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Nonlinear Nanophotonic Devices In The Ultraviolet To Visible Wavelength Range, Jinghan He, Hong Chen, Jin Hu, Jingan Zhou, Yingmu Zhang, Andre Kovach, Constantine Sideris, Mark C. Harrison, Yuji Zhao, Andrea M. Armani 2020 University of Southern California

Nonlinear Nanophotonic Devices In The Ultraviolet To Visible Wavelength Range, Jinghan He, Hong Chen, Jin Hu, Jingan Zhou, Yingmu Zhang, Andre Kovach, Constantine Sideris, Mark C. Harrison, Yuji Zhao, Andrea M. Armani

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Although the first lasers invented operated in the visible, the first on-chip devices were optimized for near-infrared (IR) performance driven by demand in telecommunications. However, as the applications of integrated photonics has broadened, the wavelength demand has as well, and we are now returning to the visible (Vis) and pushing into the ultraviolet (UV). This shift has required innovations in device design and in materials as well as leveraging nonlinear behavior to reach these wavelengths. This review discusses the key nonlinear phenomena that can be used as well as presents several emerging material systems and devices that have reached the …


Flexible Capacitive Pressure Sensors And Triboelectric Energy Harvesters Using Laser-Assisted Patterning Process For Flexible Hybrid Electronic Applications, Valliammai Palaniappan 2020 Western Michigan University

Flexible Capacitive Pressure Sensors And Triboelectric Energy Harvesters Using Laser-Assisted Patterning Process For Flexible Hybrid Electronic Applications, Valliammai Palaniappan

Masters Theses

This work focuses on the design, fabrication and characterization of novel flexible capacitive pressure sensors and triboelectric energy harvesters using laser-assisted patterning process for flexible hybrid electronic applications. Initially, the capacitive pressure sensor was developed by fabricating a set of polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) dielectric films with pyramid shaped micro-structures using a laser-assisted patterning process. The pressure sensor consists of two electrodes (top and bottom) that were fabricated by depositing silver (Ag) on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using additive screen-printing process. Finally, the pressure sensor was assembled by attaching the top and bottom Ag electrodes to the smooth side of pyramid shaped …


Nanoelectronic Applications Of Magnetoelectric Nanostructures, Ping Wang 2020 Florida International University

Nanoelectronic Applications Of Magnetoelectric Nanostructures, Ping Wang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The greatly increased interest in magnetoelectric materials over the last decade is due to their potential to enable next-generation multifunctional nanostructures required for revolutionizing applications spanning from energy-efficient information processing to medicine. Magnetoelectric nanomaterials offer a unique way to use a voltage to control the electron spin and, reciprocally, to use remotely controlled magnetic fields to access local intrinsic electric fields. The magnetoelectric coefficient is the most critical indicator for the magnetoelectric coupling in these nanostructures. To realize the immense potential of these materials, it is necessary to maximize the coefficient. Therefore, the goal of this PhD thesis study was …


Microrobots For Wafer Scale Microfactory: Design Fabrication Integration And Control., Ruoshi Zhang 2020 University of Louisville

Microrobots For Wafer Scale Microfactory: Design Fabrication Integration And Control., Ruoshi Zhang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Future assembly technologies will involve higher automation levels, in order to satisfy increased micro scale or nano scale precision requirements. Traditionally, assembly using a top-down robotic approach has been well-studied and applied to micro-electronics and MEMS industries, but less so in nanotechnology. With the bloom of nanotechnology ever since the 1990s, newly designed products with new materials, coatings and nanoparticles are gradually entering everyone’s life, while the industry has grown into a billion-dollar volume worldwide. Traditionally, nanotechnology products are assembled using bottom-up methods, such as self-assembly, rather than with top-down robotic assembly. This is due to considerations of volume handling …


Development And Test Of High Temperature Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors, Armando E. Ayes Moncada 2020 University of Maine

Development And Test Of High Temperature Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors, Armando E. Ayes Moncada

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The demand for sensors in hostile environments, such as power plant environments, exhaust systems and high-temperature metallurgy environments, has risen over the past decades in a continuous attempt to increase process control, improve energy and process efficiency in production, reduce operational and maintenance costs, increase safety, and perform condition-based maintenance in equipment and structures operating in high-temperature, harsh-environment conditions. The increased reliability, improved performance, and development of new sensors and networks with a multitude of components, especially wireless networks, are the target for operation in harsh environments. Gas sensors, in particular hydrogen gas sensors, operating above 200°C are required in …


