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Formation Of Evolved Rocks At Gale Crater By Crystal Fractionation And Implications For Mars Crustal Composition, Arya Udry, Esteban Gazel, Harry Y. McSween Jr. 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Formation Of Evolved Rocks At Gale Crater By Crystal Fractionation And Implications For Mars Crustal Composition, Arya Udry, Esteban Gazel, Harry Y. Mcsween Jr.

Geoscience Faculty Publications

The recent discovery of some ancient evolved rocks in Gale crater by the Curiosity rover has prompted the hypothesis that continental crust formed in early Martian history. Here we present petrological modeling that attempts to explain this lithological diversity by magma fractionation. Using the thermodynamical software MELTS, we model fractional crystallization of different Martian starting compositions that might generate felsic igneous compositions like those analyzed at Gale crater using different variables, such as pressure, oxygen fugacities, and water content. We show that similar chemical and mineralogical compositions observed in Gale crater felsic rocks can readily be obtained through different degrees ...


Seasonal Propagation Characteristics Of Mstids Observed At High Latitudes Over Central Alaska Using The Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar, Michael R. Negale, Michael J. Taylor, M. J. Nicolls, Sharon L. Vadas, Kim Nielsen, Craig J. Heinselman 2018 Utah State University

Seasonal Propagation Characteristics Of Mstids Observed At High Latitudes Over Central Alaska Using The Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar, Michael R. Negale, Michael J. Taylor, M. J. Nicolls, Sharon L. Vadas, Kim Nielsen, Craig J. Heinselman

Publications

Near‐continuous electron density measurements obtained over a ∼3 year period, 2010–2013, using the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) in central Alaska (69°N, 147°W) have been analyzed to quantify the properties of over 650 high‐latitude medium‐scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Our analysis focused on the altitude range 100–300 km encompassing the lower ionosphere/thermosphere and yielded first full seasonal day/night distributions of MSTIDs at high northern latitudes with mean values: horizontal wavelength 446 km, horizontal phase speed 187 m/s, and period 41 min. These year‐round measurements fill an important summertime ...


A Diagnostic Metric For Predicting Tropical Cyclone And Mid-Latitude Floods, Jonathon Klepatzki, Shawn M. Milrad 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

A Diagnostic Metric For Predicting Tropical Cyclone And Mid-Latitude Floods, Jonathon Klepatzki, Shawn M. Milrad

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

This study details a dynamic and thermodynamic metric (i.e., Extreme Flood Index [EFI]) designed to diagnose the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events associated with stagnant mid-latitude flow patterns (i.e., Rex blocks). As the global climate warms, rapid Arctic warming may be helping to slow the mid-latitude westerly jet stream, resulting in increased mid-latitude flow stagnation. The combination of long-duration ascent associated with easterly winds and warm moist air increases the severity of extreme precipitation events; as such, the EFI is specifically designed to detect this potent combination of ingredients. In 2013, a Rex block stalled a ...


Predicting Spatial Patterns In Precipitation Isotope (Δ2h And Δ18o) Seasonality Using Sinusoidal Isoscapes, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Gregory R. Goldsmith 2018 ETH Zurich

Predicting Spatial Patterns In Precipitation Isotope (Δ2h And Δ18o) Seasonality Using Sinusoidal Isoscapes, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Gregory R. Goldsmith

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding how precipitation isotopes vary spatially and temporally is important for tracer applications. We tested how well month‐to‐month variations in precipitation δ18O and δ2H were captured by sinusoidal cycles, and how well spatial variations in these seasonal cycles could be predicted, across Switzerland. Sine functions representing seasonal cycles in precipitation isotopes explained between 47% and 94% of the variance in monthly δ18O and δ2H values at each monitoring site. A significant sinusoidal cycle was also observed in line‐conditioned excess. We interpolated the amplitudes, phases, and offsets of these sine functions across the landscape ...


Large-Scale Regime Transitions And Atmospheric River Landfalls Across Western North America, Sam Webber 2018 M.S. Applied Meteorology

Large-Scale Regime Transitions And Atmospheric River Landfalls Across Western North America, Sam Webber

Student Showcase

Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between flow patterns described by the Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern and landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) over western North America. This relationship illustrates an on average positive to negative trend in the PNA in the days leading up to and after a landfalling AR along the California coastline. The goal of this study is to extend prior research by specifically investigating large-scale regime transitions over the Northeast Pacific as described by transitions in the PNA and their relation to AR landfall events. Regime transitions are defined as a change of at least one ...


