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Full-Text Articles in Poultry or Avian Science

Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn May 2021

Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On The Concentrations And Proportions Of Circulating Immune Cells In Broilers, Heather Glenn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Immune system health is an important aspect of broiler production, especially with the reduction of the use of antibiotics. Nutritional aspects, like crude protein percentage, and natural alternatives to antibiotics are being investigated to see the effect they have on immunity. Spirulina is an alternative proteinaceous ingredient that producers are looking into, not only due to its high nutritional value, but also its immune boosting properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low crude protein diet (LCP) and a Spirulina-supplemented low crude protein (LCP-SP) diet on broiler blood cell measurements, including, concentrations and proportions ...


The Effects Of Common Stressors On Poultry Production: A Case Study In Northern Mozambique, Grace Lehfeldt May 2021

The Effects Of Common Stressors On Poultry Production: A Case Study In Northern Mozambique, Grace Lehfeldt

Finance Undergraduate Honors Theses

Chicken is one of the main proteins that feeds the world. For centuries, the human race has relied on chickens to eat. Therefore, as food science becomes more relevant, the way that chickens are raised has become a science. However, this is not true in every part of the world. In Mozambique the process for raising chickens for consumption is not the same as it would be in America. This is a study of two specific “stressors” (feed and temperature) and how they impacted chicken growth and development on a live production poultry farm in Northern Mozambique. In addition, it ...


“The Role Of Poultry On Food Insecurity In Mozambique”, Austin Heinisch May 2021

“The Role Of Poultry On Food Insecurity In Mozambique”, Austin Heinisch

Finance Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hunger, poverty, and starvation in developing countries are some of the most prevalent challenges facing the world today but many people outside of these areas are not fully aware as to just how bad it is. In the country of Mozambique, where the following research took place, food insecurity levels are rampant, and many different groups/companies are trying to change that. Through a service-learning study abroad program in the summer of 2019, my group and I worked with the local company New Horizons to research ways in which poultry production for both the company and their rural out growers ...


Can Small-Scale Poultry Initiatives Alleviate Food Insecurity And Increase Empowerment For Women In Economically Disadvantaged Areas?, Patrick Daniels May 2021

Can Small-Scale Poultry Initiatives Alleviate Food Insecurity And Increase Empowerment For Women In Economically Disadvantaged Areas?, Patrick Daniels

Accounting Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the summer of 2019, I, along with 8 other students from the University of Arkansas departed the United States for the Central American country of Belize. Despite our limited knowledge of what Belize held in store for us, we were enthusiastic about the coming months. While we had different projects, we all set out with the same universal question in mind. How can we use the knowledge we have gained through education to make a positive impact on the lives of people living in an impoverished town? Some of the members of our team worked alongside local businesses to ...


Evaluation Of Weight Gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion And Oocyst Shedding Of Eimeria Maxima And Eimeria Acervulina In Broiler Chickens, Lauren Laverty May 2021

Evaluation Of Weight Gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion And Oocyst Shedding Of Eimeria Maxima And Eimeria Acervulina In Broiler Chickens, Lauren Laverty

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the day and the time of sample collection of an

experimental challenge with Eimeria maxima (EM) and Eimeria acervulina (EA) in broiler chickens. One day old male Cobb-Vantress broiler chickens were randomly allocated to one of three groups with ten replicates (n=8 chickens/replicate). Chickens were placed in battery cages with a controlled age-appropriate environment: Group 1) Negative control (no challenge or treatment); 2) Challenge control (Eimeria challenge only); 3) Challenge + Salinomycin. Challenged chickens were orally gavaged with the mixed culture of EM/EA (10,000 sporulated EM containing 4 ...


