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Use Of Nest Web Cameras And Citizen Science To Quantify Osprey Prey Delivery Rate And Nest Success, Michael H. Academia, Harmony J. Dalgleish 2022 William & Mary

Use Of Nest Web Cameras And Citizen Science To Quantify Osprey Prey Delivery Rate And Nest Success, Michael H. Academia, Harmony J. Dalgleish

Arts & Sciences Articles

Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are obligate piscivores and their nesting success depends on sufficient amounts of fish delivered to the nests during the breeding season. Nests are considered successful when pairs raise a minimum of one young to fledging or near-fledging age. Through web cameras and online broadcasts of Osprey nests, citizen scientists quantified daily number of fish deliveries, nest survival, and nest success. We received and analyzed curated data (one to seven seasons, 2014–2020) from citizen scientist groups representing 19 Osprey web cameras from four countries in North America and Europe. We compared the average and the coefficient of ...


Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes 2022 Chapman University

Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Infections can dramatically modify animal behaviour. The extent of these changes depends on an animal's environment. It has been proposed that testosterone modulates the suppression of behavioural symptoms of sickness under certain reproductive contexts. To further understand the role played by testosterone in modulating sickness behaviours under reproductive contexts, we studied a species, the Japanese quail, in which female exposure rapidly decreases circulating testosterone in males. Males received either an immune challenge (lipopolysaccharide – LPS) or a control injection and their behaviours, mass change and testosterone levels were quantified in the presence or absence of a female. Both the presence ...


Nesting Ecology Of Wood Ducks And Other Cavity-Nesting Ducks In Mississippi, Justin Taylor Gibson 2022 Mississippi State University

Nesting Ecology Of Wood Ducks And Other Cavity-Nesting Ducks In Mississippi, Justin Taylor Gibson

Theses and Dissertations

Man-made nest boxes are surrogate nest sites widely used by waterfowl managers in North America to propagate free-ranging Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) and other cavity-nesting waterfowl. I monitored 129 and 174 nest boxes in 2020 and 2021, respectively, at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge and York Woods, Mississippi. I evaluated site-specific biotic and abiotic factors that were potentially influential on nest survival of Wood Ducks and general nesting ecology and apparent nest success of Black-bellied Whistling Ducks (Dendrocygna autumnalis) and Hooded Mergansers (Lophodytes cucullatus). Daily survival rate of Wood Ducks was negatively influenced by increasing encroaching vegetation at Noxubee NWR and ...


Using Color To Identify Neotropical Parrots In Early Modern European Art: Recognizing Limitations And Avoiding Pitfalls Through Integration Of Scientific And Artistic Knowledge, Deniz Martinez 2022 Lindenwood University

Using Color To Identify Neotropical Parrots In Early Modern European Art: Recognizing Limitations And Avoiding Pitfalls Through Integration Of Scientific And Artistic Knowledge, Deniz Martinez

The Confluence

Colorful Neotropical parrots were amongst the first and most frequent exotic animals to be imported by Europeans from the “New World” of the Americas, becoming key figures in what would become known as the Columbian exchange. There has been an ongoing effort to locate and identify images of Neotropical parrots in the visual record of early modern Europe, with the classification of many remaining unsettled in the scholarship. Proper identification of these images can be valuable data for reconstructing historical biogeography and transatlantic trade; especially compelling is the potential of certain “mystery parrots” in the visual record to support the ...


Rusty Blackbird Use Of Commercial Spruce-Fir Forests Of Northern New England, Luke M. Douglas 2022 The University of Maine

Rusty Blackbird Use Of Commercial Spruce-Fir Forests Of Northern New England, Luke M. Douglas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) has experienced a steep population decline since the 1970s, with qualitative accounts suggesting that the species’ numbers have been falling prior to the 1950s. The reason for this decline is still not fully understood, though recent work suggests that habitat destruction and disturbance in the breeding and wintering ranges are likely causes. The species is a habitat specialist that relies on spruce-fir stands located near wetlands for breeding in the boreal and Acadian forests of North America. Historically, the natural disturbance regime in the Acadian region included biotic agents such as beaver and spruce budworm ...


