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Earth-Observation-Based Estimation And Forecasting Of Particulate Matter Impact On Solar Energy In Egypt, Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Hesham el-Askary, Michael Taylor, Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Charalampos Kontoes, Mohamed Mostafa El-Khayat 2018 National Observatory of Athens

Earth-Observation-Based Estimation And Forecasting Of Particulate Matter Impact On Solar Energy In Egypt, Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Hesham El-Askary, Michael Taylor, Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Charalampos Kontoes, Mohamed Mostafa El-Khayat

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study estimates the impact of dust aerosols on surface solar radiation and solar energy in Egypt based on Earth Observation (EO) related techniques. For this purpose, we exploited the synergy of monthly mean and daily post processed satellite remote sensing observations from theMODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), radiative transfer model (RTM) simulations utilizing machine learning, in conjunction with 1-day forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). As cloudy conditions in this region are rare, aerosols in particular dust, are the most common sources of solar irradiance attenuation, causing performance issues in the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power ...


Impacts Of Pacific Ssts On Atmospheric Circulations Leading To California Winter Precipitation Variability: A Diagnostic Modeling, Boksoon Myoung, Sang-Wook Yeh, Jinwon Kim, Menas Kafatos 2018 APEC Climate Center

Impacts Of Pacific Ssts On Atmospheric Circulations Leading To California Winter Precipitation Variability: A Diagnostic Modeling, Boksoon Myoung, Sang-Wook Yeh, Jinwon Kim, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

One of the primary meteorological causes of the winter precipitation deficits and droughts in California (CA) is anomalous developments and maintenance of upper-tropospheric ridges over the northeastern Pacific. In order to understand and find the key factors controlling the winter precipitation variability in CA, the present study examines two dominant atmospheric modes of the 500 hPa geopotential height in the Northern Hemisphere using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and their associated large-scale circulation patterns for the last 41 winters (1974/75–2014/15). Explaining 17.5% of variability, the second mode (EOF2) shows strong anti-cyclonic circulations in the North Pacific ...


Water, Energy, And Carbon Footprints Of Bioethanol From The U.S. And Brazil, Mesfin Mergia Mekonnen, Thiago L. Romanelli, Chittaranjan Ray, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Adam Liska, Christopher M. U. Neale 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Water, Energy, And Carbon Footprints Of Bioethanol From The U.S. And Brazil, Mesfin Mergia Mekonnen, Thiago L. Romanelli, Chittaranjan Ray, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Adam Liska, Christopher M. U. Neale

Adam Liska Papers

Driven by biofuel policies, which aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increase domestic energy supply, global production and consumption of bioethanol have doubled between 2007 and 2016, with rapid growth in corn-based bioethanol in the U.S. and sugar cane-based bioethanol in Brazil. Advances in crop yields, energy use efficiency in fertilizer production, biomass-to-ethanol conversion rates, and energy efficiency in ethanol production have improved the energy balance and GHG emission reduction potential of bioethanol. In the current study, the water, energy, and carbon footprints of bioethanol from corn in the U.S. and sugar cane in Brazil were ...


Fine-Scale Droplet Clustering In Atmospheric Clouds: 3d Radial Distribution Function From Airborne Digital Holography, Michael L. Larsen, Raymond Shaw, Alexander Kostinski, Susanne Glienke 2018 College of Charleston

Fine-Scale Droplet Clustering In Atmospheric Clouds: 3d Radial Distribution Function From Airborne Digital Holography, Michael L. Larsen, Raymond Shaw, Alexander Kostinski, Susanne Glienke

Department of Physics Publications

The extent of droplet clustering in turbulent clouds has remained largely unquantified, and yet is of possible relevance to precipitation formation and radiative transfer. To that end, data gathered by an airborne holographic instrument are used to explore the three-dimensional spatial statistics of cloud droplet positions in homogeneous stratiform boundary-layer clouds. The three-dimensional radial distribution functions g(r) reveal unambiguous evidence of droplet clustering. Three key theoretical predictions are observed: the existence of positive correlations, onset of correlation in the turbulence dissipation range, and monotonic increase of g(r) with decreasing r. This implies that current theory captures the essential ...


