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Full-Text Articles in Poultry or Avian Science

Using Poultry To Enhance Food Security In Stann Creek, Belize, Emily Spatz Aug 2022

Using Poultry To Enhance Food Security In Stann Creek, Belize, Emily Spatz

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Food insecurity is a growing issue in developing and developed countries alike, and in countries like Belize, the prevalence of hunger has soared in recent years. Not having access to diets with sufficient calories and nutrients leads to a host of developmental issues, including stunting and cognitive delays. The purpose of this work was to create an all-encompassing manual for small-scale broiler production, with the intention of another honors student overseeing the implementation of the ideas set forth in the manual, in order to provide nourishment for the students and staff of a school in Belize. After determining that the ...


Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn May 2022

Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Both genetics and environment play an important role in the growth, performance and overall welfare of poultry species. Current commercial production practices typically do not mimic the natural environmental conditions of ancestral poultry species, specifically lighting requirements. In nature, poultry species are subjected to natural day length and the slow rising and setting of the sun. This is compared to commercial conditions in which lights are sudden on/off, not mimicking the natural trajectory of the sun in terms of light intensity and exposure. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetics and the effect of sunrise/sunset ...


Broiler Efficiency As Affected By Dietary Protein Supply And Grain Source, Victoria Reid May 2022

Broiler Efficiency As Affected By Dietary Protein Supply And Grain Source, Victoria Reid

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of different diet compositions on performance and carcass yield of male broilers from 15 to 36 days of age. In total, 593 male birds were divided across a randomized design that consisted of 6 dietary treatments, each with 8 replications. The treatments included pelleted diets that varied in grain type and crude protein (CP) value: 3 sorghum-based diets at 20%, 18.75%, and 17.5% CP and 3 corn-sorghum blended diets at the same CP levels. CP amounts impacted only body weight gain and feed conversion rate while feed intake only differed ...


Evaluation Of Selected Nuproxa Feed Additives For Protection Against Lameness And Improving The Wellbeing Of Broilers In A Lameness Challenge Model, Jaren Hernandez May 2022

Evaluation Of Selected Nuproxa Feed Additives For Protection Against Lameness And Improving The Wellbeing Of Broilers In A Lameness Challenge Model, Jaren Hernandez

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

A common concern in commercial industries profiting from broiler chickens is their inability to yield a completely healthy flock. Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis poses a threat to these companies by impairing the birds' proximal and distal tibial and femoral heads. In 2000, roughly 17.3% of broiler chickens were affected by Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis which caused a substantial economic loss in the industry (McNammee et al., 2000). BCO cannot be tied to a particular bacterial species; this experiment focuses on evaluating the efficacy of certain commercial feed additives while determining the bacterial species causing BCO in this set of ...


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert May 2022

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...


Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Behind Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis (Bco) Pathogenesis In Modern Broilers, Alison Ramser May 2022

Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Behind Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis (Bco) Pathogenesis In Modern Broilers, Alison Ramser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO), a leading cause of lameness in broiler chickens, is characterized by infection, inflammation, and bone attrition. There are currently no effective treatments and positive diagnosis is only possible through necropsy evaluations. Lameness is also a rising animal welfare and economic concern, making prevention and detection of BCO all the more critical. These challenges are exacerbated by a lack of mechanistic understanding of BCO’s etiology. The question I asked during my dissertation was how bacteria induce bone attrition in BCO pathology. My research has shown that mitochondrial dysfunction is characteristic of BCO conditions along with ...


Genomic Analysis Of Metabolic Differences Found In Clostridium Perfringens That Cause Necrotic Enteritis In Poultry, Connor Aylor Apr 2022

Genomic Analysis Of Metabolic Differences Found In Clostridium Perfringens That Cause Necrotic Enteritis In Poultry, Connor Aylor

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Clostridium perfringens is a common member of gut microbiota in healthy animals, but can also be an important pathogen in human and veterinary medicine. It produces several protein toxins that contribute to both histotoxic and enteric diseases in animals. Necrotic enteritis in poultry has been associated with the NetB toxin of C. perfringens; however, this toxin alone is insufficient to cause disease in infected chickens. While considerable research has focused on the presence of toxins and virulence factors, little has been done to assess the function of metabolic factors on the ability of the bacteria to cause disease. In this ...


