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Hyperspectral Observations For Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Instrumentation, Atmospheric Correction, And Spectral Unmixing, Logan Ansel Wright 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Hyperspectral Observations For Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Instrumentation, Atmospheric Correction, And Spectral Unmixing, Logan Ansel Wright

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Hyperspectral instruments expand the spectral dimension of remote sensing measurements by collecting data in hundreds of contiguous wavelength channels. Spectrally resolved measurements can be used to derive science products for a diverse range of fields such as atmospheric science, geology, oceanography, ecology, climate monitoring, and agricultural science, to name a few. The spectral information collected by hyperspectral instruments enables more accurate retrievals of physical properties and detection of temporal changes. These advantages have led to an increasing number of active and planned hyperspectral instruments. This thesis describes methods for attributing hyperspectral radiation observations to physical sources.

We developed, validated and ...


Long-Term Changes In Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology And Implications For Air Quality, Pei Hou 2018 Michigan Technological University

Long-Term Changes In Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology And Implications For Air Quality, Pei Hou

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Extreme air pollution meteorology, such as heat waves, temperature inversions, and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. In this study, we analyze their long-term trends and the potential impacts on air quality. The significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme meteorological events in 1951-2010 are identified with the reanalysis data, especially over the continental regions. A statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data indicates strong sensitivities of air quality, including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes, to extreme meteorological events. Results also show significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of ...


Influences Of Weather And Surface Variability On Sensible Heat Fluxes In Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, Kelly E. Schick 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Influences Of Weather And Surface Variability On Sensible Heat Fluxes In Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, Kelly E. Schick

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Terra Nova Bay is home to a persistent polynya generated by frequent and intense wind events. Understanding atmospheric processes that influence the sensible heat flux in this region is key to understanding the contribution of the Terra Nova Bay polynya to regional ice production and ultimately Antarctic deep water formation. Automatic weather station (AWS) wind speed and temperature data from Inexpressible Island and surface temperature information is obtained from MODIS Aqua satellite observations over the polynya for the winter season (April to September). Wind speed and temperature data from the years 2003, 2005 and 2012-2017 are used to estimate sensible ...


Examining Aerosol Properties And Their Impacts To Visibility Utilizing Particulate Monitor And Sensor Measurements, Anondo Dehan Mukherjee 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Examining Aerosol Properties And Their Impacts To Visibility Utilizing Particulate Monitor And Sensor Measurements, Anondo Dehan Mukherjee

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Aerosol particles and their precursor gases have a range of impacts to radiative transfer, the hydrologic cycle, and human health. Understanding aerosol properties and their associated impacts is requisite to knowing what role they play in public health and regional climate. This dissertation examines the impacts of aerosol particles and precursor gases on visibility in the cities of Beijing, China, and New Delhi, India, as well as the performance of particulate matter sensors in the Cuyama Valley of California and Sacramento, California.

Two studies quantify the surface level impact of aerosols on the transfer of visible radiation using publicly available ...


The Role Of Internal Variability In Climate Change Projections Within An Initial Condition Climate Model Ensemble, Vineel Yettella 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

The Role Of Internal Variability In Climate Change Projections Within An Initial Condition Climate Model Ensemble, Vineel Yettella

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Unforced internal variability abounds in the climate system and often confounds the identification of climate change due to external forcings. Given that greenhouse gas concentrations are projected to increase for the foreseeable future, separating forced climate change from internal variability is a key concern with important implications. Here, we leverage a 40-member ensemble, the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) to investigate the influence of internal variability on the detection of forced changes in two climate phenomena. First, using cyclone identification and compositing techniques within the CESM-LE, we investigate precipitation changes in extratropical cyclones under greenhouse gas forcing and ...


Exploring The Role Of The Atmosphere On Wind-Energy Production: From Turbine Wakes To Variability Of Wind Speed, Cheuk Yi Joseph Lee 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Exploring The Role Of The Atmosphere On Wind-Energy Production: From Turbine Wakes To Variability Of Wind Speed, Cheuk Yi Joseph Lee

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation explores the interactions between the atmosphere and wind turbines from numerous perspectives. The work presented here outlines three subjects: the characterization of wind-turbine wakes in the evening, the evaluation of simulated wind-power productions in a numerical weather prediction model, and the attempt to systematically quantify wind-speed (WS) variability over decades.

After introducing the background of wind-energy meteorology, the first part of this dissertation discusses the evolution of wind-turbine wakes during the evening transition. In observations as well as simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, turbine wakes, namely the in downwind WS reduction and turbulence enhancement ...