Variations In Plumage Wear In Three Closely Related Tidal Marsh Sparrow Species, Maeve Studholme 2022 University of Maine - Main

Variations In Plumage Wear In Three Closely Related Tidal Marsh Sparrow Species, Maeve Studholme

Honors College

Tidal marsh sparrow species like Saltmarsh Sparrows (Ammospiza caudacuta), Nelson’s Sparrows (Ammospiza nelsoni) and Seaside Sparrows (Ammospiza maritima) are particularly vulnerable to the environmental stressors related to climate change and human activity like sea-level rise, warming temperatures, and increased coastal development, as they nest in the grasses of tidal marsh ecosystems where the principal mode of nest mortality is flooding. With increased sea-level rise, these species may not be equipped to adapt to changing tidal cycles, and thus have reduced fitness and population sizes. Saltmarsh Sparrows are experiencing sharp declines in population, so it is more vital than ever ...


Riders On The Storm: Using Satellite Transmitters To Quantify American Woodcock Movement Behavior Following Extreme Weather Events, Katherine Trebilcock 2022 University of Maine - Main

Riders On The Storm: Using Satellite Transmitters To Quantify American Woodcock Movement Behavior Following Extreme Weather Events, Katherine Trebilcock

Honors College

The American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) has experienced steady declines in abundance over the past fifty years, which has raised questions as to why (Sauer et al. 1991). Migration for many birds, woodcock included, is energetically intensive, and may be the cause for greater mortality compared to other times of the year (Newton 2007). Despite this, there remains uncertainty in how conditions encountered during migration affect their movements and survival. One obstacle that birds must face is extreme weather, which has been increasing in intensity and occurrence due to climate change. How these events impact a migrating woodcock has been speculated ...


Cerulean Warbler Full Annual Cycle Ecology: Filling In Critical Knowledge Gaps, Douglas W. Raybuck 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Cerulean Warbler Full Annual Cycle Ecology: Filling In Critical Knowledge Gaps, Douglas W. Raybuck

Doctoral Dissertations

Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea) are a declining migratory bird species of conservation concern that breed in mature hardwood forests of eastern North America and spend the stationary non-breeding period in the tropical Andes of South America. To reverse their >50-year population decline, a full annual cycle conservation strategy is needed. However, several important knowledge gaps have limited our understanding of this species’ full annual cycle ecology, including migration ecology, response to forest management on the breeding grounds, and basic ecology during the stationary non-breeding period in Andean forests. From geolocator data, we found a moderate pattern of migratory connectivity in ...


Comparing Genetic Diversity Along Populations Of Rock Sandpipers (Calidris Ptilocnemis), Hyland Alfonso 2022 Ouachita Baptist University

Comparing Genetic Diversity Along Populations Of Rock Sandpipers (Calidris Ptilocnemis), Hyland Alfonso

Scholars Day Conference

Rock Sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis) are a shorebird species only found in the North Pacific Basin (Ruthrauff, et al. 2019; Fig. 1, 2). There are four subspecies of Rock Sandpipers, C. p. couesi, C. p. quarta, C. p. tschuktschorum, and C. p. Ptilocnemis (Gibson & Withrow, 2015). Of these four subspecies, three have an overall conservation category of moderately high with a current unknown status and high biological vulnerability due to environmental disturbances (ACCS at UAA, 2018). The three subspecies compared for differences in their genetic diversity and population relatedness were C.p. couesi, C.p. tschuktschorum, and C.p. ptilocnemis. The ...


Songbird-Mediated Insect Pest Control In Low Intensity New England Agriculture, Samuel J. Mayne 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Songbird-Mediated Insect Pest Control In Low Intensity New England Agriculture, Samuel J. Mayne

Masters Theses

Global agricultural intensification has caused large-scale wildlife declines, but agricultural lands that maintain natural habitats can support healthy wildlife populations and receive significant ecosystem services from these natural communities. However, how on-farm biodiversity results in beneficial ecosystem services is highly variable and is reported to differ among taxa and guilds. One group that has attracted attention for their potential beneficial role in reducing pest abundance are birds. Understanding the role of bird communities and individual species in pest control could be important for managing farms under a low intensity agroecological framework. In New England, farmers are increasingly applying low intensity ...