Impact Of Fluctuating Insect Availability Levels On Parental Care Behavior In Insectivorous Birds, Cole Bourque Apr 2022

Impact Of Fluctuating Insect Availability Levels On Parental Care Behavior In Insectivorous Birds, Cole Bourque

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract Populations of aerially insectivorous birds are declining throughout North America. Urbanization may be indirectly contributing to this decline through its varying effects on populations of insects, an important food source in most insectivores' diet, especially those undergoing breeding efforts. How increasing urban sprawl and subsequent fluctuations in insect populations could impact various species at higher trophic levels is an important area of current study for future conservation endeavors. Certain habitats, with increased insect abundance, could facilitate higher provisioning rates and allow breeding parents to more effectively nourish their young. In addition, brooding and guarding behaviors in breeding birds may ...


Evaluation Of Selected Bacteria And Yeast For Probiotic Potential In Poultry Production, Beverly Dixon, Agnes Kilonzo-Nthenge, Maureen Nzomo, Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel Nahashon Mar 2022

Evaluation Of Selected Bacteria And Yeast For Probiotic Potential In Poultry Production, Beverly Dixon, Agnes Kilonzo-Nthenge, Maureen Nzomo, Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel Nahashon

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Performance and efficiency of feed utilization in poultry is highly influenced by gut health, which is dependent on intestinal microbial balance. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements or viable microorganisms that beneficially affect the host animal by improving its gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbial balance. However, their mode of action and suitable GIT environment favoring their colonization of the GIT is obscure. The probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, and Saccharomyces boulardii were evaluated. These microbes were tested in vitro against gastrointestinal conditions for survivability and their ability to attach to the intestinal mucosa. The ability of the microbes to ...


The Effects Of Feed Additives And The Use Of A Novel Wood Boiler Heat Exchanger On Litter Quality, Broiler Performance, And Immune Status, Victoria Ayres Jan 2022

The Effects Of Feed Additives And The Use Of A Novel Wood Boiler Heat Exchanger On Litter Quality, Broiler Performance, And Immune Status, Victoria Ayres

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of varying feed ingredients and heating systems on boiler performance metrics. Chapter Two investigated the effects of two corn-expressed phytases, differing in enzyme concentration within the grain (3,000 or 9,677 FTU/g), on broiler performance and tibia mineralization, when used as a component in pelleted feed. Dietary treatments included a positive control (PC), with industry-recommended levels of calcium and phosphorous, and a negative control (NC), lower in calcium and non-phytate phosphorous. Six diets containing corn-expressed phytase at high or low grain concentrations, formulated to 3,000, 6,000, or 9,000 ...


Breed(Ing) Narratives: Visualizing Values In Industrial Farming, Camille Bellet, Emily Morgan Jan 2022

Breed(Ing) Narratives: Visualizing Values In Industrial Farming, Camille Bellet, Emily Morgan

Animal Studies Journal

In this study, we consider how farmed animals, specifically pigs and chickens, are visualised in literature designed for circulation within animal production industries. The way breeding companies create and circulate images of industrial animals tells us a lot about their visions of what industrial animals are and how they believe animals should be treated. Drawing upon a wide range of material designed for circulation within animal production industries, from the 1880s to the 2010s, this paper examines how representations of pigs and chickens contribute to stories of perfection and advance ideals of power, race, gender, and progress. We demonstrate that ...


Feed Conditioning Effects On Enzymes, Amino Acids, And Subsequent Broiler Performance, Elizabeth Ann Lynch Jan 2022

Feed Conditioning Effects On Enzymes, Amino Acids, And Subsequent Broiler Performance, Elizabeth Ann Lynch

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

There are many things that can be done to improve broiler performance including, but not limited to, pelleting, proper Lys inclusion, and exogenous enzyme supplementation. Pelleting has the ability to improve feed form, reduce wastage, improve bird performance metrics, and decrease pathogens within the feed. Pathogen reduction can be further reduced by hygienic pelleting practices which include an increase in temperature or retention time within a conditioner or hygieniser. However, hygienic pelleting can degrade valuable AA and enzymes (more specifically for the current thesis research Lys and phytase) and make them unavailable to the animal. Supplementing Lys to account for ...


Winter Wings: An Introduction To Environmental Education, Samuel G. Mothner Jan 2022

Winter Wings: An Introduction To Environmental Education, Samuel G. Mothner

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

No abstract provided.


Investigation Of A Novel Throughput Agent On Production Rate And Pellet Quality And The Development Of A Lab-Based Method To Predict Salmonella Reduction In Poultry Feed, Utilizing Varying Feed Manufacture Parameters, Timothy Paul Boltz Jan 2022

Investigation Of A Novel Throughput Agent On Production Rate And Pellet Quality And The Development Of A Lab-Based Method To Predict Salmonella Reduction In Poultry Feed, Utilizing Varying Feed Manufacture Parameters, Timothy Paul Boltz

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate a novel throughput agent and its mechanisms on production rate and pellet quality. An additional experiment using lab-based methods and models was conducted to predict Salmonella reduction in mash broiler feed. Feed mill pellet production rate is of great importance to integrated meat bird production. Feed hygienics are also of increasing concern for poultry producers.

