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Observation Of A Link Between Energy Dissipation Rate And Oscillation Frequency Of The Large-Scale Circulation In Dry And Moist Rayleigh-Bénard Turbulence, Dennis Niedermeier, Kelken Chang, Will Cantrell, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, David Ciochetto, Raymond Shaw 2018 Michigan Technological University

Observation Of A Link Between Energy Dissipation Rate And Oscillation Frequency Of The Large-Scale Circulation In Dry And Moist Rayleigh-Bénard Turbulence, Dennis Niedermeier, Kelken Chang, Will Cantrell, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, David Ciochetto, Raymond Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

In this study both the small- and large-scale flow properties of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection are investigated. Experiments are carried out using the Π chamber (aspect ratio Γ=2) for Rayleigh number range Ra∼108–109 and Prandtl number Pr≈0.7. Furthermore, experiments are run for dry and wet conditions, i.e., top and bottom surfaces of the chamber are dry and wet, respectively. For wet conditions we further distinguish between conditions with and without the presence of sodium chloride aerosol particles which, if supersaturated conditions are achieved, lead to cloud droplet formation. We therefore refer to these ...


Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman 2018 University of Kentucky

Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Understanding the acid–base behavior of carboxylic acids on aqueous interfaces is a fundamental issue in nature. Surface processes involving carboxylic acids such as acetic and pyruvic acids play roles in (1) the transport of nutrients through cell membranes, (2) the cycling of metabolites relevant to the origin of life, and (3) the photooxidative processing of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions in aerosols and atmospheric waters. Here, we report that 50% of gaseous acetic acid and pyruvic acid molecules transfer a proton to the surface of water at pH 2.8 and 1.8 units lower than their respective acidity constants ...


Developing A Probabilistic Heavy-Rainfall Guidance Forecast Model For Great Lakes Cities, Cory Kevin Rothstein 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Developing A Probabilistic Heavy-Rainfall Guidance Forecast Model For Great Lakes Cities, Cory Kevin Rothstein

Theses and Dissertations

A method for predicting the probability of exceeding specific warm-season (April-October) 0-24 hour precipitation thresholds is developed based upon daily maximums of meteorological parameters. North American Regional Reanalysis and Daily Unified Precipitation data from 2002-2017 were used to gather meteorological data for the Milwaukee and Chicago County Warning Areas. Individual artificial neural networks and multiple logistic regressions were conducted for daily rainfall thresholds above 0.5'', 1'', 1.5'' and 2'' to determine the probability of threshold exceedances for each County Warning Area. The most important parameters were 1000-500 hPa specific humidity, vertical velocities at various levels, high cloud cover ...


Using Advanced Post-Processing Methods With The Hrrr-Tle To Improve The Prediction Of Cold Season Precipitation Type, Timothy Thielke 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Using Advanced Post-Processing Methods With The Hrrr-Tle To Improve The Prediction Of Cold Season Precipitation Type, Timothy Thielke

Theses and Dissertations

In this study we explore advanced statistical methods with the operational High-Resolution Rapid Refresh Model (HRRR) Time-Lagged Ensemble (TLE) to improve the prediction of cold season precipitation type. TLEs are a computationally efficient method to provide a slightly improved probabilistic forecast as the differences between model runs are an approximation of initial condition uncertainty. We apply evolutionary programming, weight-decay bias correction, and Bayesian Model Combination with fifteen HRRR forecast variables that potentially relate to precipitation type for station locations in the contiguous United States that are along and to the east of 100 W longitude to obtain probabilistic precipitation type ...


An Investigation Of The Conditional Practical Predictability Of The 31 May 2013 Heavy-Rain-Producing Mesoscale Convective System, Aidan Kuroski 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

An Investigation Of The Conditional Practical Predictability Of The 31 May 2013 Heavy-Rain-Producing Mesoscale Convective System, Aidan Kuroski

Theses and Dissertations

On 31 May 2013, strong thunderstorms initiated in west-central Oklahoma with one of the storms eventually creating a very strong tornado near El Reno, OK. The storms then grew upscale into a quasi-stationary mesoscale convective system that produced prolonged heavy rainfall that led to severe flooding across parts of Oklahoma, including the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. A 50-member ensemble of short range (0-24 h) forecasts was conducting using a set of initial conditions generated via cycled data assimilation to quantify event predictability and identify forecast sensitivities, primarily with CI and initial upscale growth. Both a composite and ensemble sensitivity analysis ...