Elevated Black Carbon Concentrations And Atmospheric Pollution Around Singrauli Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plants (India) Using Ground And Satellite Data, Ramesh Singh, Sarvan Kumar, Abhay K. Singh 2018 Chapman University

Elevated Black Carbon Concentrations And Atmospheric Pollution Around Singrauli Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plants (India) Using Ground And Satellite Data, Ramesh Singh, Sarvan Kumar, Abhay K. Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The tropospheric NO2 concentration from OMI AURA always shows high concentrations of NO2 at a few locations in India, one of the high concentrations of NO2 hotspots is associated with the locations of seven coal-fired Thermal Power plants (TPPs) in Singrauli. Emissions from TPPs are among the major sources of black carbon (BC) soot in the atmosphere. Knowledge of BC emissions from TPPs is important in characterizing regional carbonaceous particulate emissions, understanding the fog/haze/smog formation, evaluating regional climate forcing, modeling aerosol optical parameters and concentrations of black carbon, and evaluating human health. Furthermore, elevated BC concentrations ...


Eddy Flux Measurements Of Sulfur Dioxide Deposition To The Sea Surface, Jack G. Porter, Warren J. De Bruyn, Eric S. Saltzman 2018 University of California, Irvine

Eddy Flux Measurements Of Sulfur Dioxide Deposition To The Sea Surface, Jack G. Porter, Warren J. De Bruyn, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Deposition to the sea surface is a major atmospheric loss pathway for many important trace gases, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2). The air–sea transfer of SO2 is controlled entirely on the atmospheric side of the air–sea interface due to high effective solubility and other physical– chemical properties. There have been few direct field measurements of such fluxes due to the challenges associated with making fast-response measurements of highly soluble trace gases at very low ambient levels. In this study, we report direct eddy covariance air–sea flux measurements of SO2, sensible heat, water vapor, and momentum. The measurements ...


Turbulence Induced Cloud Voids: Observation And Interpretation, Katarzyna Karpinska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, Eberhard Bodenschatz 2018 University of Warsaw

Turbulence Induced Cloud Voids: Observation And Interpretation, Katarzyna Karpinska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, Eberhard Bodenschatz

Department of Physics Publications

The phenomenon of cloud voids, i.e., elongated volumes inside a cloud that are devoid of droplets, was observed with laser sheet photography in clouds at a mountain-top station. Two experimental cases, similar in turbulence conditions yet with diverse droplet size distributions and cloud void prevalence, are reported. A theoretical explanation is proposed based on the study of heavy inertial sedimenting particles inside a Burgers vortex. A general conclusion regarding void appearance is drawn from theoretical analysis. Numerical simulations of polydisperse droplet motion with realistic vortex parameters and Mie scattering visual effects accounted for can explain the presence of voids ...


Molecular And Physical Characteristics Of Aerosol At A Remote Free Troposphere Site: Implications For Atmospheric Aging, Simeon Schum, Bo Zhang, Katja Džepina, Paolo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni, Lynn Mazzoleni 2018 Michigan Technological University

Molecular And Physical Characteristics Of Aerosol At A Remote Free Troposphere Site: Implications For Atmospheric Aging, Simeon Schum, Bo Zhang, Katja Džepina, Paolo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni, Lynn Mazzoleni

Department of Chemistry Publications

Aerosol properties are transformed by atmospheric processes during long-range transport and play a key role in the Earth's radiative balance. To understand the molecular and physical characteristics of free tropospheric aerosol, we studied samples collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located in the marine free troposphere at 2225m above sea level, on Pico Island in the Azores archipelago. The site is ideal for the study of long-range-transported free tropospheric aerosol with minimal local influence. Three aerosol samples with elevated organic carbon concentrations were selected for detailed analysis. FLEXPART retroplumes indicated that two ...


