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Bottom-Up And Top-Down Processes Affecting Marine Survival Of Salmon In The Salish Sea, Dave Beauchamp 2018 U.S. Geological Survey, United States

Bottom-Up And Top-Down Processes Affecting Marine Survival Of Salmon In The Salish Sea, Dave Beauchamp

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Bottom-up processes mechanistically link with top-down control of populations, and these interactions are mediated by environmental variability and human-induced changes in land and water use. Size-selective mortality can be a significant force regulating recruitment of salmon and may be imposed at different life stages and habitats for different species, stocks, or life history types. The first months of marine growth are commonly regarded as a critical period for growth and survival of salmon. For ESA-listed Puget Sound Chinook salmon, emergent bottom-up patterns include: 1) a critical growth period occurs when body mass increases 2-4 fold during the first month of ...


Simulating Eutrophication Effects In Puget Sound Using Qualitative Network Models, Chris Harvey, Kathryn Sobocinski 2018 Northwest Fisheries Science Ctr., United States

Simulating Eutrophication Effects In Puget Sound Using Qualitative Network Models, Chris Harvey, Kathryn Sobocinski

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Ecosystems are complex, dynamic networks of interacting physical, chemical, biological and social components. A stressor such as eutrophication thus can cause responses throughout the system via direct and indirect pathways and feedbacks. Ecosystem models are typically designed to account for as many critical components, functions and pathways as possible in order to reasonably simulate how a system may respond to a stressor; however, many aspects of ecosystem structure and function are poorly studied and too data-poor to represent in a quantitative, mechanistic model. Qualitative network models (QNMs) assume comparably simple (i.e., positive or negative) relationships between interacting components, and ...


Inspiring Farm Conservation Stewardship: Adaptations To Incentive-Based Campaigns, Aneka Sweeney 2018 Whatcom Conservation District, United States

Inspiring Farm Conservation Stewardship: Adaptations To Incentive-Based Campaigns, Aneka Sweeney

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Traditional information-based campaigns, programs of voluntary incentive-based technical and financial assistance and regulatory compulsion have proved moderately effective in the past to abate bacterial pollution from livestock operations. These have been an industry standard for decades as the exclusive means to motivate land managers to adopt stewardship practices. These methods have failed to sustain reductions in bacteria from farms primarily because they leave 60% of the target audience unengaged. Widespread adoption of better livestock and manure management practices can reduce fecal coliform bacteria in both fresh and marine waters. However, to achieve and maintain Approved shellfish growing areas, land stewardship ...


What's Working To Restore Puget Sound? Connecting Investments, Actions, And Outcomes, Leska Fore, Keith Dublanica, Jennifer Johnson, Jessica Archer 2018 Puget Sound Partnership, United States

What's Working To Restore Puget Sound? Connecting Investments, Actions, And Outcomes, Leska Fore, Keith Dublanica, Jennifer Johnson, Jessica Archer

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Throughout Puget Sound, long-term funding and investment in recovery actions have resulted in measurable improvements. Results from individual projects have been reported anecdotally in terms of improved water quality, habitat condition and wildlife, and salmon populations. Yet our ability to report these positive outcomes to funding agencies has been limited. This is because information and results are scattered across databases maintained by multiple local, state, tribal, and federal agencies. Data sets are typically well curated, but not connected. We have developed a prototype of a web tool that combines information about actions and outcomes to demonstrate the value of investments ...


The Center For Creative Conservation: Fostering Novel Collaborations For Regional Sustainability, Sara Breslow, Joshua Lawler, Julian Olden, Spencer Wood 2018 Univ. of Washington, United States

The Center For Creative Conservation: Fostering Novel Collaborations For Regional Sustainability, Sara Breslow, Joshua Lawler, Julian Olden, Spencer Wood

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Broad environmental and social forces are affecting our regional ecosystems and impacting the communities who depend on them in diverse ways. Addressing these complex social-ecological challenges necessitates growth in the collective wisdom of society. The Center for Creative Conservation at the University of Washington is addressing this need by promoting innovative solutions to complex environmental problems through fostering collaborations across broadly diverse disciplines, sectors, and communities. We strive to learn and apply best practices of transdisciplinarity, meaning authentically engaging different modes of knowing toward novel and integrated ideas, methods, and applications. For example, we convene medical researchers with ecologists, urban ...


