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Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment Commons

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A Systematic Column Performance Comparison For The Confirmation Of Opioids Used In Pain Management By Lc-Ms, Derek Stallard 2014 East Tennessee State University

A Systematic Column Performance Comparison For The Confirmation Of Opioids Used In Pain Management By Lc-Ms, Derek Stallard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, three different chromatographic column chemistries (C18, Pentafluorophenyl (PFP), Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC)) were compared under optimal conditions to determine which stationary performed best in the separation and detection of a mixture of opioids using LC-MS. Furthermore, these stationary phases were examined in three different column technologies – traditional silica, porous shell, and porous polymer (PRP). The PRP column had the best peak shape for all 13 opioids and dominated for later-eluting compounds. In terms of column reproducibility, the Hamilton C18 column had the lowest %RSD values. The Kinetex HILIC produced the most theoretical plates and best resolution for ...


Defining Obesity: An Argument For The Social Environment Perspective, Meghan McInnis 2014 Providence College

Defining Obesity: An Argument For The Social Environment Perspective, Meghan Mcinnis

Annual Undergraduate Conference on Health and Society

It is well documented that obesity is a growing problem in the U.S. and worldwide. By 2010, 35.9% of U.S. adults age 20 and older were obese (Overweight and Obesity, CDC). Obesity has been associated with many health problems, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, stroke, and cardiac disease (Lucey, 2008, p.202). What has just been described is the traditional, medicalized narrative of obesity. In this narrative, obesity is viewed as an epidemic that demands an immediate and widespread response (Lucey, 2008, p.202). The blame is placed largely on individuals, while social factors, such as ...


Development Of A Safe And Efficient Near-Infrared Diagnostic Method For Alzheimer's Disease, Joseph Tawney 2014 Georgia State University

Development Of A Safe And Efficient Near-Infrared Diagnostic Method For Alzheimer's Disease, Joseph Tawney

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Refining Best Practices For The Diagnosis Of Autism: A Comparison Between Individual Healthcare Practitioner Diagnosis And Transdisciplinary Assessment., Jessica Rae Stewart, Debra C. Vigil, Erika Ryst, Wei Yang 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Refining Best Practices For The Diagnosis Of Autism: A Comparison Between Individual Healthcare Practitioner Diagnosis And Transdisciplinary Assessment., Jessica Rae Stewart, Debra C. Vigil, Erika Ryst, Wei Yang

Nevada Journal of Public Health

The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic decision-making of individual healthcare practitioners against that of a transdisciplinary team. Despite national recognition of transdisciplinary assessment as the gold standard diagnostic approach, autism is most frequently diagnosed by individuals working independently in a variety of disciplines. The current study examined how closely these individual practitioners make diagnoses matching that of a transdisciplinary team. Twenty professionals from five different disciplines viewed videotape clips of fifteen children previously assessed by a transdisciplinary team. Results confirmed that individual healthcare practitioners matched the transdisciplinary team diagnosis on average only 65.6% of the ...


L-Carnitine Supplementation: A Potential Treatment For Cancer Cachexia, Aaron Kwong, Obaidullah Khan, Katrina Fleming, Sina Moshiri, Muhammad Hashmi 2014 McMaster University

L-Carnitine Supplementation: A Potential Treatment For Cancer Cachexia, Aaron Kwong, Obaidullah Khan, Katrina Fleming, Sina Moshiri, Muhammad Hashmi

The Meducator

Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that exhibits rampant muscle wasting, unintentional weight loss, fatigue, weakness, and overall loss of appetite, none of which can be abated by an increase in caloric intake. Metabolic derailment by cachexia is so severe in cancer patients that it can shorten lifetime expectancy and lead to death before the course of treatment is finished. Etiology may involve proinflammatory cytokines, but the abnormal loss of muscle, protein, and fat suggests an underlying metabolic dysfunction that contributes to cachexia. Previous research has shown reduction of L-carnitine in cachectic patients and chemotherapy-induced damage to the L-carnitine transport system ...


