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Shifting Niche Space In Coastal Landscapes: Spatio-Temporal Patterns Driving Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Across The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Kristin Elise DeMarco 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Shifting Niche Space In Coastal Landscapes: Spatio-Temporal Patterns Driving Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Across The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Kristin Elise Demarco

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Identifying distributions of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) across the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) coastal landscape necessitates describing ecological processes in estuarine gradients. SAV assemblages are ecological indicators of aquatic ecosystem health; spatial and temporal distributions are strongly correlated to environmental conditions. Many wildlife species, including waterfowl, are dependent on SAV and seeds in NGOM coastal marshes for food and habitat. To understand SAV distributions at multiple spatial and temporal scales a multi-tiered project was designed to collect SAV presence, species assemblage, and cover data, and cores to describe seed food. The first tier sampled inter-annually in the growing seasons ...


Calibration Parameter Selection And Watershed Hydrology Model Evaluation In Time And Frequency Domains, Karthik Kumarasamy, Patrick Belmont 2018 Utah State University

Calibration Parameter Selection And Watershed Hydrology Model Evaluation In Time And Frequency Domains, Karthik Kumarasamy, Patrick Belmont

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Watershed scale models simulating hydrological and water quality processes have advanced rapidly in sophistication, process representation, flexibility in model structure, and input data. With calibration being an inevitable step prior to any model application, there is need for a simple procedure to assess whether or not a parameter should be adjusted for calibration. We provide a rationale for a hierarchical selection of parameters to adjust during calibration and recommend that modelers progress from parameters that are most uncertain to parameters that are least uncertain, namely starting with pure calibration parameters, followed by derived parameters, and finally measured parameters. We show ...


Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey

Celebration of Learning

Stream metabolism is a critical functional measure of stream health that integrates physical parameters like slope and discharge, with ecosystem functions like photosynthesis and respiration. Stream metabolism is widely studied; however, urban stream metabolism remains poorly understood. Stream metabolism was measured for five streams ranging from 1st to 5th orders from October 11th to October 18th 2017 and four streams ranging from 1st to 4th order from October 22nd to 25th 2017 located within an approximately 9.3 square kilometer watershed of Rock Island, IL that has an urban to suburban type ...


Irrigation Practice Adoption: Causes And Consequences In The Arkansas Delta, Kerr James Adams 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Irrigation Practice Adoption: Causes And Consequences In The Arkansas Delta, Kerr James Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Concerns about groundwater depletion from conventional irrigation agriculture in the Arkansas Delta region have led to the promotion of more efficient irrigation practices. With Arkansas being the largest producer of rice, the 10th largest producer of soybeans and the 16th largest producer of corn in the United States, the irrigation demand of these crops has put pressure on producers to find ways to irrigate more efficiently. Not only are the alternative technologies supposed to reduce water use, it is also believed that their adoption can also yield economic benefits for the producer. Despite these assumed benefits, adoption of alternative technologies ...


Applications Of Reservoir Limnology Theory And Steady-State Modeling To Eutrophication Management In Beaver Lake, Arkansas, Matthew Rich 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Applications Of Reservoir Limnology Theory And Steady-State Modeling To Eutrophication Management In Beaver Lake, Arkansas, Matthew Rich

Theses and Dissertations

Reservoir limnology theory predicts that phytoplankton biomass (PB) is greatest in riverine-transition zones and least in lacustrine zones leading to an inverse pattern in water clarity. These theoretical patterns were utilized to create a statistical model of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), an indicator of PB, and Secchi transparency (ST), an indicator of Chl-a, in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, a 12,800-ha reservoir, in order to hindcast historical conditions. Sampling for Chl-a, ST, and photic depth occurred semimonthly at 12 locations along a 78-km transect from the river inflow to the dam during the 2015 growing season. The ratio of Chl-a and ST measured ...


The Relationship Between Measures Of Annual Livestock Disturbance In Western Riparian Areas And Stream Conditions Important To Trout, Salmon, And Char, Lindsey M. Goss, Brett B. Roper 2018 Utah State University

The Relationship Between Measures Of Annual Livestock Disturbance In Western Riparian Areas And Stream Conditions Important To Trout, Salmon, And Char, Lindsey M. Goss, Brett B. Roper

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Managing livestock disturbance in riparian zones in a manner that provides economic returns to ranchers while protecting streams is an important aspect of rangeland management on public lands in the western United States. Attempts to balance economic and ecologic outcomes have been made more difficult due to the presence of several salmonid species that are protected under the Endangered Species Act. One approach to proper management of livestock use near streams has been to define the allowable limits of disturbance using 2 metrics, streambank alteration and stubble height. We evaluated 153 stream reaches within the Interior Columbia Basin to determine ...