Drivers And Direct Impacts Of Lean Mass Dynamics On The Stopover Ecology And Migratory Pace Of Nearctic-Neotropical Migrant Songbirds In Spring, Mariamar Gutierrez Ramirez 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Drivers And Direct Impacts Of Lean Mass Dynamics On The Stopover Ecology And Migratory Pace Of Nearctic-Neotropical Migrant Songbirds In Spring, Mariamar Gutierrez Ramirez

Doctoral Dissertations

Annual migration in songbirds is one of the most demanding life-history stages. It represents a period of high mortality, yet there is still much unknown about the ecological correlates that influence its successful completion. After long non-stop migratory flights, birds require a stopover period to rest and replenish depleted energy reserves. Birds use fat as the primary fuel to power long-distance flights. However, birds also burn lean tissue, which results in significant reductions in muscle and organ masses. The discovery and quantification of lean mass catabolism represented a paradigm shift in migration ecology because non-fat components were thought to remain ...


Nest Records Of Nebraska Birds, Wayne J. Mollhoff 2022 Ashland, NE

Nest Records Of Nebraska Birds, Wayne J. Mollhoff

Zea E-Books Collection

Nebraska Ornithologists' Union Occasional Paper Number 9

This publication is an attempt to provide a synopsis of the breeding information accumulated in the past two centuries. As with any compilation like this, other workers would likely come to different conclusions in choosing which records to accept and which to reject. I have tried to state the reasons for my decisions as clearly as possible. Most difficult to categorize are species which are not well documented. Hopefully by laying out the evidence I could find, others will be prompted to do more research, uncover definitive proof, and put more of our ...


Annotated Checklist Of The Avian Species Observed At The Gordon Natural Area (West Chester University, Pa) 2003-2022. Version X, Nur Ritter, Josh R. Auld 2022 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Annotated Checklist Of The Avian Species Observed At The Gordon Natural Area (West Chester University, Pa) 2003-2022. Version X, Nur Ritter, Josh R. Auld

Gordon Natural Area Bird Survey Documents

Data from eBird (through 1/24/2022) and from the 2004 West Chester Bird Club Survey of the GNA

Summary Data Number of Surveys: 112 'Site Visits' by 44 Birders. Note: this does not count the birders who participated in the 2004 West Chester Bird Club Survey as participants were not identified by name on the data sheets.

Number of Taxa: 128 Species, in 88 Genera and 38 Families. Years Noted: Although the title suggests that observations began in 2003, data for three species that were seen in the Gordon during 1970 are included here. This inclusion is because one ...


Effect Of Nest Box Temperature Mitigation Treatments On Nest Success And Nestling Condition In A Southeastern Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Christopher G. Horacek, Katie Stumpf, Wayne Powell 2022 Georgia College & State University

Effect Of Nest Box Temperature Mitigation Treatments On Nest Success And Nestling Condition In A Southeastern Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Christopher G. Horacek, Katie Stumpf, Wayne Powell

Graduate Research Posters

Understanding behavioral responses of wildlife to climate change will be important as global temperatures continue to rise. Effects of rising temperatures may impact many species, including those that breed in seemingly protected nests, such as cavity nesting birds. Variations in nest cavity microclimate during the early development of secondary cavity nesting passerines may affect the growth of offspring and impact nesting success and survival. We examined the effect of two heat mitigation treatments (white exterior, n=11, and an internal foil heat shield, n=16) and nest box opening orientation (north, south, east, west) on internal nest box temperatures and ...


Influences Of Grazing On Habitat Characteristics, Avian Community Composition And Nesting Bird Abundance Within Cheyenne Bottoms, Ks, Kirsten Granstrom-Arndt 2022 Fort Hays State University

Influences Of Grazing On Habitat Characteristics, Avian Community Composition And Nesting Bird Abundance Within Cheyenne Bottoms, Ks, Kirsten Granstrom-Arndt

Master's Theses

Cheyenne Bottoms is a 41,000-acre prairie-marsh ecosystem in central Kansas. Approximately 8,000 acres of mixed grassland are dedicated for the conservation of bird populations, but little is known about the status of bird communities within these areas. This study took place within grassland areas of Cheyenne Bottoms from May – July 2021. I investigated bird community composition, relative abundance of frequently observed bird species, vegetative characteristics, and similarity of sites across different grazing intensities (continuous, rotational, and non-grazed). The four most common bird species observed were dickcissel (Spiza americana), grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), meadowlark species (Sturnella spp.), and red-winged ...


