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Preferential Binding Of Polyphenols In Blackcurrant Extracts With Milk Proteins And The Effects On The Bioaccessibility And Antioxidant Activity Of Polyphenols, Ting Mao, FNU Akshit, Iresha Matiwalage, Subha Sasidharan, Caren Meyn Alvarez, Philip Wescombe, Maneesha S. Mohan 2024 South Dakota State University

Preferential Binding Of Polyphenols In Blackcurrant Extracts With Milk Proteins And The Effects On The Bioaccessibility And Antioxidant Activity Of Polyphenols, Ting Mao, Fnu Akshit, Iresha Matiwalage, Subha Sasidharan, Caren Meyn Alvarez, Philip Wescombe, Maneesha S. Mohan

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

Milk proteins are well-known delivery agents; however, there is no clear understanding of the competitive interactions of milk proteins with polyphenols in mixed complex systems. Here, we investigate the preferential competitive interactions of different polyphenols present in blackcurrant extract with milk proteins by quantifying the protein-bound polyphenols and comparing the factors affecting these interactions. In addition, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity were studied after in vitro gastric digestion. Our results indicated that polyphenols from blackcurrant extracts were preferentially bound to caseins more than whey proteins, with noncovalent interactions causing secondary structural changes in the protein. The hydrophobicity and the charge of …


Changes In Milk Protein Functionality At Low Temperatures And Rennet Concentrations, Mahmoud E. A. Hamouda, Prafulla Salunke 2024 South Dakota State University

Changes In Milk Protein Functionality At Low Temperatures And Rennet Concentrations, Mahmoud E. A. Hamouda, Prafulla Salunke

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of low-concentration rennet on the chemical, rheological characteristics, and protein fractions of skim milk (SM) at 4 ± 1 °C. Skimmed milk (SM) was divided into four lots of 500 mL, and diluted rennet (1:10,000) was added at different levels at 4 ± 1 °C. The treatments included control (no rennet), T1 (0.001 mL/rennet), T2 (0.01 mL rennet), and T3 (0.1 mL rennet) treatments, which were incubated for 24 h. The sampling was performed at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, and the SM after incubation time was heated to 73 …


Strategic Nutritional Interventions With Probiotics And Their Relationship To Performance, Feeding Behavior, And Reticulorumen Environment In Cows And Calves Under Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Risk, Gustavo Mazon Correa Alves 2024 University of Kentucky

Strategic Nutritional Interventions With Probiotics And Their Relationship To Performance, Feeding Behavior, And Reticulorumen Environment In Cows And Calves Under Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Risk, Gustavo Mazon Correa Alves

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a digestive disorder in ruminants characterized by extended periods of low reticulorumen pH. This digestive disorder is commonly observed in ruminants fed diets with elevated proportions of non-fibrous carbohydrates. This disorder has been vastly studied in adult dairy cattle and has been associated with losses in milk production, changes in feeding behavior, damage to the gastrointestinal tract, and premature culling. Although vastly studied in adult cattle, there is limited research on the effects of SARA in calves. SARA might be prevented by modifying the reticulorumen environment with probiotic supplements containing lactateutilizing bacteria such as Megasphaera …


The Effect Of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide Addition To Permeate Concentrate On Lactose Crystallisation, Growth And Recovery During Lactose Manufacturing, Venkateswarlu Sunkesula, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd E. Metzger 2024 South Dakota State University

The Effect Of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide Addition To Permeate Concentrate On Lactose Crystallisation, Growth And Recovery During Lactose Manufacturing, Venkateswarlu Sunkesula, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd E. Metzger

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

Lactose is manufactured from permeates of cheese whey, milk protein concentrate and a mix of both using a crystallisation process. Several factors, such as solute supersaturation, cooling rate and impurities, influence lactose crystallisation. This study focussed on the effect of soluble soybean polysaccharides (SSPS) on crystallisation during lactose manufacture from concentrated permeate solutions by evaluating lactose crystal growth and recovery with and without SSPS addition. Adding 0.1% (w/w) SSPS resulted in a significant difference (P > 0.05) in lactose crystal size and yield. The results suggest that using SSPS during lactose manufacturing from permeate concentrates could influence lactose crystallisation and recovery


