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Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson 2018 Iowa State University

Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Six fluorescein-labeled peptide nucleic acid oligomers targeting Listeria-specific sequences on the 16S ribosomal subunit were evaluated for their abilities to hybridize to whole cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Four of these probes yielded weak or no fluorescent signals after hybridization and were not investigated further. The remaining two FISH-compatible probes, LisUn-3 and LisUn-11, were evaluated for their reactivities against 22 Listeria strains and 17 other bacterial strains belonging to 10 closely related genera. Hybridization with BacUni-1, a domain-specific eubacterial probe, was used as a positive control for target accessibility in both Listeria spp. and nontarget cells. RNase ...


Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 Iowa State University

Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Candida albicans is an important cause of systemic fungal infections, and rapid diagnostics for identifying and differentiating C. albicans from other Candida species are critical for the timely application of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, improved patient outcomes, and pharmaceutical cost savings. In this work, two 28S rRNA-directed peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) probes, P-Ca726 (targeting a novel region of the ribosome) and P-CalB2208 (targeting a previously reported region), were evaluated. Hybridization conditions were optimized by using both fluorescence microscopy (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM), and probes were screened for specificity and discriminative ability against a panel of C. albicans ...


Stripping Away The Soil: Plant Growth Promoting Microbiology Opportunities In Aquaponics, Ryan P. Bartelme, Ben O. Oyserman, Jesse E. Bloom, Osvaldo J. Sepulveda-Villet, Ryan J. Newton 2018 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Stripping Away The Soil: Plant Growth Promoting Microbiology Opportunities In Aquaponics, Ryan P. Bartelme, Ben O. Oyserman, Jesse E. Bloom, Osvaldo J. Sepulveda-Villet, Ryan J. Newton

Freshwater Faculty Articles

As the processes facilitated by plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) become better characterized, it is evident that PGPMs may be critical for successful sustainable agricultural practices. Microbes enrich plant growth through various mechanisms, such as enhancing resistance to disease and drought, producing beneficial molecules, and supplying nutrients and trace metals to the plant rhizosphere. Previous studies of PGPMs have focused primarily on soil-based crops. In contrast, aquaponics is a water-based agricultural system, in which production relies upon internal nutrient recycling to co-cultivate plants with fish. This arrangement has management benefits compared to soil-based agriculture, as system components may be designed ...


Assessing Surface Flowpath Interception By Vegetative Buffers Using Arcgis Hydrologic Modeling And Geospatial Analysis For Rock Creek Watershed, Central Iowa, David F. Webber, Amazon.com, Inc., Steven K. Mickelson, Matthew J. Helmers, Kapil Arora, Brian K. Gelder, Manish Shrivastav, Casey J. Judge 2018 Iowa State University

Assessing Surface Flowpath Interception By Vegetative Buffers Using Arcgis Hydrologic Modeling And Geospatial Analysis For Rock Creek Watershed, Central Iowa, David F. Webber, Amazon.Com, Inc., Steven K. Mickelson, Matthew J. Helmers, Kapil Arora, Brian K. Gelder, Manish Shrivastav, Casey J. Judge

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution is a major cause of surface water quality degradation due to the transport of chemicals, nutrients, and sediments into lakes and streams. Vegetative buffers comprise several effective landscape best management practices (BMPs) that include vegetative filter strips (VFS) and grassed waterways. However, some BMPs are less effective due to concentrated surface flow, improper cropland-to-VFS area ratios, and surface flowpaths that partially or completely bypass vegetative buffers. The overall objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy of simulated flowpaths relative to observed and global positioning system (GPS)-assisted ground-truthed surface flowpaths for improved placement of VFS ...


Atmospheric Water Vapor Transport In Ncep–Ncar Reanalyses: Comparison With River Discharge In The Central United States, William J. Gutowski Jr., Yibin Chen, Zekai Ötles 2017 Iowa State University

Atmospheric Water Vapor Transport In Ncep–Ncar Reanalyses: Comparison With River Discharge In The Central United States, William J. Gutowski Jr., Yibin Chen, Zekai Ötles

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

The authors extract the water transport produced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis for a 10-yr period, 1984–93, and compare its convergence into two river basins with an independent dataset, river discharge (streamflow). Analysis focuses on two basins in the United States, the Upper Mississippi and the Ohio–Tennessee Basins, where the relatively high density of routine upper-air observations might be expected to give the reanalysis its closest rendition of the actual water transport. Over periods of several years, water input by the atmosphere should match water output from these basins in streamflow. However, in both basins ...


