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Full-Text Articles in Poultry or Avian Science

From Field To Shore: Policy Improvements To Better Protect Ecosystem And Human Health From Poultry Wastes In Virginia, Rachael A. King Jan 2023

From Field To Shore: Policy Improvements To Better Protect Ecosystem And Human Health From Poultry Wastes In Virginia, Rachael A. King

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Commercial poultry production is a large industry with economic importance in Virginia. However, mismanagement of manures and wastes generated from the poultry industry can be a serious threat to ecosystem and human health. Primarily, there is a concern about nutrient pollution related to runoff and infiltration of poultry wastes. High nutrient loading can cause groundwater contamination, eutrophication, and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Additional concerns include metals, antibiotics, and pesticides that can be found in poultry wastes. To determine existing threats to ecosystem and human health from the poultry industry, Virginia policies regulating the industry are reviewed and their strengths and …


Insect Availability And Parental Care Behavior In A Common Bird, Cole Bourque Dec 2022

Insect Availability And Parental Care Behavior In A Common Bird, Cole Bourque

Symposium of Student Scholars

Populations of aerially insectivorous birds are declining throughout North America. Urbanization may indirectly contribute to this decline through its negative effects on populations of insects, an important food source in insectivores' diets, where low insect availability may be especially challenging for birds during breeding. How fluctuations in insect populations impact various species at higher trophic levels is an important area of current study for future conservation biology. Here, we examine whether nestling provisioning, brooding and guarding behaviors in a breeding bird—the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)—may be altered depending on the relative insect availability in the environment. We found …


Effects Of Methylmercury And Unpredictable Food Stress Exposure On Songbirds’ Physiology And Seasonal Transition, Claire L.J. Bottini Dec 2022

Effects Of Methylmercury And Unpredictable Food Stress Exposure On Songbirds’ Physiology And Seasonal Transition, Claire L.J. Bottini

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Organisms regularly adjust their physiology to respond to predictable seasonal or environmental variation. However, annual cycle transitions could be disrupted by contaminants or stressors. For example, methylmercury and stress exposure can independently disrupt birds’ neural and endocrine systems, energy balance, metabolism, or behaviour, all necessary for seasonal transitions. Although, the effects of combined exposure to stressors and methylmercury (MeHg), and how long they last after exposure ends, are poorly understood. The objective of my PhD was to evaluate the impact of MeHg exposure on songbirds’ physiology and its potential carry-over effects on seasonal transitions. I exposed song sparrows (Melospiza …


Establishing A Small-Scale Pastured Poultry Operation In Kentucky, Frederick N. Bebe Oct 2022

Establishing A Small-Scale Pastured Poultry Operation In Kentucky, Frederick N. Bebe

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Pastured poultry is poultry rotationally raised on pasture, as opposed to large-scale confinement operations. There has been a growing demand for pastured poultry as a result of the adverse effects of the use of antibiotics in large-scale caged systems and pastured poultry’s attributable nutritional and economic benefits to consumers. As a result, an increasing number of small-scale farmers in Kentucky have begun raising birds both for personal consumption and for supplemental income, in conjunction with other farm enterprises. Poultry is the number one agricultural commodity in Kentucky. Thus, knowledge of how to establish small-scale pastured poultry operations as an alternate …


Broiler Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines, Nelson E. Ward Sep 2022

Broiler Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines, Nelson E. Ward

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

In a time of record feed prices, nutritionists and production managers continue to look for opportunities to lower growout costs. Even though their contribution seldom exceeds 1-2% of feed costs, vitamins are not immune to this cost-crunching scrutiny. Furthermore, in late 2017, an unparalleled drop in global vitamin supply resulted in sharply increased prices, and in some cases, outright shortages. Such events have placed pressure on vitamin fortification levels in broiler feeds. Nutritionists decide on the fortification rates based on a variety of criteria – bird age, production phase, field experience, research trials, and so forth. The rapid change in …


Recent Findings On Phosphorus Digestibility Of Feed Ingredients In Broilers, Jay Hampton, Wenting Li, Franco Mussini, Katie Hilton, Janet Remus, Samuel J. Rochell Sep 2022

Recent Findings On Phosphorus Digestibility Of Feed Ingredients In Broilers, Jay Hampton, Wenting Li, Franco Mussini, Katie Hilton, Janet Remus, Samuel J. Rochell