A Multiscale Analysis Of An Ice Jam Flood On The Pemigewasset River In Central New Hampshire On 26 February 2017, Matthew Sanders 2018 M.S. Applied Meteorology

A Multiscale Analysis Of An Ice Jam Flood On The Pemigewasset River In Central New Hampshire On 26 February 2017, Matthew Sanders

Student Showcase

Ice jams and their floods occur during winter and spring in the northeastern U.S. and can have locally high impacts. A high-impact ice jam flood formed on the Pemigewasset River between Ashland and Plymouth on 26 February 2017. The rain from the cold front combined with precursor above freezing temperatures and a deep ripening snowpack to produce enhanced streamflow, ice break-up, damming, and flooding in Holderness that resulted in dozens of Plymouth State University students losing their vehicles. The first two weeks of February in featured below freezing temperatures and a series of heavy snowfall events in New Hampshire ...


Differences Between High Shear / Low Cape Environments In The Northeast Us Favoring Straight-Line Damaging Winds Versus Tornadoes, Michael E. Main, Ross A. Lazear, Lance F. Bosart 2018 University at Albany, State University of New York

Differences Between High Shear / Low Cape Environments In The Northeast Us Favoring Straight-Line Damaging Winds Versus Tornadoes, Michael E. Main, Ross A. Lazear, Lance F. Bosart

Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences

High shear / low CAPE (HSLC) environments are common in the Northeast US and can occur at any time of year. Severe weather in HSLC environments is notoriously hard to predict, often catching both forecasters and the general public off-guard. The goal of this project is to help forecasters to identify HSLC environments favorable for severe weather in the Northeast US, and to discriminate between HSLC environments that are supportive of tornadoes versus those that favor straight-line damaging winds (SDW). A 10-year HSLC severe weather environmental climatology was created for the Northeast US (New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania). This ...


Understanding Microphysical Processes Occurring In Lake-Effect Snowbands Using Quasi-Vertical Profiles Of Wsr-88d Parameters, Marquette Rocque 2018 University at Albany, State University of New York

Understanding Microphysical Processes Occurring In Lake-Effect Snowbands Using Quasi-Vertical Profiles Of Wsr-88d Parameters, Marquette Rocque

Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences

Knowing the composition and microphysical processes that occur in lake-effect precipitation systems is important in making sure models capture these processes accurately, and could aid forecasters in predicting snow totals and snow water equivalents. Many studies have shown that processes such as riming and dendritic growth can be seen in dual-polarization radar data through parameters such as equivalent radar reflectivity factor, differential reflectivity (ZDR), correlation coefficient, and differential phase. This research examines WSR-88D data from the KTYX (Montague, NY) radar located on the Tug Hill Plateau for several long-lake-axis-parallel lake-effect systems from the Ontario Winter Lake-effect Systems (OWLeS) field campaign ...


A Climatology Of Extreme South American Andean Cold Surges, Kevin Prince 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

A Climatology Of Extreme South American Andean Cold Surges, Kevin Prince

Theses and Dissertations

Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes have been an ongoing area of research since the inception of meteorology. Cold surges represent one of several phenomena by which midlatitude features can modulate the atmosphere, both dynamically and thermodynamically, deep into the tropics. This study performs a climatology of particularly strong South American cold surges that follow along the Andes mountains to quantify the maximum extent to which these surges can modulate the atmosphere from the midlatitudes to the tropics. Data was collected for Austral winter (JJAS) from 1980-2010 (31 years). To identify events, standardized anomalies for 925 hPa meridional wind and ...


Isolating Secular Signals In Observations And Climate Model Simulations Using M-Ssa Based Wiener Filtering, Christian Grimm 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Isolating Secular Signals In Observations And Climate Model Simulations Using M-Ssa Based Wiener Filtering, Christian Grimm

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, Wiener filtering of gridded surface-temperature time series from observations and climate model simulations is performed by using multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA) in order to isolate non-stationary climate signals. The contributions to the singular spectrum from shorter-term internal climate variability, treated in this context as noise, are estimated by fitting to the data spatially extended stochastic models, which are subsequently used to produce synthetic ensembles of surface temperature time series and the corresponding synthetic M-SSA spectra. The full spectra are weighted by the signal-to-noise ratios and transformed back to physical space to obtain reconstructions of the non-stationary ...


