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Development Of A Risk Assessment Framework To Predict Invasive Species Establishment For Multiple Taxonomic Groups And Vectors Of Introduction, Alisha D. Davidson, Abigail J. Fusaro, Rochelle A. Sturtevant, Edward S. Rutherford, Donna R. Kashian 2016 Wayne State University

Development Of A Risk Assessment Framework To Predict Invasive Species Establishment For Multiple Taxonomic Groups And Vectors Of Introduction, Alisha D. Davidson, Abigail J. Fusaro, Rochelle A. Sturtevant, Edward S. Rutherford, Donna R. Kashian

Biological Sciences Faculty Research Publications

A thorough assessment of aquatic nonindigenous species’ risk facilitates successful monitoring and prevention activities. However, species- and vector-specific information is often limited and difficult to synthesize across a single risk framework. To address this need, we developed an assessment framework capable of estimating the potential for introduction, establishment, and impact by aquatic nonindigenous species from diverse spatial origins and taxonomic classification, in novel environments. Our model builds on previous approaches, while taking on a new perspective for evaluation across species, vectors and stages to overcome the limitations imposed by single species and single vector assessments. We applied this globally-relevant framework ...


The Arctic Freshwater System: Changes And Impacts, Daniel White, Larry D. Hinzman, Lilian Alessa, John J. Cassano, Molly Chambers, Kelly Falkner, Jennifer Francis, William J. Gutowski Jr., Marika Holland, R. Max Holmes, Henry Huntington, Douglas Kane, Andrew Kliskey, Craig Lee, Bruce Peterson, T. Scott Rupp, Fiamma Straneo, Michael A. Steele, Rebecca Woodgate, Daqing Yang, Kenji Yoshikawa, Tinjung Zhang 2016 University of Alaska Fairbanks

The Arctic Freshwater System: Changes And Impacts, Daniel White, Larry D. Hinzman, Lilian Alessa, John J. Cassano, Molly Chambers, Kelly Falkner, Jennifer Francis, William J. Gutowski Jr., Marika Holland, R. Max Holmes, Henry Huntington, Douglas Kane, Andrew Kliskey, Craig Lee, Bruce Peterson, T. Scott Rupp, Fiamma Straneo, Michael A. Steele, Rebecca Woodgate, Daqing Yang, Kenji Yoshikawa, Tinjung Zhang

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

Dramatic changes have been observed in the Arctic over the last century. Many of these involve the storage and cycling of fresh water. On land, precipitation and river discharge, lake abundance and size, glacier area and volume, soil moisture, and a variety of permafrost characteristics have changed. In the ocean, sea ice thickness and areal coverage have decreased and water mass circulation patterns have shifted, changing freshwater pathways and sea ice cover dynamics. Precipitation onto the ocean surface has also changed. Such changes are expected to continue, and perhaps accelerate, in the coming century, enhanced by complex feedbacks between the ...


Putting Aquifers Into Atmospheric Simulation Models: An Example From The Mill Creek Watershed, Northeastern Kansas, Jennifer P. York, Mark Person, William J. Gutowski, Thomas C. Winter 2016 University of Minnesota Twin Cities

Putting Aquifers Into Atmospheric Simulation Models: An Example From The Mill Creek Watershed, Northeastern Kansas, Jennifer P. York, Mark Person, William J. Gutowski, Thomas C. Winter