In chapter 2, the effect of AZOMITE® (AZM) and varying inorganic phosphate sources (IPS) on pellet mill production rate and pellet quality was assessed. It is documented that the naturally abrasive properties of inorganic phosphate sources may scour the ...


Hotline Number To Reach And Offer Agricultural Information To Plain Anabaptists During The Covid-19 Workplace Closures, Emily Shoop, Carly Becker, Nathan Glenn Briggs, Danielle Smarsh Dec 2021

Hotline Number To Reach And Offer Agricultural Information To Plain Anabaptists During The Covid-19 Workplace Closures, Emily Shoop, Carly Becker, Nathan Glenn Briggs, Danielle Smarsh

Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies

The Penn State Extension Animal Systems Team developed a toll-free hotline phone number to convey short educational messages to maintain contact and outreach to Pennsylvania’s animal producing Amish, Mennonite, and other plain Anabaptist populations. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Penn State Extension’s programming went largely online via webinars, online courses, and emails. This change in programming excluded a large sector of Pennsylvania farmers who do not use or have access to the internet and, as such, were liable to miss important best management practice reviews and timely updates in animal agriculture. The Animal Systems Hotline offered callers the choice ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Pine And Miscanthus Biochar On Water Activity And Escherichia Coli Populations In Commercial Broiler Litter, Christopher Austin Marty Dec 2021

Evaluating The Effects Of Pine And Miscanthus Biochar On Water Activity And Escherichia Coli Populations In Commercial Broiler Litter, Christopher Austin Marty

Theses and Dissertations

The decrease in subtherapeutic antibiotic administration in poultry has increased the need to address production challenges caused by pathogens, such as E. coli. One potential way to improve bird health and reduce bacterial infection is through the addition of litter amendments that absorb moisture. Biochar (BC) has previously been shown to increase water holding capacity in poultry litter, but its effects on E. coli mitigation are unknown. The objectives of this research were to 1) evaluate water activity of poultry litter amended with pine and miscanthus BC, and 2) determine the effects of different BC inclusion rates on litter E ...


Assessing The Potential For Lightning-Induced Damage In Commercial Broiler Houses In Mississippi And Alabama, Matthew R. Rowland Dec 2021

Assessing The Potential For Lightning-Induced Damage In Commercial Broiler Houses In Mississippi And Alabama, Matthew R. Rowland

Theses and Dissertations

Modern broiler houses are expensive to build, maintain, and insure. Protecting them from extreme weather events is a major concern to producers, integrators, and insurance companies. Lightning strikes can cause catastrophic fires and electrical damage and can lead to costly bird losses. A greater understanding of the impact of lightning on the commercial broiler industries of MS and AL is needed. The objectives of this research were collection of baseline resistance data for broiler houses and equipment in both states, and mapping lightning strike densities across MS and AL, evaluating annual, monthly, seasonal, and diurnal patterns. 63.5% of surveyed ...


Evaluation Of Essential Oil Products On Performance, Intestinal Permeability, Bone Mineralization, And Oxidative Stress Parameters On Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress Conditions, Jared Ruff Dec 2021

Evaluation Of Essential Oil Products On Performance, Intestinal Permeability, Bone Mineralization, And Oxidative Stress Parameters On Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress Conditions, Jared Ruff

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The goal of this study was to show how dietary supplementation of three different formulations of essential oils (EO) affected the performance of broiler chickens during heat stress (HS). Day-of-hatch Cobb 500 chicks (n = 500) were randomly divided into four groups: 1. HS control + control diets; 2. HS + control meals supplemented with 37 ppm EO of Lippia origanoides (LO); 3. HS + control diets supplemented with 45 ppm LO + 45 ppm EO of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) + 300 ppm red beetroot; 4. HS + 45 ppm LO + 45 ppm RO + 300 ppm natural betaine. When compared to control HS chickens, the EO chickens ...


