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Nutritive Comparison Of Ruminant Feed, Integrating Crab And Lobster Meal, Kelsi L. Devolve 2023 University of New Hampshire

Nutritive Comparison Of Ruminant Feed, Integrating Crab And Lobster Meal, Kelsi L. Devolve

Honors Theses and Capstones

In attempts to increase livestock production and decrease waste products from the seafood industry, crab meal and lobster meal were tested as a potential cattle feed ingredient. Jonah crab waste, Atlantic Red crab waste, soybean meal, and blood meal were collected from various vendors and utilized in an in vitro study, an in situ study, and a nitrogen analyzer to determine crude protein in each feed. After allowing the samples to sit in a DAISY incubator for 48 h, mimicking a rumen environment, degradability for the soybean meal, blood meal, lobster meal, and crab meal were 100.13%, 76.36%, 43.77%, and …


Assessing The Bioavailability Of Infused Lysine And Rumen-Protected Lysine Supplements Using The Area Under The Curve Technique And The Plasma Free Amino Acid Dose-Response Method, Megan Vetter 2023 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Assessing The Bioavailability Of Infused Lysine And Rumen-Protected Lysine Supplements Using The Area Under The Curve Technique And The Plasma Free Amino Acid Dose-Response Method, Megan Vetter

Honors Theses and Capstones

The milk production of lactating dairy cows is dependent on factors such as housing conditions, lineage, climate, and health, but the quality of their diets is generally the most influential. Maintaining a proper balance of nutrients is necessary to achieve the greatest milk production at the lowest cost. Maximum feed efficiency is not only critical for increasing the economic profits of an individual farm, but also for increasing food supply without increasing environmental demand. Supplementing cows’ diets with lysine (Lys), an essential amino acid (AA), can aid in maximizing protein synthesis. Providing this nutrient in a rumen-protected (RP) coating can …


Physically Adjusted Neutral Detergent Fiber System: Effects Of Dextrose And Non-Forage Fiber On Performance, Feeding Behavior, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation And Rumen Bacterial Abundance In Dairy Cattle, Jorge Luis Bonilla Urbina 2023 South Dakota State University

Physically Adjusted Neutral Detergent Fiber System: Effects Of Dextrose And Non-Forage Fiber On Performance, Feeding Behavior, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation And Rumen Bacterial Abundance In Dairy Cattle, Jorge Luis Bonilla Urbina

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The newly proposed physically adjusted NDF system (paNDF) system aims to maintain a favorable rumen environment (e.g., pH) by taking into account both the physical and chemical composition of diet. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and non-forage NDF inclusion in a paNDF system on production performance, rumen pH and fermentation profile, rumen bacterial abundance, feeding behavior and nutrient digestibility in late-lactating Holstein cows. Nine fistulated multiparous Holstein cows (2nd and 3rd parity) were used in a triplicated 3×3 Latin Square experiment. Each period lasted for 21 d with 14 d …


Rumen-Protected Methionine Supplementation Improves Lactation, Oxidative Status, And Immune Response During A Subclinical Mastitis Challenge In Lactating Dairy Cows., Anita Paz Lopez 2023 South Dakota State University

Rumen-Protected Methionine Supplementation Improves Lactation, Oxidative Status, And Immune Response During A Subclinical Mastitis Challenge In Lactating Dairy Cows., Anita Paz Lopez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mastitis is a significant problem in the dairy industry, posing numerous challenges for dairy farmers worldwide. Mastitis refers to the inflammation of the mammary gland, primarily caused by bacterial infections. This condition affects the health and well-being of dairy cows and has severe economic implications for farmers and overall dairy production. The prevalence of mastitis substantially threatens milk quality, productivity, and profitability, making it a top concern in the dairy industry. Preventing mastitis in cows is crucial for maintaining the herd's health and ensuring highquality milk production. Nutritional strategies have recently gained greater attention due to a direct impact on …


In-Vivo Assessment Of A Direct-Fed Microbial On Lactation Performances, Blood Biomarkers, Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Abundance In Transition To Mid-Lactation Holstein Cows, Marcela Bulnes Lopez 2023 South Dakota State University

In-Vivo Assessment Of A Direct-Fed Microbial On Lactation Performances, Blood Biomarkers, Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Abundance In Transition To Mid-Lactation Holstein Cows, Marcela Bulnes Lopez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The transition period is a crucial stage in the lactation cycle and can lead to significant metabolic changes in cows. The use of nutritional interventions, such as direct-fed microbials, may assist cows during the transition from pregnancy to early lactation, reducing the occurrence of metabolic disorders and improving overall health. The primary goal of this study was to assess the effects of a commercial rumen-derived directfed microbial (DFM) product (Galaxis™ Frontier (GF) Native Microbials Inc., CA, USA) on various factors such as performance, blood biomarkers, rumen fermentation, and bacterial population in dairy cows during the transition period up to 100 …