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Accurately meeting the dietary P needs of broilers is critical to ensure optimal bird performance, health, and welfare without causing undue environmental burdens associated with excess dietary P excretion. Phosphorus is commonly supplied in broiler diets from inorganic phosphates derived from non-renewable sources, but it has been estimated that peak P production will occur between 2030-2040 and that the global supply of P could be depleted within this century (Cordell and Drangert, 2009; Nest and Cordell, 2012). To address these concerns, inorganic P use in agriculture, including use in broiler diet formulation, requires careful stewardship. To this end, the dietary …


Reduction Of Protein Levels In Broiler Feed For Commercial Application – A German Case, Andreas Lemme, Kilian Fenske, Heiner Westendarp, Mathias Guhe, Elmar Rother Sep 2022

Reduction Of Protein Levels In Broiler Feed For Commercial Application – A German Case, Andreas Lemme, Kilian Fenske, Heiner Westendarp, Mathias Guhe, Elmar Rother

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

A project was initiated to apply dietary CP reduction under commercial conditions. The main objective was to demonstrate and validate that dietary CP can be reduced without compromising broiler performance in a production system which is already rather efficient. In addition, we wanted to demonstrate the potential of dietary CP reduction on reducing N-excretions especially in the context of German revised regulations and monitoring attempts. Finally, as previous research suggested, few further aspects such as impact of dietary CP reduction on litter quality and quantity, footpad health, change of ingredient inclusion levels and related impact on sustainability impact factors were …


Application Of Simulation Modelling In Broiler Integration: Is It A Necessary Nutritional Tool?, Peter Chrystal Sep 2022

Application Of Simulation Modelling In Broiler Integration: Is It A Necessary Nutritional Tool?, Peter Chrystal

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Modelling techniques have been used in many industries globally to illustrate to others an understanding of the way processes work. Also, engineers and scientists employ models to predict the consequences of various courses of action. Simple pictorial models, such as the diagram of the chicken digestive system, are useful in education and may be more suitable than a photograph for the purposes of explaining how the animal converts ingested feed into components that can be assimilated, leaving residue that is excreted. Complex, predictive models seek to quantify a specified outcome based on defined inputs. Many attempts have been made over …


State Of The Art Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, Rick Van Emous Sep 2022

State Of The Art Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, Rick Van Emous

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

During the last six to seven decades, broilers have been successfully selected for maximum growth and feed efficiency (Zuidhof et al., 2014). Modern fast-growing broilers reach a body weight of 2.0 to 2.5 kg in 35 to 45 days with an average daily growth of 55 or more gram a day (Augère-Granier, 2019). In a study with different broiler strains representative of broilers in 1957 or 1978 were compared with a broiler strain from 2005 (Zuidhof et al., 2014). The 2005 strain showed, over a 56-day growth period, a 4.6 times higher growth rate and a 50% lower feed conversion …


Broiler Breeder Males: Feed And Nutrition Discussion, Benton Hudson Sep 2022

Broiler Breeder Males: Feed And Nutrition Discussion, Benton Hudson

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The methods for feeding broiler breeder males have evolved over recent decades, and further revisions will likely be needed as males become more challenging to manage. Since the introduction of separate male feeding systems in the early 1980’s, breeder males’ nutrient needs have been better managed via daily feed restriction. If a breeder operation can effectively produce, haul, and store a separate male diet, then it provides more options to use different nutrient levels or feed additives that are designed to enhance fertility. This article will outline the history of male-separate feeding and revisit nutritional research on fertility of broiler …


Amino Acids Were Not All Created Equal, Peter H. Selle, Shemil P. Macelline, Peter V. Chrystal, Sonia Y. Liu Sep 2022

Amino Acids Were Not All Created Equal, Peter H. Selle, Shemil P. Macelline, Peter V. Chrystal, Sonia Y. Liu

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The contention that amino acids were not all created equal is based on the simple premise that intestinal uptakes of non-bound (synthetic, crystalline, feed-grade) amino acids are more rapid than their protein-bound counterparts. The post-enteral ramifications of this difference in bioequivalence are amplified in broiler chickens given their express growth rates and just one complication is the post-prandial oxidation of amino acids. The lack of bioequivalence between non-bound and protein-bound amino acids is a real obstacle to the development and adoption of reduced-crude protein diets that have the potential to promote sustainable chicken-meat production Thus, the purpose of this paper …


Recent Advancements On Calcium And Phosphorus Recommendations In Broilers, Justina Caldas, Marcelo Silva Sep 2022

Recent Advancements On Calcium And Phosphorus Recommendations In Broilers, Justina Caldas, Marcelo Silva