Increases In Synchrony Among Central Coast Salmon Populations In British Columbia Over The Last 60 Years, Eric Hertz, Brendan Connors, Katrina Connors, John Reynolds 2018 Pacific Salmon Foundation, Canada

Increases In Synchrony Among Central Coast Salmon Populations In British Columbia Over The Last 60 Years, Eric Hertz, Brendan Connors, Katrina Connors, John Reynolds

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Understanding the dynamics of salmon populations is important for conservation and management, but the factors driving spatial and temporal variation in many salmon populations remain poorly understood. Understanding these patterns is important for many coastal First Nations, who play an important role in the monitoring and management of salmon in their traditional territories. Using data from 200 unique spawning locations on the Central Coast of British Columbia, we quantified patterns in abundance and coherence of salmon over space and time to measure the extent to which portfolio effects stabilize variation in stocks. We found strong declines in Sockeye Salmon abundance ...


Bull Kelp Bed Surveys In Island County, Washington Usa, Linda Rhodes, Vernon W. Brisley, Gregg Ridder, Debra Paros, Paulette Brunner, Barbara Brock, Barbara Bennett, Anna Toledo 2018 Island County Marine Resources Committee, United States

Bull Kelp Bed Surveys In Island County, Washington Usa, Linda Rhodes, Vernon W. Brisley, Gregg Ridder, Debra Paros, Paulette Brunner, Barbara Brock, Barbara Bennett, Anna Toledo

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Although bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana) is a prevalent nearshore habitat throughout the Salish Sea, its distribution and seasonal bed area dynamics are poorly characterized. Island County contains bull kelp beds that are positioned in dramatically different oceanographic situations. The western part of the County is fully exposed to marine conditions of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Admiralty Inlet, while the eastern part is exposed to the strong freshwater influence of the largest rivers in Puget Sound. Each part contains bull kelp beds, providing an opportunity to compare their seasonal dynamics. Since 2015, the Island County Marine Resources Committee ...


Changes In Hatchery Subsidies Of Chinook Salmon In The Salish Sea: Implications For Predators, Fisheries, And Conservation, Benjamin Nelson, Eric Ward, Ole Shelton, Joe Anderson 2018 NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Ctr., United States

Changes In Hatchery Subsidies Of Chinook Salmon In The Salish Sea: Implications For Predators, Fisheries, And Conservation, Benjamin Nelson, Eric Ward, Ole Shelton, Joe Anderson

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Historically, salmon hatcheries were designed to increase fishery production and to recover depleted native populations. As demands of human protein consumption increase and wild populations continue to decline due to anthropogenic impacts like climate change and habitat loss, hatcheries and stocking programs will be called on to provide food security and to supplement threatened populations. Since 1950 over 3.7 billion Chinook salmon have been released into the Salish Sea and its tributaries in Washington State and southern British Columbia. However, relatively little research has been conducted that considers the impact of hatchery subsidies on estuarine and nearshore marine ecosystems ...


Population, Community And Food Web Impacts Of Hypoxia : A Synthesis Of Findings From Hood Canal, Timothy Essington 2018 Univ. of Washington, United States

Population, Community And Food Web Impacts Of Hypoxia : A Synthesis Of Findings From Hood Canal, Timothy Essington

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Hypoxia is a regular, yet increasingly prevalent feature of southern regions of Hood Canal, WA. While occasional fish kill events garner much public attention, these events are rare and may therefore may not be as important as effects from non-lethal levels of dissolved oxygen. Low levels (near 2 mg / l ) are common and species have a range of responses Here I use results from multiple investigations to illustrate the nature and magnitude of effects. On a population level, long lived sessile species like geoduck clams show clear evidence of substantial impacts from hypoxia. In addition, several sessile invertebrate species are ...


Public Outreach: Growing And Adapting With Changing Times, Meagan Harris, Kate Kimber, Erika Douglas, Aneka Sweeney 2018 Whatcom Conservation District, United States

Public Outreach: Growing And Adapting With Changing Times, Meagan Harris, Kate Kimber, Erika Douglas, Aneka Sweeney

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Drayton Harbor’s 2016 reopening of 810 acres of commercial, tribal, and recreational shellfish harvesting area marked a significant achievement in the efforts to improve water quality and allow year-round harvest of the productive shellfish growing area. Public outreach over the past 20 years played a critical role in engaging the local community and encouraging on-the-ground actions to reduce pollution throughout the watershed. Bacteria pollution is a complex issue requiring diverse solutions; no single fix exists. In the Drayton Harbor watershed, a variety of organizations, agencies, and community members participated in developing and carrying out a robust and diverse outreach ...


