources.

Temporal occurrence and abundance -- We used data from woodcock outfitted with satellite transmitters 2021-2022 and compared it with occurrence data from two sources, eBird (eBird.org 2023) from all years through 2022 and the SFRs in the Nebraska Bird Review 1994–2019. We chose not to use SFR data …


The Nebraska Bird Review: A Magazine Of Ornithology Of The Nebraska Region. Volume 91 June 2023 Number 2, 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Nebraska Bird Review: A Magazine Of Ornithology Of The Nebraska Region. Volume 91 June 2023 Number 2

Nebraska Bird Review

Spring Field Report, March - May 2023 by W. Ross Silcock …46

Correction to 2022-2023 Christmas Bird Count tally ….70

Rethinking the Status and Temporal Occurrence of the American Woodcock in Nebraska because of its Unusual Life History by Joel G. Jorgensen and Stephen J. Brenner …71

NOU Spring Field Days and Annual Meeting in Valentine, May 5-7, 2023 …..84

Subscription and Organization Information …91


Post-Breeding Survival Of Adult And Hatch-Year Bank Swallows (Riparia Riparia) In The Great Lakes Region: A Radio Telemetry Study, Christian M.M Buchanan-Fraser 2023 Western University

Post-Breeding Survival Of Adult And Hatch-Year Bank Swallows (Riparia Riparia) In The Great Lakes Region: A Radio Telemetry Study, Christian M.M Buchanan-Fraser

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The post-breeding period poses significant threats to newly fledged birds due to predation, starvation, exposure to inclement weather, and collision risk prior to their first southward migration. I used automated radio telemetry to track 100 adult and 100 hatch-year Bank Swallows (Riparia riparia) in the Great Lakes ecoregion during the 2021 post-breeding period. Additionally, 74 hatch-year birds tracked in 2018 by Mitchell et al. were included. In 2021, daily apparent survival probability was higher for adults compared to hatch-years; we estimated that ~10% of hatch-year birds die within two weeks post-fledging but high rates of tag loss in …


Spatial Conservation Planning In The Southeastern United States: Alignments And Opportunities, Bradly Stewart Thornton 2023 Mississippi State University

Spatial Conservation Planning In The Southeastern United States: Alignments And Opportunities, Bradly Stewart Thornton

Theses and Dissertations

Conservation managers and planners need the ‘best available science’ to support robust and defensible decisions, ensuring that public resources are appropriately allocated. Spatial planning products and decision-support tools developed for this purpose should enable partner organizations to achieve focus, coordination, and increased effectiveness in their investments and actions. Whereas conservation partnerships have historically created distinct planning tools, there is increasing interest for improved coordination, communication, and unifying biological datasets to improve the cohesiveness of regional management activities. We sought to inform spatial conservation planning efforts in the southeastern United States through the development of species distribution models for focal avian …


Nesting Success Of American Robins (Turdus Migratorius) In Suburban Areas Of The Arkansas River Valley, Brandon Maiersperger 2023 Arkansas Tech University

Nesting Success Of American Robins (Turdus Migratorius) In Suburban Areas Of The Arkansas River Valley, Brandon Maiersperger

ATU Research Symposium

The American Robin (Turdus migratorius) is an abundant North American songbird species that thrives in suburban areas. Estimates of robin nesting success in suburban areas range from 31% to 90%. Robin nest site selection and success have not received much attention in the past few decades. Most passerines have a balanced sex ratio at fledging, but little is known about the fledgling sex ratio of robins. We located 44 robin nests in six public parks around Russellville, AR and on the Arkansas Tech University campus. Nest success was low; 27% (12/44) of nests fledged at least one young. Robins nested …


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