Effects Of Dietary Rumen-Protected Choline Supplementation To Periparturient Dairy Cattle On Inflammation And Metabolism In Mammary And Liver Tissue During An Intramammary Lipopolysaccharide Challenge, Turner H. Swartz, Barry Bradford, Laman Mamedova, Kari Estes 2024 South Dakota State University

Effects Of Dietary Rumen-Protected Choline Supplementation To Periparturient Dairy Cattle On Inflammation And Metabolism In Mammary And Liver Tissue During An Intramammary Lipopolysaccharide Challenge, Turner H. Swartz, Barry Bradford, Laman Mamedova, Kari Estes

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of supplementation and dose of rumenprotected choline (RPC) on markers of inflammation and metabolism in liver and mammary tissue during an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Parous Holstein cows were blocked by calving month and randomly assigned within block to receive 45 g/d of RPC (20.4 g/d of choline ions; CHOL45), 30 g/d of RPC (13.6 g/d of choline ions; CHOL30), or no RPC (CON) as a top-dress starting 24 d before expected calving until 21 d postpartum. Cows were alternately assigned within treatment group to either receive an intramammary LPS …


Comprehensive Assessment Of Economic, Productive, Phenotypic, And Morphometric Traits In Azikheli Buffalo Breed Of Northern Pakistan, Nadar Khan, Bakhtawara Bibi, Tariq Ahmad, Salman Khan, Aamir Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim 2023 Livestock and Dairy Development Department (Research) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Comprehensive Assessment Of Economic, Productive, Phenotypic, And Morphometric Traits In Azikheli Buffalo Breed Of Northern Pakistan, Nadar Khan, Bakhtawara Bibi, Tariq Ahmad, Salman Khan, Aamir Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim

Journal of Bioresource Management

The study was conducted to illuminate the phenotypic, morphometric, and productive characteristics of the Azikheli buffalo breed. One thousand two hundred pure Azikheli buffaloes (male: female) were randomly selected from the main hub of the Azikheli buffalo breed in Swat (Azikhel). The data were analyzed for comparison and frequency distribution. Phenotypic characteristic of the female buffalo shows that more than 73 % of the body color was golden yellowish. In contrast, in males, this value was 83 %, followed by white-albino and grayish colors. The shape of horns were semi sickle and grayish in color. Morphometric parameters of the breed …


Optimizing Conservation Of Nili Ravi Buffaloes In Southern Region Of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: A Comprehensive Evaluation Of Phenotypic, Morphometric, And Productive Traits, Arsalan Khan, Israr ud Din, Hafiz Abdul Majid, Amjad Ali, Akhtar Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Waseem Ullah, Shah Zeb, Safi Ullah, Imran Khan, Abid Ullah 2023 Livestock Research and Development Station, Paharpur, Dera Ismail Khan-29050-Pakistan

Optimizing Conservation Of Nili Ravi Buffaloes In Southern Region Of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: A Comprehensive Evaluation Of Phenotypic, Morphometric, And Productive Traits, Arsalan Khan, Israr Ud Din, Hafiz Abdul Majid, Amjad Ali, Akhtar Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Waseem Ullah, Shah Zeb, Safi Ullah, Imran Khan, Abid Ullah

Journal of Bioresource Management

In Pakistan, Nili Ravi buffalo is highly valued breed due to its high milk yield. Native to Punjab province, the breed is now extensively distributed throughout the country. To assess and optimize the conservation strategies for Nili Ravi buffaloes in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by evaluating their phenotypic, morphometric, productive, and reproductive characteristics. Buffaloes were maintained at Livestock Research and Development Station in Paharpur, Dera Ismail Khan from 2010-2023, under breed conservation program. A sum of 298 records Nili Ravi buffaloes were used for the investigation. The research examined physical attributes such as coat color, horn morphology, and other qualitative characteristics. …