Use Of Long Term Weather Data And Spatially Delineated Field Attributes To Predict Water And Energy Conservation From Variable Rate Irrigation, Sahil Sharma 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Use Of Long Term Weather Data And Spatially Delineated Field Attributes To Predict Water And Energy Conservation From Variable Rate Irrigation, Sahil Sharma

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The declining levels of the Ogallala aquifer calls for more judicious use of water. Studies have shown that VRI has the potential for water savings. But adoption of VRI is still very low. The major reason is lack of information on the returns from the VRI systems and its feasibility in different fields. Also, a quantification of the required reduction in prices of VRI is necessary. So, an economic return analysis of VRI strategies was done to compare it to uniform irrigation management (UIM) using a water balance model based on long term weather data and field properties for a ...


Bonneville Basin Data, Larry Benson 2017 U.S. Geological Survey

Bonneville Basin Data, Larry Benson

Data Sets for USGS Research

In the Bonneville Basin folder, all data were reported in: Benson, L.V., Lund, S.P., Smoot, J.P., Rhode, D.E., Spencer, R.J., Verosub, K.L., Louderback, L.A., Johnson, C.A., Rye, R.O., Negrini, R., 2011. The rise and fall of Lake Bonneville between 45 and 10.5 ka. Quaternary International 235, 57-69.

http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usgsstaffpub/726

General Comment: in most cases an age model based on 14C analyses is not included with the data sets although ones were created for the original publications. Given the general problems with 14C ages in ...


Streamflow In The Upper Mississippi River Basin As Simulated By Swat Driven By 20th Century Contemporary Results Of Global Climate Models And Narccap Regional Climate Models, Eugene S. Takle, Manoj K. Jha, Er Lu, Raymond W. Arritt, William J. Gutowski 2017 Iowa State University

Streamflow In The Upper Mississippi River Basin As Simulated By Swat Driven By 20th Century Contemporary Results Of Global Climate Models And Narccap Regional Climate Models, Eugene S. Takle, Manoj K. Jha, Er Lu, Raymond W. Arritt, William J. Gutowski

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

We use Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) when driven by observations and results of climate models to evaluate hydrological quantities, including streamflow, in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) for 1981–2003 in comparison to observed streamflow. Daily meteorological conditions used as input to SWAT are taken from (1) observations at weather stations in the basin, (2) daily meteorological conditions simulated by a collection of regional climate models (RCMs) driven by reanalysis boundary conditions, and (3) daily meteorological conditions simulated by a collection of global climate models (GCMs). Regional models used are those whose data are archived by the ...


Origins And Transformations Of Dissolved Organic Matter In Large Arctic Rivers, Karl Kaiser, Maria Canedo-Oropeza, Rachel McMahon, Eainer M. W. Amon 2017 Old Dominion University

Origins And Transformations Of Dissolved Organic Matter In Large Arctic Rivers, Karl Kaiser, Maria Canedo-Oropeza, Rachel Mcmahon, Eainer M. W. Amon

OEAS Faculty Publications

Arctic river watersheds are important components of the global climate system and show an amplified response to climate change. Here, we characterize origins and transformations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five major Arctic rivers (Kolyma, Lena, Yenisei, Ob, Mackenzie) over 3 years with seasonal sampling periods using measurements of carbohydrates, amino acids, bacterial biomarkers (D-amino acids), and plant protein biomarkers (hydroxyproline). A strong seasonal cycle of bioavailable DOM export was observed that correlated with discharge, vegetation, river morphology and water residence time. The chemical composition of bioavailable DOM was different among rivers reflecting unique characteristics of Arctic river watersheds ...


Using Hydroacoustics To Investigate Biological Responses In Fish Abundance To Restoration Efforts In The Penobscot River, Maine, Constantin C. Scherelis 2017 University of Maine

Using Hydroacoustics To Investigate Biological Responses In Fish Abundance To Restoration Efforts In The Penobscot River, Maine, Constantin C. Scherelis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spatiotemporal advantages linked to hydroacoustic sampling techniques have caused a surge in the use of these techniques for fisheries monitoring studies applied over long periods of time in marine systems. Dynamic physical conditions such as tidal height, boat traffic, floating debris, and suspended particle concentrations result in unwanted noise signatures that vary in intensity and location within a hydroacoustic beam over time and can be mixed with the acoustic returns from intended targets (e.g., fish). Typical processing filters applied over long term datasets to minimize noise and maximize signals do not address spatiotemporal fluctuations of noise in dynamic systems ...