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

Aquifer–atmosphere interactions can be important in regions where the water table is shallow (<2 m). A shallow water table provides moisture for the soil and vegetation and thus acts as a source term for evapotranspiration to the atmosphere. A coupled aquifer–land surface–atmosphere model has been developed to study aquifer–atmosphere interactions in watersheds, on decadal timescales. A single column vertically discretized atmospheric model is linked to a distributed soil-vegetation–aquifer model. This physically based model was able to reproduce monthly and yearly trends in precipitation, stream discharge, and evapotranspiration, for a catchment in northeastern Kansas. However, the calculated soil moisture tended to drop to levels lower than were observed in drier years. The evapotranspiration varies spatially and seasonally and was highest in cells situated in topographic depressions where the water table is in the root zone. Annually, simulation results indicate that from 5–20% of groundwater supported evapotranspiration is drawn from the aquifer. The groundwater supported fraction of evapotranspiration is higher in drier years, when evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation. A long-term (40 year) simulation of extended drought conditions indicated that water table position is a function of groundwater hydrodynamics and cannot be predicted solely on the basis of topography. The response time of the aquifer to drought conditions was on the order of 200 years indicating that feedbacks between these two water reservoirs act on disparate time scales. With recent advances in the computational power of massively parallel supercomputers, it may soon become possible to incorporate physically based representations of aquifer hydrodynamics into general circulation models (GCM) land surface parameterization schemes.


Mid-Holocene Hydrologic Model Of The Shingobee Watershed, Minnesota, Sheryl K. Filby, Sharon Locke, Mark Person, Thomas C. Winter, Donald Rosenberry, John L. Nieber, William J. Gutowski Jr., Emi Ito 2016 University of Minnesota Twin Cities

Mid-Holocene Hydrologic Model Of The Shingobee Watershed, Minnesota, Sheryl K. Filby, Sharon Locke, Mark Person, Thomas C. Winter, Donald Rosenberry, John L. Nieber, William J. Gutowski Jr., Emi Ito

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

A hydrologic model of the Shingobee Watershed in north-central Minnesota was developed to reconstruct mid-Holocene paleo-lake levels for Williams Lake, a surface-water body located in the southern portion of the watershed. Hydrologic parameters for the model were first estimated in a calibration exercise using a 9-yr historical record (1990–1998) of climatic and hydrologic stresses. The model reproduced observed temporal and spatial trends in surface/groundwater levels across the watershed. Mid-Holocene aquifer and lake levels were then reconstructed using two paleoclimatic data sets: CCM1 atmospheric general circulation model output and pollen-transfer functions using sediment core data from Williams Lake. Calculated ...


Groundwater-Supported Evapotranspiration Within Glaciated Watersheds Under Conditions Of Climate Change, Denis Cohen, Mark Person, Ronnie Daannen, Sharon Locke, Dave Dahlstrom, Victor Zabielski, Thomas C. Winter, Donald Rosenberry, Herb Wright, Emi Ito, John L. Nieber, William J. Gutowski Jr. 2016 Iowa State University

Groundwater-Supported Evapotranspiration Within Glaciated Watersheds Under Conditions Of Climate Change, Denis Cohen, Mark Person, Ronnie Daannen, Sharon Locke, Dave Dahlstrom, Victor Zabielski, Thomas C. Winter, Donald Rosenberry, Herb Wright, Emi Ito, John L. Nieber, William J. Gutowski Jr.

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

This paper analyzes the effects of geology and geomorphology on surface-water/-groundwater interactions, evapotranspiration, and recharge under conditions of long-term climatic change. Our analysis uses hydrologic data from the glaciated Crow Wing watershed in central Minnesota, USA, combined with a hydrologic model of transient coupled unsaturated/saturated flow (HYDRAT2D). Analysis of historical water-table (1970–1993) and lake-level (1924–2002) records indicates that larger amplitude and longer period fluctuations occur within the upland portions of watersheds due to the response of the aquifer system to relatively short-term climatic fluctuations. Under drought conditions, lake and water-table levels fell by as much as ...


Hydrologic Response Of The Crow Wing Watershed, Minnesota, To Mid-Holocene Climate Change, Mark Person, Pransenjit Roy, Herb Wright, William Gutowski Jr., Donald Rosenberry, Denis Cohen 2016 Indiana University

Hydrologic Response Of The Crow Wing Watershed, Minnesota, To Mid-Holocene Climate Change, Mark Person, Pransenjit Roy, Herb Wright, William Gutowski Jr., Donald Rosenberry, Denis Cohen

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

In this study, we have integrated a suite of Holocene paleoclimatic proxies with mathematical modeling in an attempt to obtain a comprehensive picture of how watersheds respond to past climate change. A three-dimensional surface-water–groundwater model was developed to assess the effects of mid-Holocene climate change on water resources within the Crow Wing Watershed, Upper Mississippi Basin in north central Minnesota. The model was first calibrated to a 50 yr historical record of average annual surface-water discharge, monthly ground-water levels, and lake-level fluctuations. The model was able to reproduce reasonably well long-term historical records (1949–1999) of water-table and lake-level ...