Relational Values And Valuation: Challenges, And Possibilities, Kai Chan 2018 The Univ. of British Columbia, Canada

Relational Values And Valuation: Challenges, And Possibilities, Kai Chan

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Although the ecological valuation literature has been focused largely on instrumental values, there is increasing recognition that relational values might play a crucial and related role in environmental policy and practice. For example, relational values—as preferences, principles and virtues about human relationships involving nature—are identified as central in the IPBES Conceptual Framework, and recent work has investigated the implications of these for conservation and ecosystem management. But what are the implications of relational values for ecosystem valuation? In this talk, I address this question in three points. First, whereas instrumental or economic values are values of a thing ...


Washington State Ferries: Colman Dock And The New Mukilteo Ferry Terminal: Environmental Protection And Marine Mammal Monitoring During Construction, Richard Huey 2018 Washington State Ferries, United States

Washington State Ferries: Colman Dock And The New Mukilteo Ferry Terminal: Environmental Protection And Marine Mammal Monitoring During Construction, Richard Huey

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Washington State Ferries (WSF) is constructing two major infrastructure projects in the Salish Sea. Colman Dock (Seattle Ferry Terminal) is undergoing a 5-year reconstruction, and WSF is building the first new ferry terminal in over 50 years in Mukilteo. This presentation gives an overview of both projects, focusing on environmental protection, sediment cleanup, mitigation, and protection of marine mammals and marbled murrelet from pile driving noise. The presentation includes a report on protected species seen during the first year of both projects, and the use of ArcGIS Online Survey 123 for sightings data collection.


Discerning Population Connectivity And Natal Origins Of Pacific Herring (Clupea Pallasi): Inferences On Population Structure From Otolith Chemistry, Wade Smith, Tony Pitcher, Margot Hessing-Lewis, Brian P.V. Hunt, Evgeny A. Pakhomov 2018 The Univ. of British Columbia, Canada

Discerning Population Connectivity And Natal Origins Of Pacific Herring (Clupea Pallasi): Inferences On Population Structure From Otolith Chemistry, Wade Smith, Tony Pitcher, Margot Hessing-Lewis, Brian P.V. Hunt, Evgeny A. Pakhomov

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi, undertake annual migrations between feeding and spawning grounds that link life stages, habitats, populations, communities, and ecosystems. However, movement patterns of these highly mobile fish are poorly understood. Declines in Pacific herring abundance and slow population recoveries in the absence of fishing pressure have elevated concerns over the status of this ecologically, economically, and culturally important species. Pacific herring spawn on substrate in nearshore habitats where eggs and larvae develop for approximately two weeks before hatching. Early development within discrete spawning grounds could facilitate the incorporation of distinctive chemical signatures within otoliths that could be used ...


Assessing Biological Condition In Small Streams Of The Puget Sound Lowlands Through Collaborative Regional Monitoring, Richard Sheibley, Curtis DeGasperi, Chad Larson, Brandi Lubliner, Leska Fore, Keunyea Song 2018 U.S. Geological Survey, United States

Assessing Biological Condition In Small Streams Of The Puget Sound Lowlands Through Collaborative Regional Monitoring, Richard Sheibley, Curtis Degasperi, Chad Larson, Brandi Lubliner, Leska Fore, Keunyea Song

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

In 2015, the condition of Puget Sound Lowland streams was evaluated by collecting data for stream invertebrates, algae, water and sediment quality, and instream and riparian habitat. The study was designed and implemented as part of the Stormwater Action Monitoring program, a collaborative, regional stormwater monitoring program funded by more than 90 Western Washington cities and counties, the ports of Seattle and Tacoma, and the Washington State Department of Transportation. The goal of this long term program is to inform stakeholders on the status and trends of small streams within the Puget Lowlands and to track whether stream condition improves ...