Final Report: Evaluation Of The Morphoedaphic Index And Sediment Diatoms For Inference Of Pre-European Settlement Total Phosphorus Concentration In Epa Region 10 Lakes, Rich Miller, Aaron Hook, Richard Petersen, Mark D. Sytsma 2017 Portland State University

Final Report: Evaluation Of The Morphoedaphic Index And Sediment Diatoms For Inference Of Pre-European Settlement Total Phosphorus Concentration In Epa Region 10 Lakes, Rich Miller, Aaron Hook, Richard Petersen, Mark D. Sytsma

Mark D. Sytsma

Water quality in many Northwest lakes has declined over the past century due, in part, to increased anthropogenic nutrient loading (Edmonson and Lehman, 1981). Under the Clean Water Act, resource managers such as the Washington Department of Ecology, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, and tribes are responsible for restoring and protecting the integrity of these waters. Targets for restoration or criteria for impairment are not well defined, however, and may naturally vary by geology, hydrology, morphometry, and climate. One way to determine whether lakes are impaired and to identify restoration targets is to assess lake reference conditions (EPA 2000). Reference ...


Forecasted Range Shifts Of Arid-Land Fishes In Response To Climate Change, James E. Whitney, Joanna B. Whittier, Craig Patrick Paukert, Julian D. Olden, Angela L. Strecker 2017 University of Missouri

Forecasted Range Shifts Of Arid-Land Fishes In Response To Climate Change, James E. Whitney, Joanna B. Whittier, Craig Patrick Paukert, Julian D. Olden, Angela L. Strecker

Angela L. Strecker

Climate change is poised to alter the distributional limits, center, and size of many species. Traits may influence different aspects of range shifts, with trophic generality facilitating shifts at the leading edge, and greater thermal tolerance limiting contractions at the trailing edge. The generality of relationships between traits and range shifts remains ambiguous however, especially for imperiled fishes residing in xeric riverscapes. Our objectives were to quantify contemporary fish distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin, forecast climate change by 2085 using two general circulation models, and quantify shifts in the limits, center, and size of fish elevational ranges according ...


Watershed Features And Stream Water Quality: Gaining Insight Through Path Analysis In A Midwest Urban Landscape, U.S.A., Jiayu Wu, Timothy W. Stewart, Janette R. Thompson, Randall K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz 2017 Iowa State University

Watershed Features And Stream Water Quality: Gaining Insight Through Path Analysis In A Midwest Urban Landscape, U.S.A., Jiayu Wu, Timothy W. Stewart, Janette R. Thompson, Randall K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz

Timothy W. Stewart

Urban stream condition is often degraded by human activities in the surrounding watershed. Given the complexity of urban areas, relationships among variables that cause stream degradation can be difficult to isolate. We examined factors affecting stream condition by evaluating social, terrestrial, stream hydrology and water quality variables from 20 urban stream watersheds in central Iowa, U.S.A. We used path analysis to examine and quantify social and ecological factors related to variation in stream conditions. Path models supported hypotheses that stream water quality was influenced by variables in each category. Specifically, one path model indicated that increased stream water ...


Hydrologic Changes In Iowa's River Systems / Flood Resilience, Keith E. Schilling, Mark Ackelson, Thomas M. Isenhart 2017 Iowa Geological and Water Survey

Hydrologic Changes In Iowa's River Systems / Flood Resilience, Keith E. Schilling, Mark Ackelson, Thomas M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

No abstract provided.


Economic Evaluation Of Coastal Land Loss In Louisiana, Stephen R. Barnes, Craig Bond, Nicholas Burger, Kate Anania, Aaron Strong, Sarah Weilant, Stephanie Virgets 2017 Louisiana State University

Economic Evaluation Of Coastal Land Loss In Louisiana, Stephen R. Barnes, Craig Bond, Nicholas Burger, Kate Anania, Aaron Strong, Sarah Weilant, Stephanie Virgets

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Louisiana has lost approximately 1,880 square miles of land over the past eighty years. Projections suggest that in a future without action, the next fifty years could result in the loss of 1,750 additional square miles of land area. As land loss continues, a large portion of the natural and man-made capital stocks of coastal Louisiana will be at greater risk of damage, either from land loss or from the associated increase in storm damage. We estimate the replacement cost of capital stock directly at risk from land loss ranges from approximately $2.1 billion to $3.5 ...