Convex Grooves In Staggered Herringbone Mixer Improve Mixing Efficiency Of Laminar Flow In Microchannel, Tae Joon Kwak, Young Gyu Nam, Maria Alejandra Najera, Sang Woo Lee, J. Rudi Strickler, Woo-Jin Chang 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Convex Grooves In Staggered Herringbone Mixer Improve Mixing Efficiency Of Laminar Flow In Microchannel, Tae Joon Kwak, Young Gyu Nam, Maria Alejandra Najera, Sang Woo Lee, J. Rudi Strickler, Woo-Jin Chang

Freshwater Faculty Articles

The liquid streams in a microchannel are hardly mixed to form laminar flow, and the mixing issue is well described by a low Reynolds number scheme. The staggered herringbone mixer (SHM) using repeated patterns of grooves in the microchannel have been proved to be an efficient passive micro-mixer. However, only a negative pattern of the staggered herringbone mixer has been used so far after it was first suggested, to the best of our knowledge. In this study, the mixing efficiencies from negative and positive staggered herringbone mixer patterns as well as from opposite flow directions were tested to investigate the ...


Identifying Groundwater - Dependent Wetlands Of The Broome Sandstone Aquifer In The La Grange Groundwater Area, Nicholas Wright, Richard J. George Dr, Robert Paul, Paul Raper 2016 Department of Agriculture and Food

Identifying Groundwater - Dependent Wetlands Of The Broome Sandstone Aquifer In The La Grange Groundwater Area, Nicholas Wright, Richard J. George Dr, Robert Paul, Paul Raper

Resource management technical reports

This report identifies wetlands that are likely to be dependent on the Broome Sandstone aquifer within the La Grange groundwater allocation area. The Broome Sandstone aquifer is the dominant groundwater resource in the area. With potential agricultural growth of this area, it is necessary to understand, monitor and manage the aquifer and its dependent wetlands. This report describes how we created a watertable surface that was used to identify wetlands and to determine which of the previously mapped wetlands are likely to be sourced from the Broome Sandstone aquifer. A watertable surface was created from 148 points taken from bore ...


Climate Change Impacts On Freshwater Wetland Hydrology And Vegetation Cover Cycling Along A Regional Aridity Gradient, Philip A. Fay, Glenn R. Guntenspergen, Jennifer H. Olker, W. Carter Johnson 2016 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Climate Change Impacts On Freshwater Wetland Hydrology And Vegetation Cover Cycling Along A Regional Aridity Gradient, Philip A. Fay, Glenn R. Guntenspergen, Jennifer H. Olker, W. Carter Johnson

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Global mean temperature may increase up to 6°C by the end of this century and together with precipitation change may steepen regional aridity gradients. The hydrology, productivity, and ecosystem services from freshwater wetlands depend on their future water balance. We simulated the hydrology and vegetation dynamics of wetland complexes in the North American Prairie Pothole Region with the WETLANDSCAPE model. Simulations for 63 precipitation × temperature combinations spanning 6°C warming and −20% to +20% annual precipitation change at 19 locations along a mid-continental aridity gradient showed that aridity explained up to 99% of the variation in wetland stage and ...