Towards The Quantification Of Estrone And 17Β-Estradiol Conjugates In Dairy Cattle Urine Sorptive Stir Bar Extraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry, S.M. Istiak Ahmed 2023 Western Kentucky University

Towards The Quantification Of Estrone And 17Β-Estradiol Conjugates In Dairy Cattle Urine Sorptive Stir Bar Extraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry, S.M. Istiak Ahmed

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The global concern regarding the presence of compounds with estrogenic properties in the environment has grown significantly. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are environmental pollutants that disrupt the endocrine systems of both wildlife and humans. Estrogens, with their potent estrogenic effects, are particularly noteworthy among the various substances with endocrine-disrupting properties. They are of concern due to their prevalence in the environment, especially due to dairy waste contamination. These lipophilic compounds can accumulate in livestock fat tissues, potentially entering the human food chain. Sulfated forms of estrone and β- estriol, which exhibit a higher degree of saturation than their non-conjugated counterparts, have …


Factors Affecting Forage Quality And The Subsequent Response In Production And Energy Metabolism In Lactating Jersey Cows, Kassidy Kate Buse 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Factors Affecting Forage Quality And The Subsequent Response In Production And Energy Metabolism In Lactating Jersey Cows, Kassidy Kate Buse

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Forage quality is the potential of a forage to produce a production response in animals. Because of how essential they are in dairy cattle rations, forages can have major influence on the behavior and production of dairy cattle. In experiment 1, the effect of forage fragility on the rumen environment and digestibility was evaluated. Increasing the inclusion of a less fragile forage led to greater rumen retention time, which resulted in lower rumen pH and greater NDF digestibility. Experiment 2 evaluated the effects of diets high in either corn silage or alfalfa haylage supplemented with either corn- or soybased protein …


The Evaluation Of Feed Additives On Reducing Enteric Methane Production From Cattle, Reba L. Colin 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Evaluation Of Feed Additives On Reducing Enteric Methane Production From Cattle, Reba L. Colin

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Environmental sustainability can be positively impacted by the inclusion of feed additives to reduce enteric methane production from cattle. Methane production can be affected by feed additives that either alter the rumen environment or act as methanogenesis inhibitors. A reduction in methane from cattle can contribute to meeting carbon neutrality.

A metabolism study was conducted to evaluate Alga 1.0, a product containing bromoform, fed to cattle to evaluate the effects on gas emissions. Treatments were (0, 69, or 103 g/d Alga 1.0) fed in a corn-based diet. Headbox-style indirect calorimeters were used to measure gas emissions. Feeding Alga 1.0 linearly …


Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Elisha Ogbebor 2023 Western Kentucky University

Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Elisha Ogbebor

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bovine mastitis is caused by a wide range of pathogens which results in a substantial economic loss for the dairy cattle livestock industry. β-defensins are a part of the innate immune system and act as the first line of defense against mastitis in bovine. β-defensins (~6- 10kDa) are antimicrobial peptides that contain about 28 to 67 amino acids, the presence of six cysteine residues results in their three disulfide bonds and a β-sheet structure. A few β- defensins have been identified in cows based on the site of occurrence and time of expression in tissue, but not in milk. A …


Effects Of Dietary Rumen-Protected Choline Supplementation To Periparturient Dairy Cattle On Inflammation, Metabolism, And Performance During An Intramammary Lipopolysaccharide Challenge, Turner H. Swartz, Barry Bradford, Laman Mamedova, Kari Estes 2023 South Dakota State University

Effects Of Dietary Rumen-Protected Choline Supplementation To Periparturient Dairy Cattle On Inflammation, Metabolism, And Performance During An Intramammary Lipopolysaccharide Challenge, Turner H. Swartz, Barry Bradford, Laman Mamedova, Kari Estes