The Effects Of Different Feed Supplements On Performance Parameters, Egg Measurements, And Eggshell Integrity In Older White Leghorn Laying Hens, Josephine Foley Apr 2021

The Effects Of Different Feed Supplements On Performance Parameters, Egg Measurements, And Eggshell Integrity In Older White Leghorn Laying Hens, Josephine Foley

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Two studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of multiple feed additives on the performance of older White Leghorn hens. Study 1 examined the effects of 2 vitamin/mineral supplements and 1 medium chain fatty acid. Study 2 examined the effects of a novel butyric acid product, a tributyrin ester. Both studies followed a completely randomized design with repeated measures and data were analyzed using the Glimmix procedure in SAS version 9.4 for Windows.

The first study took place November 2015 to April 2016. Trt 1 was a control diet, Trt 2 was supplemented with a Ca, Fe, Mn ...


Distinct Transcriptomic Response To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection During Heat Stress In Chicken Tracheal Epithelial Tissue, Perot Saelao, Ying Wang, Ganrea Chanthavixay, Vivian Yu, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont, Terra Kelly, Huaijun Zhou Apr 2021

Distinct Transcriptomic Response To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection During Heat Stress In Chicken Tracheal Epithelial Tissue, Perot Saelao, Ying Wang, Ganrea Chanthavixay, Vivian Yu, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont, Terra Kelly, Huaijun Zhou

Animal Science Publications

Newcastle disease (ND) has a great impact on poultry health and welfare with its most virulent (velogenic) strain. In addition, issues exacerbated by the increase in global temperatures necessitates a greater understanding of the host immune response when facing a combination of biotic and abiotic stress factors in poultry production. Previous investigations have revealed that the host immune response is tissue-specific. The goal of this study was to identify genes and/or signaling pathways associated with immune response to NDV (Newcastle disease virus) in the trachea, an essential organ where NDV replicate after the infection, by profiling the tissue specific ...


Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth Apr 2021

Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth

Honors Thesis

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are widely recognized as a vital part of the global ecosystem and the world's food supply due to their pivotal role in the pollination of both natural and agricultural flora. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is an emerging phenomenon characterized by a colony's worker bees deserting the hive and leaving the queen behind. This usually results in colony failure. CCD is a multifactorial issue, with many environmental stressors and pathogens playing a role. Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) has been identified as a leading cause in this phenomenon. Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is another lethal pathogen that ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of Campylobacter Hepaticus Usa52, Associated With Chicken Spotty Liver Disease, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang Feb 2021

Complete Genome Sequence Of Campylobacter Hepaticus Usa52, Associated With Chicken Spotty Liver Disease, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter hepaticus was recently identified as the etiological agent of chicken spotty liver disease. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of C. hepaticus strain USA52 from the United States. The genome comprises a chromosome of 1,509,100 bp with an average GC content of 28.02%.


Genetic Resistance To Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli (Apec): Current Status And Opportunities, Melissa S. Monson, Susan J. Lamont Feb 2021

Genetic Resistance To Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli (Apec): Current Status And Opportunities, Melissa S. Monson, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

Infections with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can be extremely detrimental to poultry health and production. Investigating host genetic variation could identify the biological mechanisms that control resistance to this pathogen and allow selection for improved resistance in experimental and commercial poultry populations. In this review, the current knowledge of how host genetics contributes to APEC resistance and future opportunities that would benefit the understanding or application of genetic resistance are discussed. Phenotypes, such as antibody responses, lesion scores, and mortality, revealed that genetic background impacts APEC resistance and interacts with other factors including the environment and challenge conditions. Experiments ...