Understanding The Implications Of A Changing Environment On Harvested Bivalve Populations Using Habitat Suitability Models, Ted DeWitt, Nathaniel Lewis, Eric Fox, Stephen Pacella 2018 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, United States

Understanding The Implications Of A Changing Environment On Harvested Bivalve Populations Using Habitat Suitability Models, Ted Dewitt, Nathaniel Lewis, Eric Fox, Stephen Pacella

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Habitat suitability models are useful to forecast how environmental change may affect the abundance or distribution of species of interest. In the case of harvested bivalves, those models may be used to estimate the vulnerability of this valued ecosystem good to stressors. Using literature-derived natural history information, rule-based habitat suitability models were constructed in a GIS for several bivalve species (Clinocardium nuttallii, Mya arenaria, and Tresus capax) that are recreationally and commercially harvested in NE Pacific estuaries, including in the Salish Sea. Spatially-explicit habitat maps were produced for two Oregon estuaries using environmental data (salinity, depth, sediment grain size, and ...


Wood Waste Assessment, Characterization, And Remediation In Esquimalt Harbour, Mikaela Davis, Scott Northrup 2018 Hemmera, Canada

Wood Waste Assessment, Characterization, And Remediation In Esquimalt Harbour, Mikaela Davis, Scott Northrup

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Log booming and wood processing operations in BC’s Esquimalt Harbour since the 1800s have resulted in the accumulation of wood waste deposits throughout the subtidal zone. Wood waste can adversely affect sediment quality and benthic and infaunal communities, prompting the Department of National Defence to prioritize the assessment of effects of wood waste on the ecological health of the nearshore marine environment in Esquimalt Harbour. In alignment with the overall Esquimalt Harbour Remediation Project, The Esquimalt Harbour Wood Waste Assessment and Characterization Project was initiated in 2016 and continues into 2018, with Hemmera supporting the assessment, determination of impacts ...


Downstream Fish Passage Improvements At Hiram M. Chittenden Lock And Dam, Seattle, Wa: A New Approach For An Old Dam, Phil Peterson, Scott V. Pozarycki, Adam Slowik, Paul Heisey 2018 West Fork Environmental, Inc., United States

Downstream Fish Passage Improvements At Hiram M. Chittenden Lock And Dam, Seattle, Wa: A New Approach For An Old Dam, Phil Peterson, Scott V. Pozarycki, Adam Slowik, Paul Heisey

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Salish Sea is ringed with human development and infrastructure of multiple generations, some of which strongly influenced patterns of early development and continue to this day to maintain significant elements of the human environment. These developments are not going away, we will not “preserve” our way out of the environmental challenges they pose. Thus, it remains the role of the scientists, engineers, and owners to collaboratively guide their modification and maintenance to make their operation and presence more benign to the fish and the environment. One such development is the US Army Corps of Engineers owned and operated Hiram ...


The Role Of Reproductive Timing As A Driver Of Genetic Differentiation In Populations Of Pacific Herring, Eleni Petrou, Todd Sandell, Dayv Lowry, Lorenz Hauser 2018 Univ. of Washington, United States

The Role Of Reproductive Timing As A Driver Of Genetic Differentiation In Populations Of Pacific Herring, Eleni Petrou, Todd Sandell, Dayv Lowry, Lorenz Hauser

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

There is growing recognition that maintaining diversity in life history traits contributes to the sustainable management of wild populations. One important life history characteristic is reproductive phenology, and it has been shown that differences in the timing of reproduction can act as a barrier to gene flow between populations. If the difference in reproductive timing determines the level of connectivity, one would expect that genetic differentiation between populations would increase as a function of difference in reproductive date. This pattern, known as “isolation by time” (IBT), has been observed in wild populations of salmonids containing early and late runs. Pacific ...


Salish Sea Surface Currents: Real-Time Velocities From Hf Radar, Richard Dewey, Rich Pawlowicz, Mike Morley, Manman Wang 2018 Univ. of Victoria, Canada

Salish Sea Surface Currents: Real-Time Velocities From Hf Radar, Richard Dewey, Rich Pawlowicz, Mike Morley, Manman Wang

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Ocean Networks Canada has operated Salish Sea CODAR high-frequency (HF) surface radar systems for monitoring surface currents since 2012. The network of antennae continues to grow, with four arrays now deployed in the southern Strait of Georgia, two more planned for the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and several more installed and planned along BC’s northern coast. These arrays provide hourly maps of surface currents. In the Strait of Georgia, where the Fraser River and ocean tides meet, there are complex surface current patterns that vary under seasonal river and wind conditions. Data are used to understand the circulation ...