Personality Traits Of Dairy Calves And Their Relationship With Feeding Behavior, Activity, And Performance, Emily A. Michalski 2023 University of Kentucky

Personality Traits Of Dairy Calves And Their Relationship With Feeding Behavior, Activity, And Performance, Emily A. Michalski

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Detection of individual differences in personality traits of animals may prove beneficial for producers to help tailor management for individuals and to make selection decisions. Therefore, the objectives of this thesis were to

1) review and evaluate literature on relationships between individual cattle personality traits and feeding behavior, activity, and performance; and

2) evaluate and develop tests suitable for characterizing crossbred dairy-beef calves’ personalities and associations with behavioral patterns and performance.

The existing literature indicates that growth, intake, activity, and milk production measures from precision technologies have associations with cattle personality traits and behaviors identifiable through standardized tests. This indicates …


Comparing Biofilm Forming Potential Of Listeria Species On Non-Food And Food-Contact Surfaces Of Importance To The Dairy Industry, Hannah Cooper 2023 South Dakota State University

Comparing Biofilm Forming Potential Of Listeria Species On Non-Food And Food-Contact Surfaces Of Importance To The Dairy Industry, Hannah Cooper

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne pathogen of major safety concerns. This bacterium can resist/adapt to environmental stressors and persist through forming robust biofilms despite dairy plants following stringent surface cleaning protocols. Surface roughness is considered a major factor controlling bacterial attachment and biofilm formation. Food contact surfaces like stainless steel (SS) have low surface roughness for easy cleaning. On the other hand, non-contact surfaces like floors need a rougher surface to ensure employee safety. Hence, we hypothesized that Listeria biofilm formation would be lower on stainless steel compared to clay brick (CB; common flooring material in dairy plants). …


Exploring The Biological Basis Of Residual Feed Intake In Beef Cattle Using Multi-Omics Analysis., Godstime Ayobami Taiwo 2023 West Virginia University

Exploring The Biological Basis Of Residual Feed Intake In Beef Cattle Using Multi-Omics Analysis., Godstime Ayobami Taiwo

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Efficient feed utilization is critical for both economic sustainability and environmental responsibility in modern livestock production. While there has been extensive research, the multifaceted nature of feed efficiency remains complex, with many biological factors still unexplored. This dissertation examines the physiological foundations of feed efficiency by elucidating some of the complex biological mechanisms associated with residual feed intake (RFI) phenotype in beef cattle, using a range of Omics approaches. We hypothesized that metabolites related to amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids could act as potential biomarkers for RFI. Through a chemical group-based metabolomics method, we identified enriched pathways in feed-efficient …


Genetic Selection For Improved Production Efficiency In The Mature Dairy Herd, Maeve Williams 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Genetic Selection For Improved Production Efficiency In The Mature Dairy Herd, Maeve Williams

Theses

Improving dairy cow production efficiency is highly desirable because of its well-documented impact on profitability and sustainability. Long-term gains in dairy cow production efficiency have already been delivered through genetic selection. Nonetheless, achieving further improvements in production efficiency could cement the economic and environmental efficiency of the dairy industry, globally. To date, several components contributing to production efficiency have been overlooked, with many studies focusing on dairy cow production efficiency over short periods rather than lifetime efficiency. Therefore, the objectives of this thesis were to quantify the genetic variance components of complementary dairy cow efficiency metrics; including dry matter intake, …


The Effects Of Dexamethasone Administration On Physiological, Behavioral, And Production Parameters In Dairy Cows After A Difficult Calving, Turner H. Swartz, Dana Bryant, Hollie Schramm, Allison Duncan, Robin White, Cynthia Wood, Christina Petersson-Wolfe 2023 South Dakota State University

The Effects Of Dexamethasone Administration On Physiological, Behavioral, And Production Parameters In Dairy Cows After A Difficult Calving, Turner H. Swartz, Dana Bryant, Hollie Schramm, Allison Duncan, Robin White, Cynthia Wood, Christina Petersson-Wolfe

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

Dairy cows are predisposed to diseases during the postpartum period. Dystocia has been associated with increased risk for disease, which is likely the result of increased tissue trauma and stress during the prolonged parturition. To attenuate the inflammatory response seen in dystocic animals and improve well-being, we assessed the effects of a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone administered within 12 h after calving. Dystocia was defined as a difficult birth resulting in a prolonged calving (≥70 min after the amniotic sac appears) and was monitored through 3 video cameras in the close-up dry-cow pen. Cows meeting the dystocia definition were randomly …