Transcriptional Response Of Blood Leukocytes From Turkeys Challenged With Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Uk1, Melissa S. Monson, Bradley L. Bearson, Matthew J. Sylte, Torey Looft, Susan J. Lamont, Shawn M. D. Bearson Feb 2021

Transcriptional Response Of Blood Leukocytes From Turkeys Challenged With Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Uk1, Melissa S. Monson, Bradley L. Bearson, Matthew J. Sylte, Torey Looft, Susan J. Lamont, Shawn M. D. Bearson

Animal Science Publications

Non-typhoidal Salmonella is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne disease and consumption of contaminated poultry products, including turkey, is one source of exposure. Minimizing Salmonella colonization of commercial turkeys could decrease the incidence of Salmonella-associated human foodborne illness. Understanding host responses to these bacteria is critical in developing strategies to minimize colonization and reduce food safety risk. In this study, we evaluated bacterial load and blood leukocyte transcriptomic responses of 3-week-old turkeys challenged with the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) UK1 strain. Turkeys (n = 8/dose) were inoculated by oral gavage with 108 or 1010 ...


Phosvitin Phosphopeptides Produced By Pressurized Hea-Trypsin Hydrolysis Promote The Differentiation And Mineralization Of Mc3t3-E1 Cells Via The Opg/Rankl Signaling Pathways, Mengdie Zhao, Shanshan Li, Dong Uk Ahn, Xi Huang Feb 2021

Phosvitin Phosphopeptides Produced By Pressurized Hea-Trypsin Hydrolysis Promote The Differentiation And Mineralization Of Mc3t3-E1 Cells Via The Opg/Rankl Signaling Pathways, Mengdie Zhao, Shanshan Li, Dong Uk Ahn, Xi Huang

Animal Science Publications

Phosvitin (PV) from egg yolk is an excellent substrate for the production of phosphopeptides, which have a strong calcium chelating capacity and promoting calcium absorption and bone mineralization. This study investigated the effect of PV hydrolysates produced using a effective preparation method (high temperature (121°C) and mild pressure (0.1 MPa), HTMP) or HTMP pretreatment and trypsin hydrolysis combination (HTMP-PV18) on the physiology of an osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells line. The proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells were analyzed using the CCK-8, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR reactions, respectively. Both the HTMP-PV and HTMP-PV18 increased the proliferation, and inhibited the ...


Antibody Response, Viral Load, Viral Clearance And Growth Rate In Tanzanian Free-Range Local Chickens Infected With Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus, James Richard Mushi, Gaspar Honorati Chiwanga, Esther Lemburis Mollel, Muhammed Walugembe, Robert Arsen Max, Peter Makenga Msoffe, Rodrigo Gallardo, Terra Kelly, Susan Lamont, Jack Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Amandus Muhairwa Jan 2021

Antibody Response, Viral Load, Viral Clearance And Growth Rate In Tanzanian Free-Range Local Chickens Infected With Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus, James Richard Mushi, Gaspar Honorati Chiwanga, Esther Lemburis Mollel, Muhammed Walugembe, Robert Arsen Max, Peter Makenga Msoffe, Rodrigo Gallardo, Terra Kelly, Susan Lamont, Jack Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Amandus Muhairwa

Animal Science Publications

This study is aimed at evaluating antibody responses, viral loads, viral clearance and growth rate of Tanzanian free-range local chicken (FRLC) challenged with LaSota strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as indicator traits for selection of chickens for breeding with enhanced resistance to the disease and economic value. Three popular free-range local chicken ecotypes: Kuchi, Ching’wekwe and Morogoro-medium from three ecological zones of Tanzania were used for the experiments. Progenies from the breeder chickens were challenged with 107 titer of 50% egg infectious dose (EID50) of the virus at 28 days of age. The viral loads and viral clearance ...


Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Ovotransferrin And The Functional Properties Of Its Hydrolysates, Chathura Rathnapala, Dong Uk Ahn, Sandun Abeyrathne Jan 2021

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Ovotransferrin And The Functional Properties Of Its Hydrolysates, Chathura Rathnapala, Dong Uk Ahn, Sandun Abeyrathne

Animal Science Publications

Bioactive peptides have great potentials as nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agents that can improve human health. The objectives of this research were to produce functional peptides from ovotransferrin, a major egg white protein, using single enzyme treatments, and to analyze the properties of the hydrolysates produced. Lyophilized ovotransferrin was dissolved in distilled water at 20 mg/mL, treated with protease, elastase, papain, trypsin, or α-chymotrypsin at 1% (w/v) level of substrate, and incubated for 0-24 hours at the optimal temperature of each enzyme (protease 55 ºC, papain 37 ºC, elastase 25 ºC, trypsin 37 ºC, α-chymotrypsin 37 ºC).[CN1] The ...