Design Of Submicron Structured Guided-Mode-Resonance Near-Infrared Polarizer, Marzia Zaman 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Design Of Submicron Structured Guided-Mode-Resonance Near-Infrared Polarizer, Marzia Zaman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to design a larger submicron linear polarizer in the near-infrared wavelength range with a wide bandwidth which can be fabricated using the conventional thin-film microfabrication technology to reduce cost. For this purpose, a gold (Au) wire-grid transmission-type transverse-magnetic (TM) polarizer and a silicon (Si) wire-grid reflection-type TM polarizer, were designed using the guided-mode-resonance filter. The Au wire-grid TM polarizer of 700nm grating width and 1200nm grating period has 95% transmittance at 2400nm, more than 1000nm resonance peak bandwidth, and an extinction ratio (ER) of around 300 with a moderated level of sidebands. The 700nm …


Pool Boiling Inversion On Femtosecond Laser Surface Processed 304 Stainless Steel And Its Impact On Steady-State Time Constants, Justin Costa-Greger, Alfred Tsubaki, Josh Gerdes, Mark Anderson, Craig Zuhlke, Dennis Alexander, Jeff Shield, George Gogos 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Pool Boiling Inversion On Femtosecond Laser Surface Processed 304 Stainless Steel And Its Impact On Steady-State Time Constants, Justin Costa-Greger, Alfred Tsubaki, Josh Gerdes, Mark Anderson, Craig Zuhlke, Dennis Alexander, Jeff Shield, George Gogos

UCARE Research Products

FLSP surfaces resulting in boiling inversion require longer times to reach steady-state once inversion has occurred Boiling inversion has been shown to be the result of changing nucleation dynamics in which a large number of nucleation sites activate Increased time required to reach steady-state is linked to the rate at which these nucleation sites activate. Heat fluxes above the boiling inversion point can require up to an additional 3 hours to reach steady-state, compared to the typical 15-20 minutes reported in the literature


Design Of An Affordable Rotating Drum Electrospinner For Classroom Education, Peder Solberg 2020 South Dakota State University

Design Of An Affordable Rotating Drum Electrospinner For Classroom Education, Peder Solberg

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Electrospinning is a technology used to generate small fibers down to nano-scale size. This method of fiber creation has been around for many years. However, in recent years electrospinning has found increased applications, especially in the area of tissue engineering due to its ability to create fibers with properties similar to the extracellular matrix in tissue. An electrospinning platform can illustrate concepts of engineering, electro-mechanical system design, manufacturing, and biomedical applications in one single package. Hence, it provides an excellent opportunity to integrate into secondary (middle and high school) and post-secondary (undergraduate) technology education.

Furthermore, just as integration of 3D …


Evaluation Of Capacitive Deionization Desalination Technology For Irrigation, Ziad Khalifa, Moustafa Elshafei Prof, Abdalrahman Amer, Eng, Ashraf Seleym Dr, Tamer Samir Eng 2020 Zewail City, University of Science and Technology

Evaluation Of Capacitive Deionization Desalination Technology For Irrigation, Ziad Khalifa, Moustafa Elshafei Prof, Abdalrahman Amer, Eng, Ashraf Seleym Dr, Tamer Samir Eng

Chemical Engineering

Desalination of brackish groundwater has great potential to alleviate the problem of the limited water resources in Egypt. In this paper, we studied the desalination of brackish water for irrigation purposes using capacitive deionization (CDI) technology. We investigated a modular unit for use in greenhouses (GH). A GH for the production of tomato requires about 3.2 m3/d of water. The target CDI unit has a production capacity of 32 m3/d for irrigation of 10 greenhouses from brackish water. The paper provides an extensive simulation study to illustrate the influence of various design parameters and to unveil the CDI technology pros …


Rapid Prototyping Of Nanostructures With Electron Beam Induced Processing, Samaneh Esfandiarpour 2020 University of Kentucky

Rapid Prototyping Of Nanostructures With Electron Beam Induced Processing, Samaneh Esfandiarpour

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) is a nano-scale fabrication technique that allows the direct deposition of functional materials. However, it suffers from significant drawbacks, such as high cost, low speed, unavailable precursors for many materials and low purity of deposits. Liquid-phase focused electron beam induced processes (LP-FEBIP) are being investigated due to the potential benefits over the gas phase technique. In this method, deposition or etching occurs at the interface between a substrate and a bulk liquid. In this work, electron beam induced deposition of copper nanostructures from aqueous solutions of copper sulfate is demonstrated. The addition of sulfuric …