Beaver Lake Numeric Chlorophyll-A And Secchi Transparency Standards, Phases Ii And Iii: Uncertainty And Trend Analysis, J. Thad Scott, Brian E. Haggard, Zachary Simpson, Matthew Rich 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Beaver Lake Numeric Chlorophyll-A And Secchi Transparency Standards, Phases Ii And Iii: Uncertainty And Trend Analysis, J. Thad Scott, Brian E. Haggard, Zachary Simpson, Matthew Rich

Technical Reports

The objective of Phases II and III of this study were to 1) assess the variation in chl‐a and ST across multiple spatial and temporal scales in Beaver Lake in order to validate the assessment method, and 2) quantify trends in chl‐a, ST, and nutrient (total phosphorus and total nitrogen) concentrations in Beaver Lake and the major inflowing rivers to verify any potential water quality impairment.


Database Analysis To Support Nutrient Criteria Development (Phase Ii), B. E. Haggard, M.A. Evans-White, L.B. Massey, E.M. Grantz 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Database Analysis To Support Nutrient Criteria Development (Phase Ii), B. E. Haggard, M.A. Evans-White, L.B. Massey, E.M. Grantz

Technical Reports

The intent of this publication of the Arkansas Water Resources Center is to provide a location whereby a final report on water research to a funding agency can be archived. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) contracted with University of Arkansas researchers for a multiple year project titled “Database Analysis to Support Nutrient Criteria Development”. This publication covers the second of three phases of that project and has maintained the original format of the report as submitted to TCEQ. This report can be cited either as an AWRC publication (see below) or directly as the final report to TCEQ.


Database Analysis To Support Nutrient Criteria Development (Phase I), B. E. Haggard, J.T. Scott, M.A. Evans-White 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Database Analysis To Support Nutrient Criteria Development (Phase I), B. E. Haggard, J.T. Scott, M.A. Evans-White

Technical Reports

The intent of this publication of the Arkansas Water Resources Center is to provide a location whereby a final report on water research to a funding agency can be archived. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) contracted with University of Arkansas researchers for a multiple year project titled “Database Analysis to Support Nutrient Criteria Development”. This publication covers the first of three phases of that project and has maintained the original format of the report as submitted to TCEQ. This report can be cited either as an AWRC publication (see below) or directly as the final report to TCEQ.


Database Analysis To Support Nutrient Criteria Development (Phase Iii), J. T. Scott, E.M. Grantz 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Database Analysis To Support Nutrient Criteria Development (Phase Iii), J. T. Scott, E.M. Grantz

Technical Reports

The intent of this publication of the Arkansas Water Resources Center is to provide a location whereby a final report on water research to a funding agency can be archived. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) contracted with University of Arkansas researchers for a multiple year project titled “Database Analysis to Support Nutrient Criteria Development”. This publication covers the third of three phases of that project and has maintained the original format of the report as submitted to TCEQ. This report can be cited either as an AWRC publication (see below) or directly as the final report to TCEQ.


Tidal-Fluvial And Estuarine Processes In The Lower Columbia River: Ii. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, And System Zones, David A. Jay, Amy B. Borde, Heida Diefenderfer 2016 Portland State University

Tidal-Fluvial And Estuarine Processes In The Lower Columbia River: Ii. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, And System Zones, David A. Jay, Amy B. Borde, Heida Diefenderfer

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetland ...


Prospective Doctoral Statement For The University Of Southern California's School Of Cinematic Arts Media Arts + Practice Program, Gabriel Leiner 2016 University of Southern California

Prospective Doctoral Statement For The University Of Southern California's School Of Cinematic Arts Media Arts + Practice Program, Gabriel Leiner

Gabriel Leiner

After visiting L.A. again and seeing the beautiful fountains on the University of Southern California's campus I am filled with all kinds of ideas about the future and brimming with energy. To all those at the University of Southern California's Cinematic Arts Department, thanks for reading my ideas over the past couple years and helping me to evolve and become a better person and a better writer. Starting a position as a doctoral student in the Media Arts + Practice Program in 2016 is an exciting opportunity. I've got a really positive outlook about Kiss The Water.