Early Evidence Of Natal-Habitat Preference: Juvenile Loons Feed On Natal-Like Lakes After Fledging, Brian A. Hoover, Kristin M. Brunk, Gabriella L. Jukkala, Nathan Banfield, Andrew L. Rypel, Walter H. Piper Dec 2020

Early Evidence Of Natal-Habitat Preference: Juvenile Loons Feed On Natal-Like Lakes After Fledging, Brian A. Hoover, Kristin M. Brunk, Gabriella L. Jukkala, Nathan Banfield, Andrew L. Rypel, Walter H. Piper

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Many species show natal habitat preference induction (NHPI), a behavior in which young adults select habitats similar to those in which they were raised. However, we know little about how NHPI develops in natural systems. Here, we tested for NHPI in juvenile common loons (Gavia immer) that foraged on lakes in the vicinity of their natal lake after fledging. Juveniles visited lakes similar in pH to their natal lakes, and this significant effect persisted after controlling for spatial autocorrelation. On the other hand, juveniles showed no preference for foraging lakes of similar size to their natal one. When lakes were ...


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi Dec 2020

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


Effects Of Long-Term Variation In Temperature On Reproductive Phenology In A Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Paul Pleiman Dec 2020

Effects Of Long-Term Variation In Temperature On Reproductive Phenology In A Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Paul Pleiman

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the relationship between multiple temperature variables, to include annual and pre-lay date temperatures with first-egg and mean first-egg lay dates of the eastern bluebird at the Warner Parks in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Data is collected by citizen scientists for the Eastern Bluebird Nesting Box Project while visiting artificial nest boxes throughout the park and recording observations made during the breeding season. Temperature data is retrieved from the Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering’s Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) Climate Group, based at Oregon State University. The analyses showed no correlation between annual or ...


The Use Of Inorganic And Organic Acids As Short Duration Antimicrobial Dips On Mitigating Pathogens Present On Commercial Chicken During Peri-Harvest, Dana Kristen Dittoe Dec 2020

The Use Of Inorganic And Organic Acids As Short Duration Antimicrobial Dips On Mitigating Pathogens Present On Commercial Chicken During Peri-Harvest, Dana Kristen Dittoe

Theses and Dissertations

With poultry being the most consumed meat in the United States, poultry processors must provide consumers with safe, wholesome products. As a consequence, poultry processors are faced with the challenge of reducing the presence of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni among raw poultry products. Though multi-hurdle approaches using antimicrobials are placed throughout processing to reduce these pathogens, Salmonella and C. jejuni still persist among raw poultry. Thus, it was the objective of the current dissertation to investigate various antimicrobials, organic and inorganic acids, as short duration dips and sprays as means to reduce common pathogens (Salmonella ...


The Energy Savings-Oxidative Cost Trade-Off For Migratory Birds During Endurance Flight, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Barbara J. Pierce, Andrea Wittenzellner, Lillie A. Langlois, Sophia Engel, John R. Speakman, Olivia Fatica, Kristen J. Demoranville, Wolfgang Goymann, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger Dec 2020

The Energy Savings-Oxidative Cost Trade-Off For Migratory Birds During Endurance Flight, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Barbara J. Pierce, Andrea Wittenzellner, Lillie A. Langlois, Sophia Engel, John R. Speakman, Olivia Fatica, Kristen J. Demoranville, Wolfgang Goymann, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger

Biology Faculty Publications

Elite human and animal athletes must acquire the fuels necessary for extreme feats, but also contend with the oxidative damage associated with peak metabolic performance. Here, we show that a migratory bird with fuel stores composed of more omega-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) expended 11% less energy during long-duration (6 hr) flights with no change in oxidative costs; however, this short-term energy savings came at the long-term cost of higher oxidative damage in the omega-6 PUFA-fed birds. Given that fatty acids are primary fuels, key signaling molecules, the building blocks of cell membranes, and that oxidative damage has long-term consequences for ...