Impact Of Data Selection On The Accuracy Of Atmospheric Refractivity Inversions Performed Over Marine Surfaces, Ian Joseph Matsko 2018 Coastal Carolina University

Impact Of Data Selection On The Accuracy Of Atmospheric Refractivity Inversions Performed Over Marine Surfaces, Ian Joseph Matsko

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Within the Earth’s atmosphere there is a planetary boundary layer that extends from the surface to roughly 1 km above the surface. Within this planetary boundary layer exists the marine atmospheric boundary layer, which is a complex turbulent surface layer that extends from the sea surface to roughly 100 m in altitude. The turbulent nature of this layer combined with the interactions across the air-sea interface cause ever changing environmental conditions within it, including atmospheric properties that affect the index of refraction, or atmospheric refractivity. Variations in atmospheric refractivity lead to many types of anomalous propagation phenomena of electromagnetic ...


Effect Of Aerosol Distributions On Precipitation Patterns Needed For A Rapid Ice Age, Steven M. Gollmer 2018 Cedarville University

Effect Of Aerosol Distributions On Precipitation Patterns Needed For A Rapid Ice Age, Steven M. Gollmer

Steven M. Gollmer, Ph.D.

Introduced in the Genesis Flood by Whitcomb and Morris (1961) and fleshed out by Oard (1979) a model for an ice age in the wake of the Genesis flood was used to explain the evidence of glaciation in Canada and the United States without resorting to eons of time. It was proposed that this rapid ice age was the consequence of post flood warm oceans, barren land and volcanic aerosols. The impact of warm oceans was simulated by Vardiman (1998) and Gollmer (2013) using climate models. Although warm oceans increase precipitation in the Arctic, global surface temperatures become unbearably hot ...


Effect Of Aerosol Distributions On Precipitation Patterns Needed For A Rapid Ice Age, Steven M. Gollmer 2018 Cedarville University

Effect Of Aerosol Distributions On Precipitation Patterns Needed For A Rapid Ice Age, Steven M. Gollmer

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Introduced in the Genesis Flood by Whitcomb and Morris (1961) and fleshed out by Oard (1979) a model for an ice age in the wake of the Genesis flood was used to explain the evidence of glaciation in Canada and the United States without resorting to eons of time. It was proposed that this rapid ice age was the consequence of post flood warm oceans, barren land and volcanic aerosols. The impact of warm oceans was simulated by Vardiman (1998) and Gollmer (2013) using climate models. Although warm oceans increase precipitation in the Arctic, global surface temperatures become unbearably hot ...


The Impact Of Mount Washington On The Height Of The Boundary Layer And The Vertical Structure Of Temperature And Moisture, Eric Kelsey, Adriana Bailey, Georgia Murray 2018 Mount Washington Observatory & Plymouth State University

The Impact Of Mount Washington On The Height Of The Boundary Layer And The Vertical Structure Of Temperature And Moisture, Eric Kelsey, Adriana Bailey, Georgia Murray

Faculty Scholarship & Creative Works

Discrimination of the type of air mass along mountain slopes can be a challenge and is not commonly performed, but is critical for identifying factors responsible for influencing montane weather, climate, and air quality. A field campaign to measure air mass type and transitions on the summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire, USA was performed on 19 August 2016. Meteorological observations were taken at the summit and at several sites along the east and west slopes. Ozone concentrations were measured at the summit and on the valley floor. Additionally, water vapor stable isotopes were measured from a truck that drove ...


Mechanisms Of Abrupt Extreme Precipitation Change Over The Northeastern United States, Huanping Huang, Jonathan M. Winter, Erich C. Osterberg 2018 Dartmouth College

Mechanisms Of Abrupt Extreme Precipitation Change Over The Northeastern United States, Huanping Huang, Jonathan M. Winter, Erich C. Osterberg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In 1996, the northeastern United States experienced an abrupt increase in extreme precipitation, but the causal mechanisms driving this increase remain poorly understood. We find that 89% of the 1996–2016 increase relative to 1979–1995 is explained by only 273 unique extreme events affecting >5 stations and occurring in the months of February, March, June, July, September, and October. We use daily weather maps to classify the 273 extreme precipitation events by meteorological cause (tropical cyclones, fronts, and extratropical cyclones) and use reanalysis data to determine large‐scale changes in the atmosphere and ocean associated with increased extreme precipitation ...