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Calcium and phosphorus have been recognized essential nutrients in chickens since 1950’s (Lesson & Summers, 2001) playing important roles in bone development, among other functions. Calcium is assumed an inexpensive nutrient in animal least cost formulation while phosphorus is considered expensive and scant. The actual economic impact comes from the influence of calcium on phosphorus requirements, changes in phosphorus digestibility, buffer capacity, gut health, trace mineral absorption, fat digestibility, welfare traits, etc. Both minerals have important interactions to be considered during formulation. Few changes have been made over the past 20 years to calcium and phosphorus recommendations because these values …


Decoding The Gut Microbiome; Providing Solutions For Poultry Production, Nichoals Evans, Peter Karnezos, Curtis Novak, Diana Ayala, Emily Kimminau, Kay Russo Sep 2022

Decoding The Gut Microbiome; Providing Solutions For Poultry Production, Nichoals Evans, Peter Karnezos, Curtis Novak, Diana Ayala, Emily Kimminau, Kay Russo

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The term “microbiome” refers to all the micro-organisms within a particular environment. In poultry, the microbiome is influenced by the barn, diet, and age of the birds and is believed to modulate immunity and inflammation. In the past, culture methods were primarily used to evaluate the presence of the various micro-organisms present in the microbiome; however, recent technological advances in genomic sequencing have revolutionized sample analysis. This technology has opened new avenues of research in poultry production and our understanding of the associated health challenges. Turkey cellulitis has been a major economic and health concern for many years. Traditional bacterial …


Application Of Nutritional Immunology In The Mitigation Of Economic And Production Losses In The Poultry Industry Associated With Food-Borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, And Necrotic Enteritis., Shahna Fathima, Ramesh K. Selvaraj Sep 2022

Application Of Nutritional Immunology In The Mitigation Of Economic And Production Losses In The Poultry Industry Associated With Food-Borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, And Necrotic Enteritis., Shahna Fathima, Ramesh K. Selvaraj

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics were used in poultry production since the 1950s for improved production, prophylaxis, and animal welfare. Extensive and indiscriminatory use of antibiotics led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens of public health significance (Jones & Ricke, 2003). As per the United States Centre for Disease Control, more than 2.8 million infections in 2019 were caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Due to public health concerns, the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock production was prohibited by Sweden and Denmark in 1986 and 1998 respectively (Hammerum et al., 2007). The European Union banned the use …


A Dynamic Approach To Feed Formulation, Rob Gous Sep 2022

A Dynamic Approach To Feed Formulation, Rob Gous

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the opportunity cost of using fixed tables of nutrient requirements when formulating feeds for broilers can be considerable, and that nutritionists should consider a more dynamic approach to defining the lower bounds of amino acids in particular, in line with the objective of the business, which is to maximise profit. In order to do this, it is necessary to consider the potential growth rate of the broiler, the cost of feed and amount of feed consumed, and the income generated from the sale of product.


Transitioning To Net Energy: A Swine Story, John F. Patience Sep 2022

Transitioning To Net Energy: A Swine Story, John F. Patience

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Net energy (NE) is one member of the sequence of energy systems which also includes gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME). It is perhaps the most sophisticated because it attempts to consider more components of the ingredient or diet which normally cannot be used by the pig for maintenance and/or productive purposes. Gross energy makes no such adjustment and therefore has little direct value in diet formulation. Digestible energy corrects for energy which is lost in the feces, and metabolizable energy also adjusts for energy lost in the urine. The data in Table …


Where Can We Go With Net Energy In Poultry?, Katie Hilton Sep 2022

Where Can We Go With Net Energy In Poultry?, Katie Hilton

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Metabolizable energy (ME) is the main system used globally in poultry industry for feed formulation and for evaluating feed ingredients and mixed feeds (de Boer and Bickel, 1988). ME is considered a reliable index of what is available to the bird for maintenance and production but is not a predictor of how efficiently the bird uses the available energy (MacLeod, 2000). The ME system developed by Hill and Anderson (1958) was reported to provide less variation in energy values for feed and ingredients than the Fraps PE system, but MacLeod (1994, 1997, 1999) suggest that the low variation …


Limestone Solubility: What Can You Do About It?, Wenting Li, Katie Hilton, Franco Mussini, Janet Remus Sep 2022

Limestone Solubility: What Can You Do About It?, Wenting Li, Katie Hilton, Franco Mussini, Janet Remus

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Calcium (Ca) is essential for bone development mineralisation, as well as for eggshell formation, muscle and neural functions. Depending on the type of diets (veggie vs. non-veggie), species (turkey, chicken, duck), and age of animal (young vs. adult), limestone can contribute up to 95% total Ca in the final diet, with more Ca from limestone for younger animals with veggie diet. Despite the significant contribution of limestone to total diet Ca levels, the bioavailability variation of limestone Ca is rarely considered. Phosphorus (P) is a limited resource and is the third most costly ingredient in poultry …