Characterization Of Growth Patterns And Meat Quality Characteristics Of Four Commercial Broiler Strains In Small Bird And Large Bird Programs In The United States, Clay Johnny Maynard Dec 2020

Characterization Of Growth Patterns And Meat Quality Characteristics Of Four Commercial Broiler Strains In Small Bird And Large Bird Programs In The United States, Clay Johnny Maynard

Theses and Dissertations

Through current trends in animal protein consumption, the United States poultry industry has seen a drastic rise in production and popularity. Over the last few decades, poultry meat has surpassed both beef and pork production to become the most widely consumed animal protein. This rise may be accredited to an increased transition to more health-conscious consumers. As more consumers purchase poultry as a lean source of protein, the need for a superior quality product is of great interest to poultry integrators.

Relationships between commercial broiler lines have been well documented in previous years, but constant and intensive genetic selection in ...


Evaluation Of Selected Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates In Reduced Energy Diets On Live Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Foot Pad Dermatitis, Kyle Teague Dec 2020

Evaluation Of Selected Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates In Reduced Energy Diets On Live Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Foot Pad Dermatitis, Kyle Teague

Theses and Dissertations

Bacillus spp. are ubiquitous, Gram-positive, spore forming bacteria that are commonly recovered from the environment and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of poultry. These spores are capable of withstanding harsh condition such as feed pelletization, which facilitates inclusion in poultry feeds. Once ingested by the bird, spores germinate into metabolically active vegetative cells which can produce extracellular enzymes which can hydrolyze otherwise indigestible components of the feed. Soybean meal (SBM) is the gold standard vegetable protein source for non-ruminant animals worldwide and is included in practically all poultry diets in the United States at levels ranging from 10 to more than 30 ...


Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft Dec 2020

Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft

Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to evaluate the fate and dissemination of Salmonella Reading (SR) in market-age turkeys using an oral gavage challenge model. One hundred twenty-eight-week-old commercial turkey hens were moved from commercial production to research facilities. Upon arrival, a combination of enrofloxacin, 10 mg/kg, and florfenicol, 20 mg/kg, were orally administered sequentially before comingled placement on fresh pine shavings. Turkeys were challenged with 108 cfu SR by oral gavage on days 4 and 7 post-placement. Subsets were subjected to simulated commercial processing on days 14 (n=40), 21 (n=40) and 28 (n=32) post-placement (corresponding to 10 ...


Anti-Biofilm Effect Of Egg Yolk Phosvitin By Inhibition Of Biomass Production And Adherence Activity Against Streptococcus Mutans, Hyeon Joong Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Dong Uk Ahn, Hyun-Dong Paik Nov 2020

Anti-Biofilm Effect Of Egg Yolk Phosvitin By Inhibition Of Biomass Production And Adherence Activity Against Streptococcus Mutans, Hyeon Joong Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Dong Uk Ahn, Hyun-Dong Paik

Animal Science Publications

The formation of biofilms on the enamel surface of teeth by Streptococcus mutans is an important step in dental plaque formation, demineralization, and early caries because the biofilm is where other bacteria involved in dental caries attach, grow, and proliferate. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of phosvitin (PSV) on the biofilm formation, exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, adherence activity of S. mutans, and the expression of genes related to the compounds essential for biofilm formation (quorum-sensing inducers and components of biofilm matrix) by S. mutans. PSV significantly reduced the biofilm-forming activity of S. mutans and increased the ...