Geochemical Characterization Of Two Ferruginous Meromictic Lakes In The Upper Midwest, Usa, Nicholas Lambrecht, Chad Wittkop, Sergei Katsev, Mojtaba Fakhraee, Elizabeth D. Swanner 2018 Iowa State University

Geochemical Characterization Of Two Ferruginous Meromictic Lakes In The Upper Midwest, Usa, Nicholas Lambrecht, Chad Wittkop, Sergei Katsev, Mojtaba Fakhraee, Elizabeth D. Swanner

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

To elucidate the role of (bio)geochemical processes that fueled iron and carbon cycling in early Earth oceans, modern environments with similar geochemical conditions are needed. As the range of chemical, physical, and biological attributes of the Precambrian oceans must have varied in time and space, lakes of different compositions are useful to ask and answer different questions. Tropical Lake Matano (Indonesia), the largest known ferruginous lake, and Lake Pavin (France), a meromictic crater lake, are the two best studied Precambrian ocean analogs. Here we present seasonal geochemical data from two glacially formed temperate ferruginous lakes: Brownie Lake (MN) and ...


Visualizing Extreme Precipitation For Climate Storytelling, Rachel Phinney 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Visualizing Extreme Precipitation For Climate Storytelling, Rachel Phinney

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Precipitation can have adverse effects in the climate ecosystem. Too much can impose concerns such as flooding and landslides, resulting in damaged property, agricultural losses, and loss of life. Too little, and drought becomes an issue, inducing wildfires, poor air quality, agricultural losses, and health degradation. The contiguous United States has experienced an increase in precipitation since 1900, and much of this has occurred in the most recent decades. By the end of the 21st Century, it is expected that more winter and spring precipitation will occur over the northern portion of the U.S., and less in the southwest ...


Data Supporting The Paper "Turbulence Induced Cloud Voids: Observation And Interpretation", Katarzyna Karpinska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, Eberhard Bodenschatz 2018 University of Warsaw

Data Supporting The Paper "Turbulence Induced Cloud Voids: Observation And Interpretation", Katarzyna Karpinska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, Eberhard Bodenschatz

Department of Physics Publications

No abstract provided.


Dispersion Aerosol Indirect Effect In Turbulent Clouds: Laboratory Measurements Of Effective Radius, K. K. Chandrakar, Will Cantrell, A. Kostinski, Raymond Shaw 2018 Michigan Technological University

Dispersion Aerosol Indirect Effect In Turbulent Clouds: Laboratory Measurements Of Effective Radius, K. K. Chandrakar, Will Cantrell, A. Kostinski, Raymond Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

Cloud optical properties are determined not only by the number density nd and mean radiusof cloud droplets but also by the shape of the droplet size distribution. The change in cloud optical depth with changing nd, due to the change in distribution shape, is known as the dispersion effect. Droplet relative dispersion is defined as d=σr / ṝ . For the first time, a commonly used effective radius parameterization is tested in a controlled laboratory environment by creating a turbulent cloud. Stochastic condensation growth suggests d independent of nd for a nonprecipitating cloud, hence nearly ...


An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman 2018 University of Kentucky

An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Due to the adverse effect of atmospheric aerosols on public health and their ability to affect climate, extensive research has been undertaken in recent decades to understand their sources and sinks, as well as to study their physical and chemical properties. Atmospheric aerosols are important players in the Earth’s radiative budget, affecting incoming and outgoing solar radiation through absorption and scattering by direct and indirect means. While the cooling properties of pure inorganic aerosols are relatively well understood, the impact of organic aerosols on the radiative budget is unclear. Additionally, organic aerosols are transformed through chemical reactions during atmospheric ...


Using Self-Organizing Maps As A Forecasting Tool, Andrea Honor 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Using Self-Organizing Maps As A Forecasting Tool, Andrea Honor

Theses and Dissertations

Some extreme weather events, such as the early season heavy snow and cold weather outbreak of early November 2014, can be traced back to the influence of tropical or extratropical cyclones on the planetary scale flow. Such planetary scale reorganization also occurs in conjunction with serial extratropical cyclogenesis. Potential temperature on the dynamic tropopause (defined by the 2 PVU surface) allows for a dynamically compact characterization of the flow. NCEP Climate Forecast Systems Reanalysis data spanning 32 years are used to provide this measure, and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) are then constructed to identify our atmospheric regimes. Key elements of this ...