Using Poultry To Enhance Food Security In Stann Creek, Belize, Emily Spatz Aug 2022

Using Poultry To Enhance Food Security In Stann Creek, Belize, Emily Spatz

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Food insecurity is a growing issue in developing and developed countries alike, and in countries like Belize, the prevalence of hunger has soared in recent years. Not having access to diets with sufficient calories and nutrients leads to a host of developmental issues, including stunting and cognitive delays. The purpose of this work was to create an all-encompassing manual for small-scale broiler production, with the intention of another honors student overseeing the implementation of the ideas set forth in the manual, in order to provide nourishment for the students and staff of a school in Belize. After determining that the …


Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers: Genomics, Phylogenomics, And Methods To Detect Specific Pathogens During Outbreaks., Abdulkarim Abdulaziz A. Shwani Aug 2022

Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers: Genomics, Phylogenomics, And Methods To Detect Specific Pathogens During Outbreaks., Abdulkarim Abdulaziz A. Shwani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lameness is a major issue in animal welfare and the broiler industry. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is one of the main causes of lameness. Many staphylococcal species, including Staphylococcus agnetis isolate 908, have been isolated from the bones and blood of lame broilers at the University of Arkansas. Staphylococcus agnetis is a coagulase-variable, Gram-positive bacterial species that has been previously associated with subclinical or mild clinical cases of mastitis in dairy cattle. The annotated complete genome of hypervirulent strain 908 was published at NCBI. In this study, it has been compared to nine genomes we assembled for hypervirulent isolates …


The Role Of Microbiota On Campylobacter Jejuni Colonization And Growth Performance In Broiler Chickens, Ayidh Almansour Aug 2022

The Role Of Microbiota On Campylobacter Jejuni Colonization And Growth Performance In Broiler Chickens, Ayidh Almansour

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The successful poultry production at modern era comes from the vertical integratedindustrialization, which has fundamentally changed how animals have been living for millions of years. Antimicrobial growth promoters have been used to sustain the efficient industrialized animal production, driving antimicrobial overuse and resistance. Because of the increasing pressure from consumer’s concerns and government regulations, it is urgent to develop antimicrobial free alternatives as growth promoters in poultry production, but few effective antimicrobial alternatives are currently available. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the worldwide prevalent foodborne bacterial pathogens mainly transmitted from poultry. However, few mechanisms are available on why C. jejuni …


Histomonosis In Turkeys – Factors Influencing Transmission, Pathogenesis, And The Search For Prophylactic Or Therapeutic Compounds, Thainá Landim De Barros Aug 2022

Histomonosis In Turkeys – Factors Influencing Transmission, Pathogenesis, And The Search For Prophylactic Or Therapeutic Compounds, Thainá Landim De Barros

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The incidence of histomonosis has been increasing in poultry since the ban of prophylactic and therapeutic compounds. Histomonosis is caused by the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis. The objective of this dissertation was to investigate factors impacting the pathogenesis and transmission of histomonosis and to evaluate compounds that could potentially prevent or reduce the severity of histomonosis in turkeys. In the first study, the effect of sodium chlorate and sodium nitrate on reducing histomonads growth was tested in vitro and added to a basal turkey diet. A decrease in the growth of histomonads in vitro was observed, but no in vivo effect …


Validation Of Whole Genome Resequencing For Mapping The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers And Viral Susceptibility In Layers, Katherine Pepper Lee Aug 2022

Validation Of Whole Genome Resequencing For Mapping The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers And Viral Susceptibility In Layers, Katherine Pepper Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focused on the efficacy and validity of whole genome resequencing (WGR) for fine mapping genetic determinants of particular traits in a given organism. Previously, our research group used WGR to identify haplotype blocks of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ascites resistance with some as strong candidates for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Chapter 2 discusses the completion of a MAS project through evaluation of ascites incidence as well as production traits of economic value to poultry producers. Thus, the MAS project also covered viability of this methodology in the industry. The MAS significantly reduced ascites incidence in broilers …


Identification Of Genomic, Proteomic, And Metabolomic Signatures Associated With Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broilers, Duaa Almansaf Aug 2022

Identification Of Genomic, Proteomic, And Metabolomic Signatures Associated With Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broilers, Duaa Almansaf

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present dissertation contains a collection of studies that examine the genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic association to pulmonary hypertension or ascites phenotype in fast-growing broilers. Pulmonary hypertension is a multifactorial metabolic disease influenced by physiological, environmental, and nutritional factors. It is characterized by a number of structural changes including, thrombosis and adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. Thus, the atrial pressure is increased, and the right ventricle becomes hypertrophied, resulting in heart failure and the death of the bird. Pulmonary hypertension or ascites is a global problem that has negatively impacted the economy. The increased mortality rate of broilers (25%) is estimated …