Controls On Deuterium Excess Across Asia, John Bershaw 2018 Portland State University

Controls On Deuterium Excess Across Asia, John Bershaw

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Deuterium excess (d-excess) is a second-order stable isotope parameter measured in meteoric water to understand both the source of precipitation and the evolution of moisture during transport. However, the interpretation of d-excess patterns in precipitation is often ambiguous, as changes in moisture source and processes during vapor transport both affect d-excess in non-unique ways. This is particularly true in Asia where continental moisture travels a long distance across diverse environments from unique moisture sources before falling as precipitation. Here, I analyzed published d-excess records from meteoric water throughout Asia to better characterize what influences d-excess values. I conclude that, (1 ...


Development Of The Nebraska Department Of Transportation Winter Every Index, Mark R. Anderson, Behzad Esmaeili, Curtis L. Walker, Dylan Steinkruger, Sogand Hasanzadeh, Pouya Gholizadeh, Bac Dao 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Development Of The Nebraska Department Of Transportation Winter Every Index, Mark R. Anderson, Behzad Esmaeili, Curtis L. Walker, Dylan Steinkruger, Sogand Hasanzadeh, Pouya Gholizadeh, Bac Dao

Nebraska Department of Transportation Research Reports

Adverse weather conditions are responsible for millions of vehicular crashes, thousands of vehicular deaths and billions of dollars in economic and congestion costs. Many transportation agencies utilize a performance or mobility metric to assess how well they are maintaining road access. This research focuses on the development of a winter severity index for the State of Nebraska (NEWINS). NEWINS is an event-driven index that was derived for the Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) and its districts across the state. The NEWINS framework includes a categorical storm classification framework and climatological aspect to capture atmospheric conditions more accurately across the diverse ...


Polar Topside Ionosphere During Geomagnetic Storms: Comparison Of Isis-Ii With Tdim, Jan J. Sojka, Donald Rice, Vince Eccles, Michael David, Robert W. Schunk, Robert Frederick Benson, H. G. James 2018 Utah State University

Polar Topside Ionosphere During Geomagnetic Storms: Comparison Of Isis-Ii With Tdim, Jan J. Sojka, Donald Rice, Vince Eccles, Michael David, Robert W. Schunk, Robert Frederick Benson, H. G. James

Publications

Space weather deposits energy into the high polar latitudes, primarily via Joule heating that is associated with the Poynting flux electromagnetic energy flow between the magnetosphere and ionosphere. One way to observe this energy flow is to look at the ionospheric electron density profile (EDP), especially that of the topside. The altitude location of the ionospheric peak provides additional information on the net field‐aligned vertical transport at high latitudes. To date, there have been few studies in which physics‐based ionospheric model storm simulations have been compared with topside EDPs. A rich database of high‐latitude topside ionograms obtained ...


Evaluating Changes To Natural Variability On A Warming Globe In Cmip5 Models, Heather Vazquez 2018 Florida International University

Evaluating Changes To Natural Variability On A Warming Globe In Cmip5 Models, Heather Vazquez

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global mean surface temperatures (GMST) warmed in the early 20th century, experienced a mid-century lull, and warmed again steadily until 1997. Observations at the turn of the 21st century have revealed another period of quiescent warming of GMSTs from 1998 to 2012, thus prompting the notion of a global warming “hiatus”. The warming hiatus occurred concurrently with steadily increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, sea level rise, and retreating arctic sea ice. The occurrence of the warming hiatus suggests that natural variability continues to be a sizable contributor to modern climate change and implies that energy is rearranged or changed within ...


Crop Residue Burning In Northern India: Increasing Threat To Greater India, S. Sarkar, Ramesh P. Singh, A. Chauhan 2018 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Crop Residue Burning In Northern India: Increasing Threat To Greater India, S. Sarkar, Ramesh P. Singh, A. Chauhan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Crop residue burning (CRB) is a recurring problem, during October–November, in the northwestern regions (Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh) of India. The emissions from the CRB source regions spread in all directions through long-range transport mechanisms, depending upon the meteorological conditions. In recent years, numerous studies have been carried out dealing with the impact of CRB on the air quality of Delhi and surrounding areas, especially in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (also referred to as Indo-Gangetic Plain). In this paper, we present detailed analysis using both satellite- and ground-based sources, which show an increasing impact of CRB over the ...