Atmosphere-Land Surface Fluxes And Continental Boundary Layer Moisture Recycling: Insights From Stable Water Isotope Ratios In Soil, Surface Vapor And Precipitation At A Mid-Latitude Tall-Tower Site, Aleya Kaushik 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Atmosphere-Land Surface Fluxes And Continental Boundary Layer Moisture Recycling: Insights From Stable Water Isotope Ratios In Soil, Surface Vapor And Precipitation At A Mid-Latitude Tall-Tower Site, Aleya Kaushik

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Atmosphere-land surface exchanges represent the largest uncertainties in climate models used to make projections about future hydroclimate. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in water can be exploited to better understand mechanisms controlling land surface-atmosphere water fluxes, as they provide more process-level information than bulk water. This thesis examines mechanistic controls on boundary layer moisture cycling using four years of meteorological and stable isotope ratio measurements of water (δD and δ18O) in vapor, precipitation, vegetation and soil from the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO), a 300-meter tall-tower site in Erie, Colorado.

First, near-surface water isotope ratios in vapor, precipitation and ...


The Influence Of Southern Ocean Shortwave Cloud Feedbacks On The Coupled Climate System, William Raymond Frey 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

The Influence Of Southern Ocean Shortwave Cloud Feedbacks On The Coupled Climate System, William Raymond Frey

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The Southern Ocean, a unique region where clouds, ocean dynamics and sea ice interact to influence climate, has historically been poorly modeled and observed. Here, we improve a global climate model and use newly-available surface-independent cloud observations to establish how Southern Ocean cloud feedbacks impact global climate change. We modify the Community Earth System Model (CESM) by increasing supercooled cloud liquid to better match observations over the Southern Ocean. In the modified model, two extratropical cloud feedbacks cause equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS, the equilibrium warming in response to doubled CO2) to increase from 4.1 K in the control ...


Laboratory Studies Of Planetary Atmospheres And Organic Hazes, Melissa S. Ugelow 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Laboratory Studies Of Planetary Atmospheres And Organic Hazes, Melissa S. Ugelow

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Atmospheric organic hazes are present in many planetary and satellite atmospheres, possibly including the ancient Earth. Haze composition and how a haze influences surface and atmospheric processes will greatly depend on the atmospheric composition of the planetary body. Therefore, laboratory studies are necessary to determine these atmosphere specific haze properties. This thesis focuses on the chemical, optical and physical properties of Titan and Archean Earth organic haze analogs, along with gas-phase neutral and ion measurements during haze analog formation.

Titan haze analogs were formed by ultraviolet (UV) and spark discharge excitation of various concentrations of methane in nitrogen in a ...


The Influence Of Warm-Season Precipitation On Water Cycling And The Surface Energy Budget Within And Just-Above A Colorado Subalpine Forest In Mountainous Terrain: Measurements And Modeling, Sean Peter Burns 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

The Influence Of Warm-Season Precipitation On Water Cycling And The Surface Energy Budget Within And Just-Above A Colorado Subalpine Forest In Mountainous Terrain: Measurements And Modeling, Sean Peter Burns

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Environmental towers are used at measure the pulse of the terrestrial biosphere at over 500 sites around the world and form a global network of measurements that is commonly known as FLUXNET (http://fluxnet.ornl.gov/). This thesis uses over a decade of data from the Niwot Ridge Forest AmeriFlux site in a high-elevation subalpine forest to examine how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of net radiation Rnet , ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat λE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta , specific humidity ...


Lidar Exploration Of A Vertical Picture Of Gravity Waves In Antarctica From Near The Surface To The Thermosphere, Jian Zhao 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Lidar Exploration Of A Vertical Picture Of Gravity Waves In Antarctica From Near The Surface To The Thermosphere, Jian Zhao

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

As a key link connecting different atmosphere layers, gravity waves are the leading uncertainty and one of the most puzzling elements in modern general circulation and chemical climate models. In this dissertation, we aim to establish a vertical picture of gravity waves at McMurdo, Antarctica from near the surface to the thermosphere and to improve the understandings of gravity wave coupling via investigating wave characteristics, propagation, dissipation, and generation.

Utilizing lidar observations along with theory and model simulations, we investigate the causality of gravity wave events among different altitude regions. The sources of the stratospheric gravity waves are traced to ...