Assessment Of Floodplain Condition Across Puget Sound: An Emerging Tool For Tracking Investments And Communicating Status, Jennifer Burke, Colin Hume, Ilon Logan, Scott McKinney 2018 Puget Sound Partnership, United States

Assessment Of Floodplain Condition Across Puget Sound: An Emerging Tool For Tracking Investments And Communicating Status, Jennifer Burke, Colin Hume, Ilon Logan, Scott Mckinney

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Floodplains are some of the most economically and ecologically vital lands of Puget Sound but also some of the most impaired as well. Investments at the local and regional level aim to improve aquatic and terrestrial habitat, reduce flood risk, and protect economically important lands. However, the condition and status of Puget Sound floodplains is poorly quantified in a consistent manner across the 17 major watersheds, hindering strategic investments and planning. The Puget Sound Partnership and Washington Department of Ecology are developing an assessment of floodplain condition and status for a Sound-wide watershed-scale floodplain monitoring effort using spatial data and ...


Samish Indian Nation Department Of Natural Resources' Efforts To Remove Marine Debris And Creosote Using Gis In The San Juan Archipelago, Washington State, Casey Palmer-McGee 2018 Samish Indian Nation, United States

Samish Indian Nation Department Of Natural Resources' Efforts To Remove Marine Debris And Creosote Using Gis In The San Juan Archipelago, Washington State, Casey Palmer-Mcgee

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Samish people have been stewards of the environment in the San Juan Archipelago for hundreds of generations. As a Coast Salish Tribe, Samish culture and traditions are intimately tied to resources and places in the Salish Sea. Every beach in Samish Traditional Territory has seen footprints of the ancestors. Honoring traditional ways while preserving cultural use materials and foods for future generations is a cornerstone that guides the work of Samish DNR. In the past 4 years, Samish DNR in partnership with Washington DNR, Washington Conservation Corps, Veterans Conservation Corps, and Earthcorps, have removed over 580,000 pounds of creosote ...


Nitrogen Inventory In The Nooksack-Fraser Transboundary Watershed, Jiajia Lin, Jana Compton, Jill Baron, Chris Clark, Donna Schwede, Shabtai Bittman, David Hooper, Barb Carey, Peter Homann, Hanna Winter, Peter Kiffney, Nichole Embertson, Heather MacKay, Robert Black, Gary Bahr 2018 National Research Council, United States

Nitrogen Inventory In The Nooksack-Fraser Transboundary Watershed, Jiajia Lin, Jana Compton, Jill Baron, Chris Clark, Donna Schwede, Shabtai Bittman, David Hooper, Barb Carey, Peter Homann, Hanna Winter, Peter Kiffney, Nichole Embertson, Heather Mackay, Robert Black, Gary Bahr

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Nooksack-Fraser transboundary area (2639 km2) is home to communities with a strong base in farming, fisheries and outdoor recreation. Water quality issues impact parts of this area, where sewage effluent and animal waste are potential sources of both fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) and nitrogen (N) in the environment. Excessive nitrogen loading can lead to eutrophication in coastal areas, and nitrate contamination of groundwater. The Nooksack-Fraser Transboundary Nitrogen (NFT-N) project was developed to determine the sources and fates of N in the watershed using data on energy use, transportation, fertilization, wastewater treatment plants, livestock operations, wildlife and more. This project ...


Monitoring Salish Sea Bull Kelp (Nereocystis Luetkeana) Via Kayak Surveys, Suzanne Shull, Lucas Hart, Helen Berry 2018 Northwest Straits Initiative, United States

Monitoring Salish Sea Bull Kelp (Nereocystis Luetkeana) Via Kayak Surveys, Suzanne Shull, Lucas Hart, Helen Berry

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Conspicuous declines in the abundance of bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana), the most common canopy-forming species in Puget Sound, have been observed in many areas. Despite these observations, little information on abundance, or temporal changes in kelp distribution have been scientifically documented. To document and increase attention to changes in kelp populations around the region, the Northwest Straits Initiative formed a Salish Sea International Kelp Alliance and developed a scientifically-driven monitoring protocol. Citizen scientists of the Northwest Straits Marine Resources Committees then applied the protocol to delineate kelp beds via kayak over the summers of 2015-2107. The protocol has now been ...


Nearshore Habitat Use By Hood Canal Summer Run Chum Salmon In Hood Canal And The Strait Of Juan De Fuca, Micah Wait, James Fletcher, Adrian Tuohy 2018 Wild Fish Conservancy, United States

Nearshore Habitat Use By Hood Canal Summer Run Chum Salmon In Hood Canal And The Strait Of Juan De Fuca, Micah Wait, James Fletcher, Adrian Tuohy

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

In 2016 and 2017 Wild Fish Conservancy collected data as part of a 3-year assessment of marine nearshore outmigration patterns for juvenile Hood Canal summer run chum (Oncorhynchus keta). The goal of the assessment is to provide a scientific basis for the selection and prioritization of future nearshore habitat restoration and protection projects throughout the Hood Canal summer chum Evolutionarily Significant Unit. Data was collected at 46 sites, which were sampled weekly with beach seines from late December through May; sites are throughout the Hood Canal, Admiralty Inlet, and the eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca. At each site water ...