Divergent Selection For Water Conversion Ratio In Broiler Populations, Joseph Hiltz Dec 2021

Divergent Selection For Water Conversion Ratio In Broiler Populations, Joseph Hiltz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Water scarcity is a global reality and with the anticipated population growth, freshwater resources will be further strained to meet both human needs and agriculture applications. To ensure a water sustainable and food secure future, all aspects of agriculture must become more efficient. Two strategies were explored. The potential of improving water efficiency in broilers was examined. The first strategy was to develop a more efficient and accurate method for measuring water consumption/inputs in agriculture. To date, water measuring technology has lacked the necessary sophistication to assure accuracy and repeatability of low flow water usage.

After establishing a low ...


Evaluation Of Two Neonatal Challenge Models For Broiler Chickens And Their Effects On Early Performance Parameters, Callie Selby Dec 2021

Evaluation Of Two Neonatal Challenge Models For Broiler Chickens And Their Effects On Early Performance Parameters, Callie Selby

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Formaldehyde fumigation in poultry hatch cabinets has been utilized for sanitation of hatching eggs for over a century. Formaldehyde is utilized to minimize pathogenic microbes on the surface of the egg as well as the microbial bloom during the hatching process. While formaldehyde is effective, its use is regulated in the United States and Europe due to its carcinogenic nature. Formaldehyde has been shown to damage the cuticle of the egg, cause embryonic death, and damage the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract of freshly hatched chicks, predisposing them for respiratory infection. Alternatives for formaldehyde fumigation must be identified and ...


Genome-Wide Analyses Of Genomic Variation Regulating Differential Stress Responses In Japanese Quail, Steven Anthony Shumaker Dec 2021

Genome-Wide Analyses Of Genomic Variation Regulating Differential Stress Responses In Japanese Quail, Steven Anthony Shumaker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As consumer demands for poultry grow, producers work to improve bird productivity in both meat and egg production. This endeavor is multifaceted, as many different factors play a part in influencing the productivity of birds, including environmental conditions, overall health, and genetic potential. One aspect controlled for in all aspects of poultry production optimization is stress management. Mitigation of stress is of primary concern to producers, as improper stress management can have many deleterious effects on chickens. Stress management requires an understanding of poultry stress responses and their physiological mechanisms, which can be more deeply understood through genomic analysis. Chapter ...


The Nebraska Bird Review, Volume 89 September 2021 Number 3 Sep 2021

The Nebraska Bird Review, Volume 89 September 2021 Number 3

Nebraska Bird Review

Summer Field Report, June - July 2021 by W. Ross Silcock 106

Diminishing Returns: Results of Black Rail Surveys in Nebraska by Joel G. Jorgensen, Lauren Greenwalt, Nancy E. Drilling, Caleb Strand and Stephen J. Brenner 128

A Brown-capped Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) in Sarpy County, Nebraska by W. Ross Silcock and Phil Swanson 136

2020 (32nd) Report of the NOU Records Committee by Mark A. Brogie 139

Black-throated Gray Warbler in Knox County, Nebraska by Mark A. Brogie 146

Subscription and Organization Information 147


2020 (32nd) Report Of The Nou Records Committee, Mark A. Brogie Sep 2021

2020 (32nd) Report Of The Nou Records Committee, Mark A. Brogie

Nebraska Bird Review

ebraska: 2017” (NOURC 2017).

Nebraska State List: The following includes all revisions made by the American Ornithological Society (Chesser et al. 2020) in 2020 including scientific name changes and taxonomic realignment that affect the current published “Official List of the Birds of Nebraska: 2017” (NOURC 2017, wwwNOUbirds.org). This report includes all accounts submitted during the 2020 calendar year covering 29 records with accession numbers 2258 – 2286.

2020 Additions/Deletions to the “Official List of the Birds of Nebraska”: Two new species were added in 2020.: Black Phoebe (Sayornis nigricans) 1. A single bird was photographed (Class 1-P, TL) 26 ...


Diminishing Returns: Results Of Black Rail Surveys In Nebraska, Joel G. Jorgensen, Lauren Greenwalt, Nancy E. Drilling, Caleb Strand, Stephen J. Brenner Sep 2021

Diminishing Returns: Results Of Black Rail Surveys In Nebraska, Joel G. Jorgensen, Lauren Greenwalt, Nancy E. Drilling, Caleb Strand, Stephen J. Brenner

Nebraska Bird Review

The uncertain status of the Black Rail in Nebraska is problematic. Different authors have interpreted existing reports differently resulting in varying conclusions about the species’ status. The exercise of deciphering the limited details of existing reports and litigating their credibility is of little value. The Black Rail is now a threatened species and there is almost no published information on whether it occurs regularly in Nebraska. Furthermore, the species has not been searched for in any consistent form or systematic manner. Without information and understanding about the species’ occurrence, taking actions to benefit and protect this species will undoubtedly be ...