Central Administration Of Agouti-Related Peptide Increases Food Intake In Japanese Quail, Tyler Lindskoog, Mark Bohler, Elizabeth R. Gilbert, Mark A. Cline Oct 2020

Central Administration Of Agouti-Related Peptide Increases Food Intake In Japanese Quail, Tyler Lindskoog, Mark Bohler, Elizabeth R. Gilbert, Mark A. Cline

Virginia Journal of Science

Agouti-related peptide is a 132-amino acid peptide associated with stimulating food intake in birds and mammals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AgRP in 7-day old Japanese quail. In Experiment 1, we tested 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 nmol AgRP and found no effect on food intake or water intake over a 3 hour duration. In Experiment 2, we tested we tested 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 nmol AgRP and found no effect on food or water intake over a 24 hour duration. In Experiment 3, we tested 0.0625 ...


Phenotypic Variability And Population Structure Analysis Of Tanzanian Free-Range Local Chickens, James R. Mushi, Gaspar H. Chiwanga, Esinam N. Amuzu-Aweh, Muhammed Walugembe, Robert A. Max, Susan J. Lamont, Terra R. Kelly, Esther L. Mollel, Peter L. Msoffe, Jack Dekkers, Rodrigo Gallardo, Huaijun Zhou, Amandus P. Muhairwa Sep 2020

Phenotypic Variability And Population Structure Analysis Of Tanzanian Free-Range Local Chickens, James R. Mushi, Gaspar H. Chiwanga, Esinam N. Amuzu-Aweh, Muhammed Walugembe, Robert A. Max, Susan J. Lamont, Terra R. Kelly, Esther L. Mollel, Peter L. Msoffe, Jack Dekkers, Rodrigo Gallardo, Huaijun Zhou, Amandus P. Muhairwa

Animal Science Publications

Background Free-range local chickens (FRLC) farming is an important activity in Tanzania, however, they have not been well-characterized. This study aimed to phenotypically characterize three Tanzanian FRLCs and to determine their population structure. A total of 389 mature breeder chickens (324 females and 65 males) from three popular Tanzanian FRLC ecotypes (Kuchi, Morogoro-medium and Ching’wekwe) were used for the phenotypic characterization. Progenies of these chickens were utilized to assess population structure. The ecotypes were collected from four geographical zones across Tanzania: Lake, Central, Northern and Coastal zones. Body weights and linear measurements were obtained from the mature breeders, including ...


Liver Transcriptome Responses To Heat Stress And Newcastle Disease Virus Infection In Genetically Distinct Chicken Inbred Lines, Ying Wang, Perot Saelao, Colin Kern, Sihua Jin, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Terra Kelly, Jack M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont, Huaijun Zhou Sep 2020

Liver Transcriptome Responses To Heat Stress And Newcastle Disease Virus Infection In Genetically Distinct Chicken Inbred Lines, Ying Wang, Perot Saelao, Colin Kern, Sihua Jin, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Terra Kelly, Jack M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont, Huaijun Zhou

Animal Science Publications

Heat stress results in reduced productivity, anorexia, and mortality in chickens. The objective of the study was to identify genes and signal pathways associated with heat stress and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in the liver of chickens through RNA-seq analysis, using two highly inbred chicken lines (Leghorn and Fayoumi). All birds were held in the same environment until 14 days of age. On day 14, half the birds were exposed to 38 °C with 50% relative humidity for 4 h, then 35 °C until the end of the experiment. The remaining birds were kept at 25 °C throughout the ...