Parametric Optimization Of Visible Wavelength Gold Lattice Geometries For Improved Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Casey A. Norville 2020 West Virginia University

Parametric Optimization Of Visible Wavelength Gold Lattice Geometries For Improved Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Casey A. Norville

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The exploitation of spectro-plasmonics will allow for innovations in optical instrumentation development and the realization of more efficient optical biodetection components. Biosensors have been shown to improve the overall quality of life through real-time detection of various antibody-antigen reactions, biomarkers, infectious diseases, pathogens, toxins, viruses, etc. has led to increased interest in the research and development of these devices. Further advancements in modern biosensor development will be realized through novel electrochemical, electromechanical, bioelectrical, and/or optical transduction methods aimed at reducing the size, cost, and limit of detection (LOD) of these sensor systems. One such method of optical transduction involves the …


Optical Spectroscopy And Theoretical Modelling Of Carrier Dynamics In Group-Iv Alloy Quantum Dots, Rahnuma Rahman 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Optical Spectroscopy And Theoretical Modelling Of Carrier Dynamics In Group-Iv Alloy Quantum Dots, Rahnuma Rahman

Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, Ge1−xSnx alloy quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant interest due to their potential applications in photodetectors and light emitting devices in visible to mid IR spectral range and compatibility with silicon based platforms. While bulk Ge is an indirect bandgap semiconductor (0.66 eV), direct transitions can be made possible by incorporation of α-Sn at concentrations of ~10%, which however lowers the bandgap. Utilizing quantum confinement by reducing the size to below the Bohr radius also promotes direct transitions and more importantly increases the fundamental transition energies in GeSn alloy QDs, making them suitable for …


Electric Field Control Of Fixed Magnetic Skyrmions For Energy Efficient Nanomagnetic Memory, Dhritiman Bhattacharya 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Electric Field Control Of Fixed Magnetic Skyrmions For Energy Efficient Nanomagnetic Memory, Dhritiman Bhattacharya

Theses and Dissertations

To meet the ever-growing demand of faster and smaller computers, increasing number of transistors are needed in the same chip area. Unfortunately, Silicon based transistors have almost reached their miniaturization limits mainly due to excessive heat generation. Nanomagnetic devices are one of the most promising alternatives of CMOS. In nanomagnetic devices, electron spin, instead of charge, is the information carrier. Hence, these devices are non-volatile: information can be stored in these devices without needing any external power which could enable computing architectures beyond traditional von-Neumann computing. Additionally, these devices are also expected to be more energy efficient than CMOS devices …


Selective Electron Beam Etching Of Materials Using Liquid Reactants, Sarah Lami 2020 University of Kentucky

Selective Electron Beam Etching Of Materials Using Liquid Reactants, Sarah Lami

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Selective Electron Beam Etching of Materials Using Liquid Reactants Nanoscience and nanotechnology require advances in processing, patterning, and characterization of materials to overcome current limitations and generate new de-vices. Electron and ion beam-based processes are vital for fabrication and nano-scale prototyping with significant applications in nanoscale electronic, photonic, and magnetic devices; integrated circuit debugging; and lithographic mask and imprint template repair.

Focused ion and electron beams are routinely used to locally add (printing) or sub-tract (machining) materials. This type of material processing is becoming increasingly important to the integrated circuit manufacturing industry for editing and debug applications. Most significantly, as …


Nanostructured Device Designs For Enhanced Performance In Cds/Cu2S Heterojunction Solar Cells, Benjamin Wells 2020 University of Kentucky

Nanostructured Device Designs For Enhanced Performance In Cds/Cu2S Heterojunction Solar Cells, Benjamin Wells

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Nanostructured CdS/Cu2S devices have been simulated using SCAPS-1D to demonstrate enhanced performance over traditional planar device structures. Two designs were examined: a nanowire CdS/planar Cu2S device and a nanowire CdS/nanowire Cu2S device. The addition of nanowires to a device had been previously demonstrated to improve device performance in a nanowire CdS/planar CdTe device by decreasing the amount of light absorbed by the CdS window layer, thus allowing more light to reach the absorber layer. Additionally, the total number of interface states can be greatly reduced due to the decreased total surface area between the window and absorber layers. The nanowire …