Book Review: Fundamentals Of International Aviation, Alan Bender 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Worldwide

Book Review: Fundamentals Of International Aviation, Alan Bender

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Not applicable.


Aerosol And Meteorological Parameters Associated With The Intense Dust Event Of 15 April 2015 Over Beijing, China, Sheng Zheng, Ramesh P. Singh 2018 Zhejiang University

Aerosol And Meteorological Parameters Associated With The Intense Dust Event Of 15 April 2015 Over Beijing, China, Sheng Zheng, Ramesh P. Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The northeastern parts of China, including Beijing city, the capital of China, were hit by an intense dust storm on 15 April 2015. The present paper discusses aerosol and meteorological parameters associated with this dust storm event. The back trajectory clearly shows that the dust originated from Inner Mongolia, the border of China, and Mongolia regions. Pronounced changes in aerosol and meteorological parameters along the dust track were observed. High aerosol optical depth (AOD) with low Ångström exponent (AE) are characteristics of coarse-mode dominated dust particles in the wavelength range 440–870 nm during the dusty day. During dust storm ...


Assessment Of Observational Uncertainty In Extreme Precipitation Over The Continental United States, Emily Anne Slinskey 2018 Portland State University

Assessment Of Observational Uncertainty In Extreme Precipitation Over The Continental United States, Emily Anne Slinskey

Dissertations and Theses

An extreme precipitation categorization scheme, developed to temporally and spatially visualize and track the multi-scale variability of extreme precipitation climatology, is introduced over the continental United States and used as the basis for an observational dataset intercomparison. The categorization scheme groups three-day precipitation totals exceeding 100 mm into five precipitation categories, or "P-Cats". To assess observational uncertainty across a range of precipitation measurement approaches, we compare in situ station data from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily (GHCN-D), satellite derived data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), gridded station data from the Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), global ...


Description And Mechanisms Of The Mid-Year Upwelling In The Southern Caribbean Sea From Remote Sensing And Local Data, Digna T. Rueda-Roa, Tal Ezer, Frank E. Muller-Karger 2018 Old Dominion University

Description And Mechanisms Of The Mid-Year Upwelling In The Southern Caribbean Sea From Remote Sensing And Local Data, Digna T. Rueda-Roa, Tal Ezer, Frank E. Muller-Karger

CCPO Publications

The southern Caribbean Sea experiences strong coastal upwelling between December and April due to the seasonal strengthening of the trade winds. A second upwelling was recently detected in the southeastern Caribbean during June-August, when local coastal wind intensities weaken. Using synoptic satellite measurements and in situ data, this mid-year upwelling was characterized in terms of surface and subsurface temperature structures, and its mechanisms were explored. The mid-year upwelling lasts 6-9 weeks with satellite sea surface temperature (SST) ~1-2°C warmer than the primary upwelling. Three possible upwelling mechanisms were analyzed: cross-shore Ekman transport (csET) due to alongshore winds, wind curl ...


A Preliminary Examination Of Wrf Ensemble Prediction Of Convective Mode Evolution, Bradley R. Carlberg, William A. Gallus Jr., Kristie J. Franz 2018 Iowa State University

A Preliminary Examination Of Wrf Ensemble Prediction Of Convective Mode Evolution, Bradley R. Carlberg, William A. Gallus Jr., Kristie J. Franz

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Accurately simulating convective mode evolution can assist forecasters in the severe weather warning process. A few prior studies have examined the skill of simulating convective modes using single, deterministic forecasts. The present study extends the earlier evaluations to a small, four-member ensemble, with each member incorporating varying initial and lateral boundary conditions, microphysics schemes, and planetary boundary layer schemes. Simulated convective modes from thirty-two 12-h simulations were categorized into nine classifications using a classification scheme developed from previous studies. Multiple methods were used to derive forecasts of these convective classifications, creating an hourly deterministic ensemble mode forecast and probabilistic forecasts ...


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