Evaluation Of Reticuloruminal Temperature For The Prediction Of Clinical Mastitis In Dairy Cows Challenged With Streptococcus Uberis, Zelmer Rodriguez, Quinn K. Kolar, Kirby C. Krogstad, Turner H. Swartz, Llkyu Yoon, Barry J. Bradford, Pamela L. Ruegg 2023 Michigan State University

Evaluation Of Reticuloruminal Temperature For The Prediction Of Clinical Mastitis In Dairy Cows Challenged With Streptococcus Uberis, Zelmer Rodriguez, Quinn K. Kolar, Kirby C. Krogstad, Turner H. Swartz, Llkyu Yoon, Barry J. Bradford, Pamela L. Ruegg

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

Automated monitoring devices have become increasingly utilized in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring or predicting disease status. While multiple automated monitoring devices have been developed for the prediction of clinical mastitis (CM), limitations in performance or applicability remain. The aims of this study were to (1) detect variations in reticuloruminal temperature (RRT) relative to an experimental intramammary challenge with Streptococcus uberis and (2) evaluate alerts generated automatically based on variation in RRT to predict initial signs of CM in the challenged cows based on severity of clinical signs and the concentration of bacteria (cfu/mL) in the infected quarter separately. …


Polyphenol Characterization And Antioxidant Capacity Of Multi-Species Swards Grown In Ireland—Environmental Sustainability And Nutraceutical Potential, Samuel Rapisarda, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2022 Technological University Dublin

Polyphenol Characterization And Antioxidant Capacity Of Multi-Species Swards Grown In Ireland—Environmental Sustainability And Nutraceutical Potential, Samuel Rapisarda, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

Ruminant production systems are major contributors to greenhouse gases emissions, with animal feeding practices being the main cause for methane and nitrous oxide’s release. Although feeding animals forages has been proven to be more sustainable, traditional ryegrass monocultures still require a lot of input (e.g., fertilisers and pesticides). Multi-species swards, consisting of different swards, such as grasses, forage legumes and herbs, need less management and fertiliser, produce more dry matter, and also add a variety of phytochemicals into the animal diet. In particular, polyphenols have been associated with a positive impact on animal health and productivity. However, data on the …


Is There An Economic Advantage To Planting Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures?, Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch, Ray Smith, Kenny Burdine, Edwin Ritchey, Eric Vanzant 2022 USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit

Is There An Economic Advantage To Planting Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures?, Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch, Ray Smith, Kenny Burdine, Edwin Ritchey, Eric Vanzant

The Journal of Extension

This study examined economic implications of planting summer annual mixtures of grasses, legumes, and forbs at varying nitrogen rates. No differences in yield occurred between the three mixtures, indicating that mixtures with lowest seed cost will be most economical. Applying N resulted in yield increases of 12.26 lb DM per lb N applied. Although yield responses to N were positive, sensitivity analyses showed that applying N resulted in positive net returns only when hay prices were high and N prices were low. When utilization rates are accounted for, enterprise budgets determined grazing to be 18% cheaper to implement than haying.


Comparison Of Maize Hybrids For Production Of Quality Fodder And Silage In Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan, Ali Hamed, Muhammad Shahid Ibni Zamir, Asif Tanveer, Muhammad Yaseen 2022 Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Comparison Of Maize Hybrids For Production Of Quality Fodder And Silage In Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan, Ali Hamed, Muhammad Shahid Ibni Zamir, Asif Tanveer, Muhammad Yaseen

Journal of Bioresource Management

Fodder crops have to compete with those of field crops, and the majority of farmers are smallholders in the circumstances of Pakistan. Therefore, this study was planned to search for the best maize hybrid which would serve dual purposes, i.e. for grain production as well as its later usage as fodder and silage. So, seven maize hybrids most commonly grown in the vicinity were selected and compared for their forage production. Maize hybrids were sown on ridges followed by all cultural operations as carried out by farmers. At harvest, plant morphological parameters were measured before ensiling the whole maize plant. …


Staphylococcal Surface Proteins As Vaccine Candidates For The Control Of Staphylococcal Mastitis In Dairy Cows, Jessica Jean Vidlund 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Staphylococcal Surface Proteins As Vaccine Candidates For The Control Of Staphylococcal Mastitis In Dairy Cows, Jessica Jean Vidlund

Masters Theses

Bovine mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is the single most costly disease of dairy cattle. Staphylococci, a major bacteria that cause bovine mastitis, are commonly divided into two major groups: Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), previously known as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (CNS). Current mastitis control programs are not fully effective against staphylococcal mastitis and antibiotics are not sustainable due to limited success and the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Non-antibiotic sustainable control tools, such as effective vaccines, are critically needed. Our lab developed and evaluated Staphylococcus aureus surface associated protein (SASP) and Staphylococcus chromogenes surface associated protein …