Investigation Of Host Nanotube Parameters For Enhancing The Performance Of Nanostructured Cds-Cdte Solar Cells, Deepak Kumar 2020 University of Kentucky

Investigation Of Host Nanotube Parameters For Enhancing The Performance Of Nanostructured Cds-Cdte Solar Cells, Deepak Kumar

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of host nanotube parameters (pore diameter and pitch for different CdS coverages) and CdTe doping density on device performance in nanowire CdS/ CdTe solar cells using SCAPS-1D. This research finds the optimum values for these parameters in order to achieve the highest efficiency. Experimentally the effect of anodization voltage and fluoride ion concentration on the pore diameter and the pitch are studied for the Titania nanotubes host. It is observed that in the range of 0.3 mL to 2 mL of ammonium fluoride content, pore diameter and the pitch of the Titania …


Synthesis Of Graphene Using Plasma Etching And Atmospheric Pressure Annealing: Process And Sensor Development, Andrew Robert Graves 2020 West Virginia University

Synthesis Of Graphene Using Plasma Etching And Atmospheric Pressure Annealing: Process And Sensor Development, Andrew Robert Graves

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Having been theorized in 1947, it was not until 2004 that graphene was first isolated. In the years since its isolation, graphene has been the subject of intense, world-wide study due to its incredibly diverse array of useful properties. Even though many billions of dollars have been spent on its development, graphene has yet to break out of the laboratory and penetrate mainstream industrial applications markets. This is because graphene faces a ‘grand challenge.’ Simply put, there is currently no method of manufacturing high-quality graphene on the industrial scale. This grand challenge looms particularly large for electronic applications where the …


Exploring Convergence Of Snake Skin-Inspired Texture Designs And Additive Manufacturing For Mechanical Traction, Catherine Sue Tiner 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring Convergence Of Snake Skin-Inspired Texture Designs And Additive Manufacturing For Mechanical Traction, Catherine Sue Tiner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research focuses on the understanding, development, and additive manufacture of a 3D printed snake skin-inspired texture pattern. The design functionalities of snake skin were determined through the study of the snake species Python Regius otherwise known as the ball python. Each scale of a snake has hierarchical texture with hexagonal macro-patterns aligned on the ventral surface of the skin with overriding anisotropic micro textured patterns such as denticulations and fibrils. Using a laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process, 420 stainless steel samples were 3D printed which closely resemble the above described directional texture of natural snake skin. This printed surface …


Interfacial Contact With Noble Metal - Noble Metal And Noble Metal - 2d Semiconductor Nanostructures Enhance Optical Activity, Ricardo Raphael Lopez Romo 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Interfacial Contact With Noble Metal - Noble Metal And Noble Metal - 2d Semiconductor Nanostructures Enhance Optical Activity, Ricardo Raphael Lopez Romo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Noble metal nanoparticles and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) crystals offer unique optical and electronic properties that include strong exciton binding, spin-orbital coupling, and localized surface plasmon resonance. Controlling these properties at high spatiotemporal resolution can support emerging optoelectronic coupling and enhanced optical features. Excitation dynamics of these optical properties on physicochemically bonded mono- and few-layer TMD crystals with metal nanocrystals and two overlapping spherical metal nanocrystals were examined by concurrently (i) DDA simulations and (ii) far-field optical transmission UV-vis spectroscopic measurements. Initially, a novel and scalable method to unsettle van der Waals bonds in bulk TMDs to prepare …


Optical Angular Scatterometry: In-Line Approach For Roll-2-Roll And Nano-Imprint Fabrication Systems, Juan Jose Faria-Briceno 2019 University of New Mexico

Optical Angular Scatterometry: In-Line Approach For Roll-2-Roll And Nano-Imprint Fabrication Systems, Juan Jose Faria-Briceno

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

As critical dimensions continue to shrink and structures become more complex, metrology processes are challenging to implement during in-line nanomanufacturing. Non-destructive, non-contact, and high-speed conditions are required to achieve proper metrology processes during in-line manufacturing. Optical scatterometry is a nanoscale metrology tool widely used in integrated circuit manufacturing for characterization and quality control. However, most applications of optical scatterometry operate off-line. A high-speed, in-line, non-contact, non-destructive scatterometry angular system has been demonstrated in this work to scan pattern surfaces during real-time nano-fabrication.

Our system has demonstrated scanning capabilities using flat, 1D and 2D complex structures. The flat surface samples consist …


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