Population And Migratory Ecology Of Canada Warblers (Cardellina Canadensis) In The Central Appalachian Mountains, West Virginia, Usa, Stephanie H. Augustine 2022 West Virginia University

Population And Migratory Ecology Of Canada Warblers (Cardellina Canadensis) In The Central Appalachian Mountains, West Virginia, Usa, Stephanie H. Augustine

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nearctic-Neotropical migrant birds experience a wide range of environmental conditions throughout their annual cycle; thus, it is particularly challenging to evaluate the spatial factors that may influence population growth. The Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis) faces substantial range-wide population declines, but little study has been conducted regarding elements occurring across the entire year that drive demographic rates. The aims of this research are (1) determine the relationship between Canada Warbler population demographic rates and environmental conditions along an elevation gradient in the central Appalachian Mountains and (2) ascertain the nonbreeding season location and migratory routes used by the central Appalachian population ...


Winter Sandpiper Communities On Humboldt Bay: High-Tide Roost Use And Habitat Features That Influence Roost Site Selection, Chelsea Polevy 2022 Cal Poly Humboldt

Winter Sandpiper Communities On Humboldt Bay: High-Tide Roost Use And Habitat Features That Influence Roost Site Selection, Chelsea Polevy

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Roosts, locations at which birds and other animals come together to rest and preen while remaining vigilant for predators, are a common facet of the nonbreeding biology of many shorebirds. Roosts fall on a continuum from traditional to ephemeral; traditional roosts are used consistently by the same individuals, whereas ephemeral roosts are used inconsistently and may be used only once or a few times. Studies show that roost habitat preference is the result of an individual shorebird’s attempt to optimize the costs and benefits associated with time constraints, energetic demands, and danger risks as they relate to overall fitness ...


Evaluating Common Raven Take For Greater Sage-Grouse In Oregon’S Baker County Priority Conservation Area And Great Basin Region, Frank F. Rivera-Milán, Peter S. Coates, Jacqueline B. Cupples, Michael Green, Patrick K. Devers 2022 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Evaluating Common Raven Take For Greater Sage-Grouse In Oregon’S Baker County Priority Conservation Area And Great Basin Region, Frank F. Rivera-Milán, Peter S. Coates, Jacqueline B. Cupples, Michael Green, Patrick K. Devers

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The common raven (Corvus corax; raven) is a nest predator of species of conservation concern, such as the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Reducing raven abundance by take requires authorization under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. To support U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s take decisions (e.g., those that authorize killing a specified proportion or number of individuals annually in a defined area), including the most recent one for Oregon’s Baker County Priority Area for Conservation (PAC), we modeled raven population dynamics under hypothetical scenarios with take rates ranging from below to above the maximum sustained yield (MSY ...


Estimating Trends Of Common Raven Populations In North America, 1966–2018, Seth M. Harju, Peter S. Coates, Seth J. Dettenmaier, Jonathan B. Dinkins, Pat J. Jackson, Michael P. Chenaille 2022 Heron Ecological, LLC

Estimating Trends Of Common Raven Populations In North America, 1966–2018, Seth M. Harju, Peter S. Coates, Seth J. Dettenmaier, Jonathan B. Dinkins, Pat J. Jackson, Michael P. Chenaille

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Over the last half century, common raven (Corvus corax; raven) populations have increased in abundance across much of North America. Ravens are generalist predators known to depredate the eggs and young of several sensitive species. Quantifying raven population increases at multiple spatial scales across North America will help wildlife resource managers identify areas where population increases present the greatest risk to species conservation. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to analyze trends of standardized raven counts from 1966 to 2018 using Breeding Bird Survey data within each Level I and II ecoregion of the United States and Canada. We ...


Utilizing Uas To Support Wildlife Hazard Management Efforts By Airport Operators, Flavio A. C. Mendonca, Ryan Wallace 2021 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Utilizing Uas To Support Wildlife Hazard Management Efforts By Airport Operators, Flavio A. C. Mendonca, Ryan Wallace

Publications

The FAA requires airports operating under the Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 to conduct a wildlife hazard assessment (WHA) when some wildlife-strike events have occurred at or near the airport. The WHA should be conducted by a Qualified Airport Wildlife Biologist (QAWB) and must contain several elements, including the identification of the wildlife species observed and their numbers; local movements; daily and seasonal occurrences; and the identification and location of features on and near the airport that could attract wildlife. Habitats and land-use practices at and around the airport are key factors affecting wildlife species and the size of ...


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