A Brown-Capped Black-Capped Chickadee (Poecile Atricapillus) In Sarpy County, Nebraska, W. Ross Silcock, Phil Swanson Sep 2021

A Brown-Capped Black-Capped Chickadee (Poecile Atricapillus) In Sarpy County, Nebraska, W. Ross Silcock, Phil Swanson

Nebraska Bird Review

Beginning 31 May 2021, Phil Swanson captured a series of videos and photos of an apparent family group of Black-capped Chickadees (BCCH). Five birds were seen together through 2 June, 2-4 through 6 June, and 2-3 through 9 June, during which all sightings included begging. Thereafter 1-2 birds per day were seen but without interactions between them. One of the family group had a brown cap (Figures 1, 2), and was presumably a juvenile based on its propensity for begging for food and partial replacement of its greater coverts (Pyle 1997). This condition has been described as “rare” (Sibley 2011 ...


Summer Field Report, June-July 2021, W. Ross Silcock Sep 2021

Summer Field Report, June-July 2021, W. Ross Silcock

Nebraska Bird Review

Last summer my opening sentences were: “Overall, this was a fairly routine summer although birders in Nebraska know that ‘routine’ still holds promise of a few happenings out of the ordinary. The summer season primarily examines new breeding records, range expansions, and changes in numbers, up or down.” This summer was also rather routine but had its share of startling events. Foremost among these were only the second colony breeding of American White Pelicans, involving 1200 on nests; two, possibly the same, male Evening Grosbeaks in the southeast; record late by about a month Townsend’s Solitaire; two Lincoln’s ...


Black-Throated Gray Warbler In Knox County, Nebraska, Mark A. Brogie Sep 2021

Black-Throated Gray Warbler In Knox County, Nebraska, Mark A. Brogie

Nebraska Bird Review

The Nebraska Ornithologists’ Union Records Committee (NOURC) considers Black-throated Gray Warbler (Setophaga nigrescens) to be Accidental in Nebraska (NOURC 2017). Silcock and Jorgensen (2020) list a total of seven accepted records with only two occurring in fall: an adult male at the Hyannis Cemetery, Grant Co., 01 Sep 2002 (Brogie 2003) and a female at Oliver Reservoir, Kimball Co., 07 Sep 2001 (Silcock 2001). The following documents the third Nebraska fall record for Black-throated Gray Warbler, the third record east of the Nebraska Panhandle, the first for northeast Nebraska, and the only NOURC accepted record (#2338) in the last decade.


Reckless Parenting With A Purpose, Walter H. Piper, Linda Grenzer Sep 2021

Reckless Parenting With A Purpose, Walter H. Piper, Linda Grenzer

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

No abstract provided.


Understanding Corn Variability, Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón Aug 2021

Understanding Corn Variability, Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Corn is the most common feed ingredient used in poultry nutrition. Maize contributes with up to 65% of the metabolizable energy and 20% of crude protein in poultry diets (Gehring et al., 2013; Dei, 2017). Its average nutritional value is well-known, but it is accepted that the variability in its composition and energy value is a very common issue with great impact on poultry performance and health (Cowieson, 2005; Gehring et al., 2013; Latham et al., 2016; Montanhini-Neto et al., 2017). Corn variability affects growth, feed conversion, flock uniformity, digestibility, AMEn, digesta viscosity, gut microbiota composition, intestinal health, and efficacy ...


Assessing Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids To Achieve Linear Programming Goals Through Model Extrapolation And Empirical Research, Craig W. Maynard, Ed E. Gbur, Vinh-Loi Ly, Minh-Duc Le, Thi H. Ngan Le Jr, Justina Caldas, Michael T. Kidd Aug 2021

Assessing Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids To Achieve Linear Programming Goals Through Model Extrapolation And Empirical Research, Craig W. Maynard, Ed E. Gbur, Vinh-Loi Ly, Minh-Duc Le, Thi H. Ngan Le Jr, Justina Caldas, Michael T. Kidd

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Renewed interest, especially in the United States, has sparked in assessing branched-chain amino acid interactions in practical diets for broilers. Indeed, as L-valine enters formulation bird nitrogen excesses are reduced as diet protein falls to the new first limiting amino acid (e.g., isoleucine, arginine, or tryptophan). For a United States based example, the result is less oilseeds and more gains, which typically result in increased inclusions in corn or corn by-products, coupled with a concomitant increase in dietary leucine. The proceedings outline the foundations of the branched-chain amino acid early research, antagonism studies, and a meta-analysis conducted on publications ...