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

Recent studies have suggested that dietary rumen-protected choline (RPC) supplementation can modulate immune function, attenuate inflammation, and improve performance in periparturient dairy cattle; however, this has yet to be evaluated during a mastitis challenge. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplementation and dose of RPC on metabolism, inflammation, and performance during an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Parous Holstein cows (parity, mean ± SD, 1.9 ± 1.1 at enrollment) were blocked by calving month and randomly assigned within block to receive either 45 g/d of RPC (20.4 g/d of choline ions; CHOL45, n = 18), …


Characterization Of Enterovirus D68 In A Mouse Model And Evaluation Of Antiviral Therapies, Zoe K. Taylor 2023 Utah State University

Characterization Of Enterovirus D68 In A Mouse Model And Evaluation Of Antiviral Therapies, Zoe K. Taylor

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a virus that causes respiratory disease. Children are most commonly affected by EV-D68 but immunocompromised adults can also get infected and develop severe disease signs. In 2014, the United States experienced an unprecedented outbreak of EV-D68. Similar outbreaks were also observed in 2016, 2018 and 2022. Interestingly, few EV-D68 infections were observed in 2020, likely due to public health measures put in place to reduce the spread of another respiratory disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). EV-D68 is in the same virus family as polio, and one of the most concerning findings from these outbreaks is that …


Characterisation Of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy In Female Cattle Using Genotype Information, Cliona Ryan 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark, Cork, Ireland.

Characterisation Of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy In Female Cattle Using Genotype Information, Cliona Ryan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Aneuploidy is a genetic condition characterized by the loss (monosomy) or gain (trisomy) of one or more chromosomes. Aneuploidy affecting the sex chromosomes often leads to infertility. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sex chromosome aneuploidy in a large juvenile population using routinely available genotype intensity information.

Methods

Genotype and genotype intensity data was available on 145,476 female dairy and beef cattle below 15 months of age at the time of genotyping, with no recorded progeny. Genotype intensity data included the LogR Ratio (LRR), R-value (the sum of X and Y SNP probe intensities), …


Impact Of Transglutaminase Treated Micellar Casein Concentrate And Milk Protein Concentrate On The Functionality Of Processed Cheese Product Slice Formulations, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd E. Metzger 2023 South Dakota State University

Impact Of Transglutaminase Treated Micellar Casein Concentrate And Milk Protein Concentrate On The Functionality Of Processed Cheese Product Slice Formulations, Prafulla Salunke, Lloyd E. Metzger

Dairy Science and Food Science Faculty Publications: 2022 to Present

Milk protein concentrate (MPC) is used as an ingredient in processed cheese product (PCP) formulations. However, its use can result in texture defects such as a soft body and restricted melting characteristics. The use of micellar casein concentrate (MCC), which has a higher level of casein and less serum protein, improves the texture of PCP. Further improvement in PCP products may be possible using transglutaminase (TGase), an enzyme that can crosslink proteins. This study aimed to determine the effect of TGase treatment of MPC and MCC retentates on the functionality of MPC and MCC when used in a PCP slice …


Homogenization And Thermal Processing Reduce The Concentration Of Extracellular Vesicles In Bovine Milk, Anna P. Colella, Anuradha Prakash, John Miklavcic 2023 Chapman University

Homogenization And Thermal Processing Reduce The Concentration Of Extracellular Vesicles In Bovine Milk, Anna P. Colella, Anuradha Prakash, John Miklavcic

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in bovine milk confer beneficial physiologic effects to consumers. Industrial processing treatments may affect the amount or bioactivity of EVs intrinsic to bovine milk. We investigated how the content and concentration of EVs were affected by homogenization and thermal processing of raw bovine milk. Raw milk was processed by homogenization, low-temperature (LT) heat, or pasteurization [high-temperature short-time (HTST) and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)] in a pilot processing facility. EVs were isolated from the raw and processed bovine milk using differential ultracentrifugation and quantified using a nanoparticle tracking analyzer. Bovine milk EVs were assessed for total miRNA and protein concentrations …