Micro-Spi Sediment Profile Imaging Micro-Inspector, Andrew P. Corvin, Caleb T. Davies, Matt R. Ferrari 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Micro-Spi Sediment Profile Imaging Micro-Inspector, Andrew P. Corvin, Caleb T. Davies, Matt R. Ferrari

Mechanical Engineering

This project was proposed by Dr. Brian Paavo through a desire to more easily study the benthic sediment layers of the ocean. To do so, he asked us to build a simple and compact machine for use in sediment profile imagery (SPI). Although devices like this already exist, they are all large scale devices that require a ship with a crane to deploy, which is expensive and time consuming. Instead, he desired a “micro” SPI, which is capable of being deployed from a small vessel that can easily navigate shallow waters. Our interpretation of these requirements was as follows: a ...


Long-Term Records Of Climate-Induced Changes In The Zooplankton Of West-Greenland Lakes, Helen Schlimm 2017 Dickinson College

Long-Term Records Of Climate-Induced Changes In The Zooplankton Of West-Greenland Lakes, Helen Schlimm

Student Honors Theses By Year

Recent research documents climate-induced changes in the algal communities of West Greenland lakes; however, less is known about the response of zooplankton to climate change effects in this region. Zooplankton are predominantly the top predator in these lakes, and thus may be changing due to direct climate effects on physical lake habitat and chemistry or indirect effects on their food source. Cladoceran remains from two lake sediment cores were collected in the Kangerlussuaq region of southwest Greenland: SS1341, located midway between the Greenland ice sheet and the coast, and SS901, close in proximity to the ice sheet. Modern zooplankton data ...


Forecasted Range Shifts Of Arid-Land Fishes In Response To Climate Change, James E. Whitney, Joanna B. Whittier, Craig Patrick Paukert, Julian D. Olden, Angela L. Strecker 2017 University of Missouri

Forecasted Range Shifts Of Arid-Land Fishes In Response To Climate Change, James E. Whitney, Joanna B. Whittier, Craig Patrick Paukert, Julian D. Olden, Angela L. Strecker

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Climate change is poised to alter the distributional limits, center, and size of many species. Traits may influence different aspects of range shifts, with trophic generality facilitating shifts at the leading edge, and greater thermal tolerance limiting contractions at the trailing edge. The generality of relationships between traits and range shifts remains ambiguous however, especially for imperiled fishes residing in xeric riverscapes. Our objectives were to quantify contemporary fish distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin, forecast climate change by 2085 using two general circulation models, and quantify shifts in the limits, center, and size of fish elevational ranges according ...


Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species are a global problem and their effects on recipient ecosystems may be mediated by disturbance and intraspecific variation. Crayfish can substantially influence stream structure and function, and invasive crayfish often have differential impacts than native crayfish in aquatic ecosystems. Since species traits often vary across a distribution, it is possible that invasive crayfish from different source populations may have distinct impacts on recipient ecosystem structure and function. In the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri, USA, invasive O. neglectus (the Ringed Crayfish) may be leading to the displacement of native O. eupunctus (the Coldwater Crayfish). The objective of ...


Understanding N-Nitrosodimethylamine Formation In Water: Chloramine Chemistry, Kinetics, And A Proposed Reaction Pathway, Huong Thu Pham 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Understanding N-Nitrosodimethylamine Formation In Water: Chloramine Chemistry, Kinetics, And A Proposed Reaction Pathway, Huong Thu Pham

Theses and Dissertations

The formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in drinking water systems is a concern because of its potential carcinogenicity and occurrence at toxicologically relevant levels. The postulated mechanism for NDMA formation involves a substitution between dichloramine and amine-based precursors to form an unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), which is then oxidized by ground-state molecular oxygen to form NDMA. However, this latter reaction is spin forbidden, thus likely occurs at a slow rate. It is hypothesized that the reaction between monochloramine and hydroxylamine (a nitrification product) may form an intermediate, which is involved in the NDMA formation pathway. This intermediate may also be generated from ...


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