Using Dtags To Understand Sound Use, Behavior, And Vessel And Associated Noise Effects In Southern Resident Killer Whales, Marla Holt, Brad Hanson, Candice K. Emmons, Deborah A. Giles, Jeff Hogan, Jennifer Tennessen 2018 Northwest Fisheries Science Ctr., United States

Using Dtags To Understand Sound Use, Behavior, And Vessel And Associated Noise Effects In Southern Resident Killer Whales, Marla Holt, Brad Hanson, Candice K. Emmons, Deborah A. Giles, Jeff Hogan, Jennifer Tennessen

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Prey availability and disturbance from vessels and noise are identified threats to the recovery of endangered Southern Resident killer whales. Vessels and noise can mask echolocation signals used to capture fish prey and/or disrupt foraging behavior with implications for energy acquisition. In the U.S., vessel regulations have been implemented since 2011 to protect killer whales from vessel disturbance, particularly given the extent of whale-watching activities in the Salish Sea. We utilized suction cup-attached digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs), consisting of hydrophones and movement sensors, to measure received noise levels, understanding killer whale use of sound, and determine effects ...


Long-Term Monitoring In Central Puget Sound: Are Local Climate Anomalies Impacting Phytoplankton Populations?, Gabriela Hannach, Lyndsey M. Swanson, Kimberle Stark 2018 King County Environmental Lab., United States

Long-Term Monitoring In Central Puget Sound: Are Local Climate Anomalies Impacting Phytoplankton Populations?, Gabriela Hannach, Lyndsey M. Swanson, Kimberle Stark

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Puget Sound is a large and productive estuarine system at the southern end of the Salish Sea. King County’s comprehensive, long-term marine monitoring program tracks water quality in Puget Sound’s Central Basin through year-round collection of data for a suite of physical, chemical and biological parameters. Phytoplankton monitoring began with traditional microscopy methods in 2008, and expanded to include a particle imaging system in 2014. These data are critical to assess how changes from climate, physical conditions and other stressors linked to anthropogenic activity from the region’s growing population may impact the Sound’s biodiversity and trophic ...


Impact Of Septic Systems In Drayton Harbor Water Quality, Jennifer Hayden 2018 Whatcom County Health Dept., United States

Impact Of Septic Systems In Drayton Harbor Water Quality, Jennifer Hayden

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Septic systems are personal wastewater treatment systems for rural properties. Over 3,000 septic systems exist in the Drayton Harbor watershed. Septic systems that are not maintained properly can create problems for homeowners, negatively impact water quality, and pose a public health threat. Whatcom County Health Department (WCHD) began implementing a septic system operation and maintenance (O&M) program in 2008 in the Drayton Harbor watershed when most of Drayton Harbor was classified as Prohibited for shellfish harvesting due to elevated fecal coliform bacteria levels. The local health officer’s designation of Drayton Harbor as a Marine Recovery Area in ...


Interannual Variation In Early Marine Survival Patterns Of Puget Sound Steelhead Smolts Indicates Shifting Predation Pressures, Barry Berejikian, Megan Moore, Steve Jeffries 2018 NOAA Fisheries, United States

Interannual Variation In Early Marine Survival Patterns Of Puget Sound Steelhead Smolts Indicates Shifting Predation Pressures, Barry Berejikian, Megan Moore, Steve Jeffries

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Marine survival of steelhead smolts during their two week migration from river mouths to the Strait of Juan de Fuca has been estimated at 20% or less for several populations originating in Puget Sound. Low survival rates likely reduce overall smolt-to-adult return rates and limit recovery of Puget Sound steelhead populations. Harbor seals are generalist predators known to eat juvenile salmon in the Salish Sea. Harbor seals were captured in 2014 (12 seals) and 2016 (16 seals) and outfitted with acoustic telemetry receivers and GPS tags to quantify likely predation events and estimate foraging area overlap with acoustically tagged steelhead ...


Accelerating Watershed Protection In The Central Puget Sound Region, Maria Sandercock 2018 Puget Sound Regional Council, United States

Accelerating Watershed Protection In The Central Puget Sound Region, Maria Sandercock

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

In the last five years, 324,000 people have moved to the central Puget Sound region. While helping to fuel economic growth in the area, this rapid growth also threatens the natural wealth that the region is known for. Legacy stormwater issues and hardening watersheds in the region are harming our aquatic systems and Puget Sound. The Puget Sound Regional Council, whose member jurisdictions include the four counties and 82 cities in central Puget Sound, is developing a regional open space conservation plan with the goal of accelerating conservation of the open spaces that support watershed processes and a high ...


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