Role Of Multiphase Chemistry On The Formation Of Aerosol From The Reactions Of Monoterpenes With No3 Radicals And O3, Megan Suzanne Claflin 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Role Of Multiphase Chemistry On The Formation Of Aerosol From The Reactions Of Monoterpenes With No3 Radicals And O3, Megan Suzanne Claflin

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have been shown to influence regional and global air quality, climate, and human health. To predict and mitigate the impacts of SOA formation, it is essential to better understand the detailed mechanisms of formation, atmospheric processing, and physical properties of SOA. In this thesis, the gas-and particle-phase reaction products and mechanisms involved in the formation of SOA from the oxidation of monoterpenes in an environmental chamber were studied in an extensive series of laboratory experiments that employed a variety of online and offline analytical methods. In addition, a limited selection of laboratory-generated samples and ambient aerosol ...


A Kinetic Study Of Novel Gas-Phase Reaction Pathways For Pyruvic Acid And Hydrogen Halides With Hox Radicals., Jonathan Richard Church 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

A Kinetic Study Of Novel Gas-Phase Reaction Pathways For Pyruvic Acid And Hydrogen Halides With Hox Radicals., Jonathan Richard Church

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Hydroperoxy (HO2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals are known to play important roles in both combustion and atmospheric chemistry. Although less reactive than hydroxyl radicals, HO2 has been found to be important to the ignition process in combustion systems and has been found in greater concentrations than that of OH in the troposphere. In this work, gas-phase reactions between HO2 and hydrogen halides (HX, X=F, Cl, Br, I) are examined due to the catalytic effect halides can have in the ozone destruction process, as well as their ability to inhibit flame speeds under combustion settings. During the ...


A Changing Arctic Atmospheric Circulation In Response To Global Change, And Its Influence On Future Extreme Weather And Convective Potential, Brandon Joshua Fisel 2018 Iowa State University

A Changing Arctic Atmospheric Circulation In Response To Global Change, And Its Influence On Future Extreme Weather And Convective Potential, Brandon Joshua Fisel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Arctic circulation can develop multiple dynamic circulation regimes. Previous results from ensemble simulations for June -- December 2007 suggest that as sea-ice cover wanes (increases) there is a tendency for more 1- (2-)regime behavior. In the first study, we extend the analysis of dynamic circulation regimes to 16 years (1992 -- 2007) using a six-member ensemble of CORDEX WRF simulations to understand the climatology of persistent dynamical regimes over longer time periods. Additionally, we analyze temperature extremes in our simulations to understand how changes in atmospheric circulations associated with persistent regime behavior is more likely to produce extreme behavior. There ...


Data Supporting The Paper "Influence Of Microphysical Variability On Stochastic Condensation In A Turbulent Laboratory Cloud", N. Desai, K. K. Chandrakar, K. Chang, Will Cantrell, Raymond Shaw 2018 Michigan Technological University

Data Supporting The Paper "Influence Of Microphysical Variability On Stochastic Condensation In A Turbulent Laboratory Cloud", N. Desai, K. K. Chandrakar, K. Chang, Will Cantrell, Raymond Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

No abstract provided.


Land Use Land Cover Change Effects On Southern Great Plains Precipitation, Alexandra Caruthers 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Land Use Land Cover Change Effects On Southern Great Plains Precipitation, Alexandra Caruthers

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Great Plains land use has changed substantially over the last 160 years, altering the properties of the land through increased settlement and advances in irrigation. Changing the interface between the land and atmosphere has implications for the atmospheric boundary layer, the regional circulation, the local surface energy budget and resulting precipitation patterns. Land use land cover (LULC) changes are an important topic for this region due to its heavy dependence on agriculture. This study investigates differences in Southern Great Plains precipitation patterns between four LULC scenarios: the pre-settlement, 1920’s, Dust Bowl and present day eras. Using the Weather Research ...


Odu Sea Level Rise Initiative Featured In Premier Higher Education Publication, Public Affairs & News Bureau, Old Dominion University 2017 Old Dominion University

Odu Sea Level Rise Initiative Featured In Premier Higher Education Publication, Public Affairs & News Bureau, Old Dominion University

News Items

No abstract provided.


President Broderick's Leadership In Sea Level Rise Initiative Featured In Nation's Top Higher Education Publication, Public Affairs & News Bureau, Old Dominion University 2017 Old Dominion University

President Broderick's Leadership In Sea Level Rise Initiative Featured In Nation's Top Higher Education Publication, Public Affairs & News Bureau, Old Dominion University

News Items

No abstract provided.


Community Discussion: Catch The King Tide, Amy Matzke-Fawcett 2017 Old Dominion University

Community Discussion: Catch The King Tide, Amy Matzke-Fawcett

News Items

No abstract provided.


Community Invited To Discuss King Tide Event, Amy Matzke-Fawcett 2017 Old Dominion University

Community Invited To Discuss King Tide Event, Amy Matzke-Fawcett

News Items

No abstract provided.


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