Velocity Profiling, Turbulence, And Chlorophyll Concentrations In The Bottom Boundary Layer Of Lake Michigan Near Muskegon, Michigan, Jonathan M. Benoit, Cary D. Troy, David J. Cannon 2016 Purdue University

Velocity Profiling, Turbulence, And Chlorophyll Concentrations In The Bottom Boundary Layer Of Lake Michigan Near Muskegon, Michigan, Jonathan M. Benoit, Cary D. Troy, David J. Cannon

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The characterization of water flow and turbulence near lake beds is important for modelling environmental and ecological effects throughout a lake. In Lake Michigan, where invasive filter-feeding Quagga mussels dominate the lake bed, turbulence plays an important role in determining how much of chlorophyll is mixed down to the Quagga Mussels. Deep in Lake Michigan (44m) near Muskegon, MI, a large tripod was deployed, attached with an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, a fluorometer to measure chlorophyll concentrations, and a temperature sensor. Measurements were recorded from late May until early August by sampling velocities every hour in ten-minute bursts at 4 Hz ...


Analyzing Accuracy Of The Lufft Ws600 In Remotely Measuring Precipitation Events, Justin Gay 2016 University of Vermont

Analyzing Accuracy Of The Lufft Ws600 In Remotely Measuring Precipitation Events, Justin Gay

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The goal of this project was to analyze the accuracy of the Lufft WS600 Weather Sensor in measuring the rate of both liquid and solid precipitation. Measurement accuracy, especially in remote locations, can be difficult to obtain and quantify. Wind, blowing debris, and atmospheric particles can all have the capacity to interfere with instruments that are not being continuously compared to manual observations. Access to quality precipitation data sets are important for both hydrologic and weather forecasting, climate monitoring, and understanding the role of water cycling through ecosystems. Commercially, weather sensors are heavily relied upon by the Federal Aviation Administration ...


Biogeochemistry Of A Saline, Alkaline, Terminal Lake Ecosystem In Transition; Walker Lake, Nevada, Katherine Lynn Willever 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Biogeochemistry Of A Saline, Alkaline, Terminal Lake Ecosystem In Transition; Walker Lake, Nevada, Katherine Lynn Willever

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Walker Lake is a saline, alkaline, terminal lake ecosystem located in west-central Nevada. For over one hundred years, anthropogenic streamflow diversions within the Walker River Basin have ultimately led to little or no water reaching Walker Lake, the basin’s terminus for water flow. These diversions have resulted in a >46 meter decrease in the lake surface altitude and increases in salinity and dissolved salt constituents that have caused the elimination of native fish species. This study examines how the lack of freshwater inflow has altered the physical, chemical, and microbiological structure of Walker Lake during the lake’s ongoing ...


Optical Water Quality And Human Perceptions Of Rivers, Amie West 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optical Water Quality And Human Perceptions Of Rivers, Amie West

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding water quality dynamics in recreational rivers is integral in shaping management strategies that maintain ecosystem health, perceived value and appeal, and regional economic significance in a changing environment. Optical water quality describes the behavior of light in water as governed by its physical and chemical composition, and is among the strongest influences on human perceptions of water quality. Ethnohydrology is the study of culturally constructed knowledge and understanding of water. This work is the culmination of an interdisciplinary approach to water resources research—integrating optical water quality and ethnohydrology methods to recognize the intersection between measured water quality and ...


Trend Analysis Of Water Quality In Northwest Arkansas Streams Reflects Changes In The Watershed, Zachary Paul Simpson 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Trend Analysis Of Water Quality In Northwest Arkansas Streams Reflects Changes In The Watershed, Zachary Paul Simpson

Theses and Dissertations

Watershed export of nutrients, sediments, and chemicals impacts receiving waters. Changes within the watershed (e.g., anthropogenic or climatic) can alter the transport of constituents in streams. Stream monitoring is crucial for understanding these effects. This study developed a potential improvement to flow-adjusting constituent concentrations in streams, an important step of analyzing monitoring data in lotic systems for trends. The method incorporates a K-fold cross-validation procedure to optimize a model explaining the relationship between the concentration and streamflow, thus providing a valuable tool to researchers in water quality. Additionally, two case studies were conducted on watersheds located in northwest Arkansas ...


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