The Influence Of Vertical Advection Discretization In Wrf-Arw Model On Capping Inversion Representation In Warm-Season, Thunderstorm Supporting Environments, David Nevius 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

The Influence Of Vertical Advection Discretization In Wrf-Arw Model On Capping Inversion Representation In Warm-Season, Thunderstorm Supporting Environments, David Nevius

Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluates forecasts of capping inversions and thermodynamic variables for believed areas of possible deep, moist convection initiation during the warm-season using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with the Advanced Research core (WRF-ARW). WRF-ARW was configured nearly identical to the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) version of WRF (NSSL-WRF). WRF-ARW's default third-order-accurate vertical advection scheme, which is an odd-order-accurate scheme, is known to introduce implicit damping which acts to dampen short wavelength features (Skamarock et al. 2008), such as capping inversions. It is hypothesized that by increasing WRF-ARW's vertical advection to the next higher, even-order-accurate ...


Assessing Effective Rhetoric On Twitter In Relation To Forecast Uncertainty In Hurricane Tracks, Erin K. Lynch 2018 University at Albany, State University of New York

Assessing Effective Rhetoric On Twitter In Relation To Forecast Uncertainty In Hurricane Tracks, Erin K. Lynch

Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences

A forecast is only as good as the way it is communicated. As the National Weather Service (NWS) transitions to an Impact-Based Communication style, the new public forecasts discuss how to effectively prepare and protect oneself from harm in the face of severe and significant weather. After severe events, meteorologists need to take the time to analyze the language and style of the rhetoric to assess how effective it was at getting people in harm’s way to take protective actions. It is even more important to understand how information was communicated when there is large uncertainty in the forecast ...


Using Atmospheric O2 And Co2 Measurements To Determine The Stoichiometry Of Photosynthesis And Respiration In A Temperate Forest, Margaret Marie Conley 2018 Bowdoin College

Using Atmospheric O2 And Co2 Measurements To Determine The Stoichiometry Of Photosynthesis And Respiration In A Temperate Forest, Margaret Marie Conley

Honors Projects

The O2:CO2 exchange ratio of the terrestrial biosphere (αb) is an important parameter in carbon sink calculations, but its value is not well constrained. We investigate the stoichiometry of O2 and CO2 at Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts over a span of six years, considering the covariation of O2 and CO2 in forest air during 6-hour periods to determine an average value for the O2:CO2 exchange ratio. This approach provides a way to determine the value of αb averaged across seasonal cycles and species assemblages. Our analysis produces ...


Statistical Analysis And Comparison Of Optical Classification Of Atmospheric Aerosol Lidar Data, Kwasi Gyening Afrifa 2018 Old Dominion University

Statistical Analysis And Comparison Of Optical Classification Of Atmospheric Aerosol Lidar Data, Kwasi Gyening Afrifa

Electrical & Computer Engineering Projects for D. Eng. Degree

This dissertation presents a new study for the analysis and classification of atmospheric aerosols in remote sensing LIDAR data. Information on particle size and associated properties are extracted from these remote sensing atmospheric data which are collected by a ground-based LIDAR system. This study first considers optical LIDAR parameter-based classification methods for clustering and classification of different types of harmful aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Since accurate methods for aerosol prediction behaviors are based upon observed data, computational approaches must overcome design limitations, and also consider appropriate calibration and estimation accuracy. Consequently, two statistical methods based on generalized linear models ...