Effects Of Using Hemp Hearts As A Feed Additive In Broiler Chicks, Brian Parr, Cheyenne Hooks, Mallorie Snider, Huichang Chae, Tony Brannon Sep 2020

Effects Of Using Hemp Hearts As A Feed Additive In Broiler Chicks, Brian Parr, Cheyenne Hooks, Mallorie Snider, Huichang Chae, Tony Brannon

Journal of Agricultural Hemp Research

In this experiment, hemp hearts of differing percentages were fed to broiler chicks for 49 days. The experiment, which was initiated to identify the potential of hemp hearts as a feed source, consisted of four experimental groups and one control group. Each experimental group received a diet containing: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% hemp hearts; the control group did not contain hemp hearts, but contained soybean meal. As a result, broilers fed a diet containing 20% hemp hearts gained the most weight, t(16) = 2.12, p < 0.05 and feed conversion was also the lowest t(18) = 2.10, p < 0.01. These results indicate the feed efficiency of broilers using 20% hemp hearts was the lowest numerically, but the most efficient qualitatively. The diets consisting of higher percentages of hemp hearts demonstrate a need for additional supplementation.


Plunging Floater Survival Causes Cryptic Population Decline In The Common Loon, Walter H. Piper, Jason Grear, Brian Hoover, Elaina Lomery, Linda M. Grenzer Aug 2020

Plunging Floater Survival Causes Cryptic Population Decline In The Common Loon, Walter H. Piper, Jason Grear, Brian Hoover, Elaina Lomery, Linda M. Grenzer

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Populations of many vertebrates are declining and geographic ranges contracting, largely as a consequence of anthropogenic threats. Many reports of such decline, however, lack the breadth and detail to narrow down its causes. Here we describe population decline in the Common Loon (Gavia immer), a charismatic aquatic bird, based on systematic resighting and measurement of a marked population. During our 27-year investigation, age-adjusted chick mass has fallen by 11%, mortality among young and old chicks has increased by 31% and 82%, respectively, and fledging success has declined by 26%. Meanwhile, the return rate of marked nonbreeders (“floaters”) has plunged by ...


Analyzing The Longevity Of Sperm Within The Female Japanese Quail By Assessing Sperm Penetration Of The Perivitelline Layer Under Optimal And Suboptimal Conditions., Garret G. Ashabranner, Joey L. Bray Aug 2020

Analyzing The Longevity Of Sperm Within The Female Japanese Quail By Assessing Sperm Penetration Of The Perivitelline Layer Under Optimal And Suboptimal Conditions., Garret G. Ashabranner, Joey L. Bray

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

After mating, birds have the ability to store semen within the female reproductive tract. The sperm storage tubules will store and subsequently release semen to travel up the oviduct. Sperm cells that make the trek up the oviduct have a chance to fertilize the ovum. These sperm cells will bind to the perivitelline layer of the ovum and hydrolyze a hole in the perivitelline layer, where it has the possibility to fertilize the female sex cell. Analyzing the number of penetration points on the perivitelline layer is an effective way to analyze reproductive efficiency. Many environmental factor has its effect ...


Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Inhibitory Effects Of Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus On Cell Survival And Immune Function In Spleen Of Commercial Layer Chicks, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont Aug 2020

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Inhibitory Effects Of Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus On Cell Survival And Immune Function In Spleen Of Commercial Layer Chicks, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

As a major infectious disease in chickens, Newcastle disease causes considerable economic losses in the poultry industry, especially in developing countries where there is limited access to effective vaccination. Therefore, enhancing resistance to the virus in commercial chickens through breeding is a promising way to promote poultry production. In this study, we investigated gene expression changes at 2 and 6 dpi after infection at day21 with a lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in a commercial egg-laying chicken hybrid using RNA sequencing analysis. By comparing NDV challenged and nonchallenged groups, 526 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05) were identified at 2 dpi, and only 36 at 6 dpi. For the DEGs at 2 dpi, IPA analysis predicted inhibition of multiple signaling pathways in response to NDV that regulate immune cell development and activity, neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Upregulation of Interferon Induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 5 (IFIT5) in response to NDV was consistent between the current and most previous studies. Sprouty RTK Signaling Antagonist 1 (SPRY1), a DEG in the current study is located in a significant QTL associated with virus load at 6 dpi in the same population. These identified pathways and DEGs provide potential targets to further study breeding strategy to enhance NDV resistance in chickens.