Impact Of Housing And Management On Production, Behavior, And Welfare Of Dairy Cows In Automatic Milking Systems, Lindsey Eve Davis 2022 Clemson University

Impact Of Housing And Management On Production, Behavior, And Welfare Of Dairy Cows In Automatic Milking Systems, Lindsey Eve Davis

All Theses

The overall objective of this research was to determine the impact of Automatic Milking System (AMS) housing and management practices on cow production, behavior, and welfare of Holstein dairy cows. The first objective was to identify factors at the farm and cow level associated with lameness on AMS farms through decision tree analysis to allocate probabilities to each input. Results indicated this novel multifactorial approach of data analysis enabled us to highlight critical points that can be focused on to lessen cow-level complications or enhance farm-level housing and management practices to reduce the incidence and severity of lameness in AMS …


An Evaluation Of Bovine Reproductive Function From The Microrna Expression In The Female To Performance Testing In The Male, Erin Amiss 2022 Clemson University

An Evaluation Of Bovine Reproductive Function From The Microrna Expression In The Female To Performance Testing In The Male, Erin Amiss

All Theses

Reproductive function is crucial to the success of a beef or dairy herd. Both the female and male play significant roles in the outcome of bovine reproduction. The bull contributes to reproductive success in many ways, such as genetics. The initial role that the bull has in reproductive success is fertilization, whether natural or by artificial insemination. One method of assessing bull performance are central bull test stations, which are traditionally administered by a university, extension center, or are privately owned. Central bull tests assess the performance of bulls from various management systems, breeds, and ages. Some measurements taken during …


Use Of Micellar Casein Concentrate And Milk Protein Concentrate Treated With Transglutaminase In Imitation Cheese Products—Unmelted Texture, Prafulla Salunke, Chenchaiah Marella, J. K. Amamcharla, K. Muthukumarappan, Lloyd Metzger 2022 South Dakota State University

Use Of Micellar Casein Concentrate And Milk Protein Concentrate Treated With Transglutaminase In Imitation Cheese Products—Unmelted Texture, Prafulla Salunke, Chenchaiah Marella, J. K. Amamcharla, K. Muthukumarappan, Lloyd Metzger

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

The amount of intact casein provided by dairy ingredients is a critical parameter in dairy-based imitation mozzarella cheese (IMC) formulation because it has a significant effect on unmelted textural parameters such as hardness. From a functionality perspective, rennet casein (RCN) is the preferred ingredient. Milk protein concentrate (MPC) and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) cannot provide the required functionality due to the higher steric stability of casein micelle. However, the use of transglutaminase (TGase) has the potential to modify the surface properties of MPC and MCC and may improve their functionality in IMC. The objective of this study was to determine …


High Protein Powders Fortification Of Nonfat Yoghurt: Impact Of Protein Source, Protein To Total Solids Ratio, Storage, And Seasonality On The Functionality Of Nonfat Yoghurt Made Using Glucono-Δ-Lactone (Gdl), Kartik Shah, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd Metzger 2022 South Dakota State University

High Protein Powders Fortification Of Nonfat Yoghurt: Impact Of Protein Source, Protein To Total Solids Ratio, Storage, And Seasonality On The Functionality Of Nonfat Yoghurt Made Using Glucono-Δ-Lactone (Gdl), Kartik Shah, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd Metzger

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

Nonfat yoghurt is a popular fermented product across the world. High protein powders such as Skim Milk Powder (SMP), Nonfat Dry Milk (NDM), and Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC) can be utilized in yoghurt formulations. The final Total Solids (TS), source and amount of protein in the formulation, and the physicochemical changes during storage may impact the functionality of yoghurt-type products. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of storage of SMP, NDM, MPC40, and MPC70 on the functionality of nonfat yoghurts at three different protein/ TS levels. Additionally, the impact of SMP and NDM manufactured in different …


Corn (Zea Mays L.) Production In Living Mulch Systems, Grazing Potential, And Economic Viability, Marcia Peireira Quinby 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Corn (Zea Mays L.) Production In Living Mulch Systems, Grazing Potential, And Economic Viability, Marcia Peireira Quinby

Doctoral Dissertations

Living mulch (LM) is a practice in which forages are grown simultaneously with the main crop, serving as a living cover throughout the growing season. The LM systems were developed to alleviate concerns of soil depletion and finding ways to reduce tillage negative effects on soil productivity. In addition, when legumes are use can decrease the reliance on N fertilizer. The use of corn in LM have been previously studied due to the crop being a large commodity in the U.S.; In addition, the ability to graze the LM after corn production can increase the land use efficiency. To determine …


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