Adam J. Liska: Curriculum Vitae, Adam Liska 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Adam J. Liska: Curriculum Vitae, Adam Liska

Adam Liska Papers

Associate Professor, George Dempster Smith Chair of Industrial Ecology, Departments of Biological Systems Engineering and Agronomy & Horticulture, University of Nebraska-Lincoln 236 L.W. Chase Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583-0726, Ph: (402) 472-8744, e-mail: aliska2@unl.edu

Ph.D. 2003 Biology (magna cum laude), Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology & Genetics, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany


Advancing The Understanding Of Environmental Transformations, Bioavailability And Effects Of Nanomaterials, An International Us Environmental Protection Agency—Uk Environmental Nanoscience Initiative Joint Program, Mitch M. Lasat, Kian Fan Chung, Jamie Lead, Steve McGrath, Richard J. Owen, Sophie Rocks, Jason M. Unrine, Junfeng Zhang 2018 US Environmental Protection Agency

Advancing The Understanding Of Environmental Transformations, Bioavailability And Effects Of Nanomaterials, An International Us Environmental Protection Agency—Uk Environmental Nanoscience Initiative Joint Program, Mitch M. Lasat, Kian Fan Chung, Jamie Lead, Steve Mcgrath, Richard J. Owen, Sophie Rocks, Jason M. Unrine, Junfeng Zhang

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Nanotechnology has significant economic, health, and environmental benefits, including renewable energy and innovative environmental solutions. Manufactured nanoparticles have been incorporated into new materials and products because of their novel or enhanced properties. These very same properties also have prompted concerns about the potential environmental and human health hazard and risk posed by the manufactured nanomaterials. Appropriate risk management responses require the development of models capable of predicting the environmental and human health effects of the nanomaterials. Development of predictive models has been hampered by a lack of information concerning the environmental fate, behavior and effects of manufactured nanoparticles. The United ...


Atmospheric Radiation And Tgfs: Unexplained Radiation In Our Skies, Adrian Gallegos 2018 Harding University

Atmospheric Radiation And Tgfs: Unexplained Radiation In Our Skies, Adrian Gallegos

Honors College Research

There is a significant correlation between atmospheric electrification via thunderstorms and the occurrence of large emissions of x-ray and gamma ray radiation known as Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGFs). Some physical phenomenon may be explained by either the RREA or Thermal Runaway models, but the scientific community as a whole is still largely at work on the theoretical frameworks.


Multidecadal Variability In The Subseasonal Peak Of Low-Level Convergence Over The Pacific Warm Pool, Yen-Heng Lin, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang 2018 Utah State University

Multidecadal Variability In The Subseasonal Peak Of Low-Level Convergence Over The Pacific Warm Pool, Yen-Heng Lin, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

In the Western North Pacific (WNP), the atmospheric low-level convergence is one of the main factors that influences the genesis of tropical cyclones (TC). It has been observed that the timing of the seasonal maxima in the low-level convergence and TC genesis has shifted since the mid-1990s from mid-August to late-July, with this shift having also affected the number of TC. A multidecadal frequency of 20 years was revealed in the timing variation of the tropical intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) in the Western Pacific, in which a weak WNP low-level convergence in spring may trigger an advanced ISO phase in summer ...


Construction Of A Pen-Scale Methane Collection System And Dietary Strategies For Methane Mitigation From Growing And Finishing Cattle, Thomas Winders 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Construction Of A Pen-Scale Methane Collection System And Dietary Strategies For Methane Mitigation From Growing And Finishing Cattle, Thomas Winders

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Methane production from ruminants has been researched for many years because it has a global warming potential 25x that of carbon dioxide, meaning that mitigating smaller amounts of methane can have a large environmental impact. Research has focused on individual animal methane measurements, but the literature lack in industry-scale measurements. For that reason, the methane barn was built to evaluate dietary strategies on pens of cattle rather than on individual animals. In order to test the methane barn capabilities, an experiment designed to produce differences in methane production was conducted. Cattle received the same growing diet, at either ad-libitum access ...


Introduction To Weather And Climate (Vsu), Jason Allard, Weimin Feng 2018 Valdosta State University

Introduction To Weather And Climate (Vsu), Jason Allard, Weimin Feng

Geological Sciences and Geography Grants Collections

This Grants Collection for Introduction to Weather and Climate was created under a Round Seven ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.

Affordable Learning Georgia Grants Collections are intended to provide faculty with the frameworks to quickly implement or revise the same materials as a Textbook Transformation Grants team, along with the aims and lessons learned from project teams during the implementation process.

Documents are in .pdf format, with a separate .docx (Word) version available for download. Each collection contains the following materials:

  • Linked Syllabus
  • Initial Proposal
  • Final Report


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