Data Supporting The Paper "Dispersion Aerosol Indirect Effect In Turbulent Clouds: Laboratory Measurements Of Effective Radius", K. K. Chandrakar, Will Cantrell, A. Kostinski, R. A. Shaw 2018 Michigan Technological University

Data Supporting The Paper "Dispersion Aerosol Indirect Effect In Turbulent Clouds: Laboratory Measurements Of Effective Radius", K. K. Chandrakar, Will Cantrell, A. Kostinski, R. A. Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

No abstract provided.


Reconstruction Of Sea Level Around The Korean Peninsula Using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Se-Hyeon Cheon, Benjamin D. Hamlington, Kyung-Duck Suh 2018 Old Dominion University

Reconstruction Of Sea Level Around The Korean Peninsula Using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Se-Hyeon Cheon, Benjamin D. Hamlington, Kyung-Duck Suh

OEAS Faculty Publications

Since the advent of the modern satellite altimeter era, the understanding of the sea level has increased dramatically. The satellite altimeter record, however, dates back only to the 1990s. The tide gauge record, on the other hand, extends through the 20th century but with poor spatial coverage when compared to the satellites. Many studies have been conducted to create a dataset with the spatial coverage of the satellite datasets and the temporal length of the tide gauge records by finding novel ways to combine the satellite data and tide gauge data in what is known as sea level reconstruction. However ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Wind Regimes And Temperature On Surface Melt Over The Antarctic Peninsula (1982–2017) Through Modeling, Remote Sensing And In-Situ Data, Rajashree Datta 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Quantifying The Effects Of Wind Regimes And Temperature On Surface Melt Over The Antarctic Peninsula (1982–2017) Through Modeling, Remote Sensing And In-Situ Data, Rajashree Datta

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Surface melting over the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) plays a crucial role for the stability of ice shelves and dynamics of grounded ice, hence modulating the mass balance in a region of the world which is particularly sensitive to increasing surface temperatures. Understanding the processes that drive melting using surface energy and mass balance models is fundamental to improving estimates of current and future surface melting and associated sea level rise through ice-shelf collapse. This is even more important in view of the specific challenges presented by how circulation patterns over the topographically-complex Antarctic Peninsula, especially foehn winds, impact surface melt ...


Impacts Of Climate Extremes On Terrestrial Productivity, Suhua Wei 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Impacts Of Climate Extremes On Terrestrial Productivity, Suhua Wei

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Terrestrial biosphere absorbs approximately 28% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This terrestrial carbon sink might become saturated in a future climate regime. To explore the issues associated with this topic, an accurate estimate of gross primary production (GPP) of global terrestrial ecosystems is needed. A major uncertainty in modeling global terrestrial GPP is the parameter of light use efficiency (LUE). Most LUE estimates in global models are satellite-based and coarsely measured with emphasis on environmental variables. Others are from eddy covariance towers with much greater spatial and temporal data quality and emphasis on mechanistic processes, but in a limited number ...


Simulation Data Supporting The Paper "Optical Properties And Radiative Forcing Of Fractal-Like Tar Ball Aggregates From Biomass Burning", Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Giulia Girotto, Barbara Scarnato, Kyle Gorkowski, Allison Aiken, Manvendra Dubey, C. Mazzoleni 2018 Michigan Technological University

Simulation Data Supporting The Paper "Optical Properties And Radiative Forcing Of Fractal-Like Tar Ball Aggregates From Biomass Burning", Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Giulia Girotto, Barbara Scarnato, Kyle Gorkowski, Allison Aiken, Manvendra Dubey, C. Mazzoleni

Department of Physics Publications

Simulations data supporting the paper "Optical properties and radiative forcing of fractal-like tar ball aggregates from biomass burning," to be submitted to the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer.


The Breathing Of The Biosphere, James W. Raich 2018 Iowa State University

The Breathing Of The Biosphere, James W. Raich

James W. Raich

Life, all life, from single-celled bacteria to entire ecosystems, shares common features, the most fundamental of which is metabolism. Most life is driven by the energy of the sun, captured by photosynthesis within the chemical bonds of organic materials. Organisms, including you, consume these organic materials with oxygen, producing CO2 . Just as you breathe, so does the biosphere.


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