Recruitment, Cost Indexes, And Management Of Box-Nesting Wood Ducks In South Carolina And North Carolina, Emily Miller Aug 2022

Recruitment, Cost Indexes, And Management Of Box-Nesting Wood Ducks In South Carolina And North Carolina, Emily Miller

All Theses

The wood duck (Aix sponsa) has experienced one of the most significant declines and recoveries among species of North American waterfowl (Anatidae). With enactment of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (1918) and installation of hundreds of thousands of artificial nest structures for this cavity-nesting species in North America, wood duck populations have recovered and remain a sustainable harvested resource. However, long-term research on box-nesting wood ducks conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina, has revealed uncertainty as to whether recruitment rates of yearling females from natal box-nesting populations are self-sustaining without immigration of hens from …


Intestinal Microbiota Analysis Of Broiler Chickens Under Necrotic Enteritis Challenge And Tributyrin Supplementation, Taylor Nicole Mckinney Aug 2022

Intestinal Microbiota Analysis Of Broiler Chickens Under Necrotic Enteritis Challenge And Tributyrin Supplementation, Taylor Nicole Mckinney

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Poultry is a staple protein source for most of the planet. Until recently, antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) were used to prevent illnesses in commercial chicken production. Currently, this is not possible due to regulations and consumer concern, but without such a preventative, diseases like necrotic enteritis (NE) have reemerged, posing a threat to bird health, and ultimately, our food source. Necrotic enteritis is a severe gastrointestinal disease caused by the gram-positive pathogen, Clostridium perfringens. Clinical features of this disease are diarrhea, intestinal lesions, and death, with a high transmission rate. In a subclinical form, growth performance is diminished and is …


Rare Dark American Kestrel – Melanistic Or Sooty?, Joseph A. Gubanyi, Joel Rathe, Camden Sesna Jun 2022

Rare Dark American Kestrel – Melanistic Or Sooty?, Joseph A. Gubanyi, Joel Rathe, Camden Sesna

Nebraska Bird Review

On April 13 in Seward County, we noticed a dark bird flying relatively low over fields east of Seward near 224th and Bluff Rd. Initially, because of its size, dark coloration and pointed wingtips, we were unsure of its identification and followed the bird to get better looks and identify it. We were able to observe and photograph the bird perched (Figure 1). We also observed the bird hovering and diving to the ground multiple times in search of prey. After better looks, based on size, wing shape, hooked beak, claws, and behavior (repeated hovering over field), we concluded the …


The Nebraska Bird Review Volume 90 Number 2, June 2022 Jun 2022

The Nebraska Bird Review Volume 90 Number 2, June 2022

Nebraska Bird Review

Spring Field Report, March - May 2022, by W. Ross Silcock ….46

Rare Dark American Kestrel – Melanistic or Sooty?, by Joseph Gubanyi, Joel Rathe, Camden Sesna …. 71

Remembering Rosalind Morris …. 76

Remembering Lanny Randolph by William Flack … 77

NOU Spring field Days and Annual Meeting in Gering, May 20-22, 2022 ….78

Subscription and Organization Information …. 87


Subscription And Organization Information (June 2022) Jun 2022

Subscription And Organization Information (June 2022)

Nebraska Bird Review

The Nebraska Bird Review is published quarterly by the Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union, Inc., as its official journal, and is sent to members not in arrears of dues. Annual subscription rates (on a calendar-year basis only): $25 in the United States and $35 in all other countries, payable in advance. Single copies are $7 each, postpaid, in the United States and $9 elsewhere. Send orders for back issues to Anita Breckbill, NOU Librarian, c/o Music Library, WMB 30, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0101 (or at the email address listed below). Memberships in the NOU (on a calendar-year basis only): Active …


Spring Field Report, March-May 2022, W. Ross Silcock Jun 2022

Spring Field Report, March-May 2022, W. Ross Silcock

Nebraska Bird Review

This spring there was a large number of interesting reports generated by active field observers, particularly in the west, where our knowledge continues to be broadened in all aspects. The main takeaway this spring was the inordinate plethora of species that matched or exceeded early arrival dates listed in BONO. There were no fewer than 70 species in this category, involving most families and genera, suggesting some overall influence on migration timing. Perhaps exceptions to these early arrivals were some lingering waterfowl and gulls although terns arrived early. Fully 50 of the early arrivers were passerines, notably including nine species …