Redfish School Of Change: An International Field School Focused On Socioecological Movements In The Salish Sea, Nicholas Stanger, Hilperts Ryan, Joseph Loviska 2018 Western Washington Univ., United States

Redfish School Of Change: An International Field School Focused On Socioecological Movements In The Salish Sea, Nicholas Stanger, Hilperts Ryan, Joseph Loviska

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Redfish School of Change is a non-profit program designed for people who want to lead the way in creating ecological sustainability and social equity in their communities. Each student enters the program with a proposed Community Action Project (CAP) that they develop during the course of our unique field experience, and then work to implement after the program is over. As a participant in this intensive field school, participants kayak, cycle and hike through coastal communities in British Columbia and Washington State. They visit innovative sites and engage with experts in the field of environment and social justice. They ...


Challenges And Opportunities For Marine Spatial Planning In The Salish Sea: Learning From Other Jurisdictions, Ross Jameson, Alexandra Barron, Sabine Jessen 2018 Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society - British Columbia, Canada

Challenges And Opportunities For Marine Spatial Planning In The Salish Sea: Learning From Other Jurisdictions, Ross Jameson, Alexandra Barron, Sabine Jessen

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Salish Sea is a tremendously dynamic, diverse, and ecologically significant inland sea. It has supported indigenous communities for millennia and is now one of the most heavily used coastlines in the world. Increasing industrial use has resulted in declining biodiversity and ecosystem health. As we continue to see increases in human activities and escalating impacts from climate change on marine ecosystems, and associated declines in marine biodiversity and ecosystem health, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is becoming an increasingly important tool to ensure sustainable use of our coastal and marine resources, for generations to come. However, MSP is a resource ...


Alternatives To Disposing Dredged Wood Waste At Sea, Tiffany Paul 2018 Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada

Alternatives To Disposing Dredged Wood Waste At Sea, Tiffany Paul

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Dredged material in British Columbia sometimes contains wood waste as a by-product of the wood processing industry, typically log handling facilities and sawmills. This presentation will focus on the potential alternative disposal options for dredged wood waste, based on a report by Azimuth Consulting Group, commissioned by Environment and Climate Change Canada to develop a better understanding of the effects of, and options for reducing and managing wood waste and improve the Disposal at Sea permitting process. An analysis of disposal options was considered in light of a comparative assessment of: human health risks; environmental costs; hazards; economics; and exclusion ...


Effects Of Large Infrastructure On The Underwater Visual Environment And Heightened Predation On Salmon In The Salish Sea, Dave Beauchamp 2018 U.S. Geological Survey, United States

Effects Of Large Infrastructure On The Underwater Visual Environment And Heightened Predation On Salmon In The Salish Sea, Dave Beauchamp

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Most predatory fish, marine mammals, and birds that eat salmon rely primarily vision to feed. Natural processes and anthropogenic change affect visual conditions underwater which in turn profoundly affect the magnitude of predation risk on juvenile and adult salmon as well as forage fishes and other species in shoreline and pelagic environments. I will discuss the implications of how natural and anthropogenic changes in water transparency and artificial light pollution have significantly increased the predation threat environment for juvenile salmon in the Salish Sea and relate these to some of the major infrastructure projects in the Pacific Northwest. High levels ...


Experiential Education And Outreach Based On Nearshore Monitoring Of The Elwha River Restoration Project, Andrea Ogston, Ian M. Miller, Chloe Dawson, Emily F. Eidam, Nancy Elder, Hannah E. Glover, Steve P. Rubin, Melissa Williams 2018 Univ. of Washington, United States

Experiential Education And Outreach Based On Nearshore Monitoring Of The Elwha River Restoration Project, Andrea Ogston, Ian M. Miller, Chloe Dawson, Emily F. Eidam, Nancy Elder, Hannah E. Glover, Steve P. Rubin, Melissa Williams

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Nearshore monitoring of benthic habitats and the coastal environment following the Elwha River Restoration project has engaged students and citizens with coastal science and management issues. In the post-dam-removal period, the lessons learned will continue to be disseminated via a UW undergraduate course and an interactive digital map, both designed to engage students and communities in restoration science. The research-focused course developed at the UW Friday Harbor Labs has allowed us to engage diverse undergraduate students (and graduate teaching assistants) in the research process. The course integrates interdisciplinary lectures and workshops on data analysis and laboratory methods, with the research ...


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