Kluyveromyces Marxianus Prepared As A Ready To Use Supplemental Food (Rusf), Zachary Christman 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Kluyveromyces Marxianus Prepared As A Ready To Use Supplemental Food (Rusf), Zachary Christman

Applied Science Program: Theses

Ready to Use Supplemental Food (RUSF) is a nutrient dense paste or compressed bar used to supplement a person’s nutritional needs because of malnutrition or due to food shortages. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate some methods of how the dairy organism Kluyveromyces marxianus can be used to enrich the protein value of bread or ferment a substrate such as wheat bran into a more digestible form.


The Effect Of Slow-Release Milk Replacer Feeding On Health And Behaviour Parameters In Dairy Breed Calves, Lea Krump, Ríona G. Sayers, Katie Sugrue, Emer Kennedy, Jim O'Mahony, Gearoid Sayers 2023 Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Tralee, Ireland

The Effect Of Slow-Release Milk Replacer Feeding On Health And Behaviour Parameters In Dairy Breed Calves, Lea Krump, Ríona G. Sayers, Katie Sugrue, Emer Kennedy, Jim O'Mahony, Gearoid Sayers

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The aim of this research paper was to evaluate the effect of a slow-release milk replacer on health and behaviour of neonatal dairy calves. This was done with the potential benefits to welfare during transport in mind. A total of 15 calves were randomly divided into three groups of 5, namely, a control group fed twice in 24 h with 3 l of a conventional milk replacer, a slow-release group fed once in 24 h with 2 l of conventional milk replacer and 1 litre of a specialised micro-encapsulated feed and an enriched-replacer group fed once in 24h with 3L …


Effects Of Wilting Extent On The Phytoestrogen Levels, Nutritional Value, Microbial Populations, And In Vitro Ruminal Methane Emissions Of Red Clover Hay And Silage Across Stages, Diego Zamudio Ayala 2023 Univesity of Maine

Effects Of Wilting Extent On The Phytoestrogen Levels, Nutritional Value, Microbial Populations, And In Vitro Ruminal Methane Emissions Of Red Clover Hay And Silage Across Stages, Diego Zamudio Ayala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The main objective of this thesis is to improve the understanding and awareness of methodologies to decrease phytoestrogens in conserved legumes without sacrificing forage nutritive value. In chapter 1, we discussed the main factors influencing each stage of hay production and our current understanding of the hay microbiome dynamics. The primary objective of haymaking is to dry forage enough (80-85% DM) to inhibit the growth of undesirable microbes and halt residual plant enzymatic activity that causes nutrient losses. During the field and storage phases of haymaking, the environment, management practices, and other factors influence the extent of DM losses. This …


Effect Of Authentic Kefir And Nigella Sativa On Broilers Challenged By Coccidia And Clostridium Perfringens, Julian E. Nixon 2023 Clemson University

Effect Of Authentic Kefir And Nigella Sativa On Broilers Challenged By Coccidia And Clostridium Perfringens, Julian E. Nixon

All Dissertations

Black seed oil concentrations of 0%, 0.1%, 1% and 5% were added to milk inoculated with kefir grains and incubated at 25°C for 22 h. The pH and microbial count indicated 1% black seed oil caused low inhibition (P > 0.05) of fermentation, but 5% black seed oil caused significant inhibition of the kefir microorganisms (P < 0.05).

Cobb 500 male chicks (n = 256) were distributed in a randomized block design and received one of four treatments: CTRL1 (Non-medicated, no kefir, no Clostridium perfringens), CTRL2 (Non-medicated, no kefir, C. perfringens inoculated), CTRL3 (BMD medicated, no kefir, C. perfringens inoculated), KTRT (Non-medicated, …


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