Optimal Screening Approaches - Coordinating Optimal Screening Programs In Canada: A Multifacted Approach, Eric Chen, Hamza Qamar 2014 McMaster University

Optimal Screening Approaches - Coordinating Optimal Screening Programs In Canada: A Multifacted Approach, Eric Chen, Hamza Qamar

The Meducator

Disease screening is the process of testing asymptomatic individuals for the risk or presence of disease. However, the advent of advanced screening technologies in recent decades poses a challenge to the Canadian health system. The lack of a consistent screening policy among Canadian provinces and poor adherence to screening guidelines have compounded the challenge. The McMaster Health Forum convened a stakeholder dialogue on October 17, 2013 with regards to supporting optimal screening practices in Canada. In consultation with stakeholders, the Forum created an issue brief describing the problem, three elements of a comprehensive approach to address this problem, and key ...


Exploration Of Structure-Switching In The Design Of Rna Aptamer Sensors, Pui Sai Lau 2014 McMaster University

Exploration Of Structure-Switching In The Design Of Rna Aptamer Sensors, Pui Sai Lau

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

The process of ‘‘structure-switching’’ enables biomolecular switches to function as effective biosensing tools. Biomolecular switches can be activated or inactivated by binding to a specific target that triggers a precise conformational change in the biomolecules involved. Examples of aptamer-based biomolecular switches can be found in nature. Furthermore, efforts have been made in the last decade to engineer structure-switching sensors using DNA aptamers whereby, the aptamer is coupled to a signal transduction method to generate a readout signal upon target binding to the aptamer domain. Conversely, RNA aptamers have been relatively underexplored for sensor development, largely due to its susceptibility to ...


Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jovana Lubarda 2014 McMaster University

Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jovana Lubarda

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative movement disorder involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. The current dissertation, motivated by a lack of valid biomarkers and sustainable therapies, examined the potential application of a novel target for therapeutics and diagnostics of PD — the multifunctional, heat-shock like protein Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 (CRP40). The goal of this program of research was to elucidate further the implications of CRP40 in PD using a variety of molecular biology, bioinformatics, and clinical approaches through integrative collaborations with academia, government, and industry partners to translate scientific findings into real world solutions. Chapters 2 ...


Obtaining A Diagnosis Of Fetal Alcohol Specrtum Disorder: Experiences Of Caregivers And Professionals, Erica R. Lundberg 2014 Western University

Obtaining A Diagnosis Of Fetal Alcohol Specrtum Disorder: Experiences Of Caregivers And Professionals, Erica R. Lundberg

Education Publications

The current study describes the lived experiences of stakeholders in a community-based fetal alcohol spectrum disorders assessment clinic. A qualitative methodology was used. Five participants, one caregiver and four professionals, were interviewed about their experiences. Six themes emerged from this process including: clinic organization: systemic strengths and challenges; attitudes and approach: laying the foundation; beyond yes or no: assessment and diagnosis; the moment of truth: delivering the diagnosis; outcomes: what happens after the diagnosis?; what does the future hold? next steps and needs. These themes formed a sequential story-telling of participant experience. Study results are critiqued and practical implications are ...


Improved Protocols For Vibrational Spectroscopic Analysis Of Body Fluids, Franck Bonnier, François Petitjean, Matthew J. Baker, Hugh J. Byrne 2014 Dublin Institute of Technology

Improved Protocols For Vibrational Spectroscopic Analysis Of Body Fluids, Franck Bonnier, François Petitjean, Matthew J. Baker, Hugh J. Byrne

Articles

The applications of vibrational spectroscopy to the examination of human blood serum are explored. Although FTIR spectra can be recorded in aqueous solutions at (gelatin) concentrations as low as 100mg/L, the high-wavenumber region remains obscured by water absorption. Using Raman spectroscopy, high quality spectra of gelatine solutions as low as 10mg/L can be achieved, also covering the high-wavenumber regions. In human serum, spectral profiles are weak and partially obscured by water features. Dried deposits are shown to be physically and chemically inhomogeneous resulting in reduced measurement reproducibility. Concentration of the serum using commercially available centrifugal filter devices results ...


The Effect Of Blue Light On Pilot And Flight Attendant Behavioral Alertness, Lori J. Brown, Toine Schoutens, Geoffrey Whitehurst, Troy Booker, Travis Davis, Spencer Losinski, Ryan Diehl 2014 Western Michigan University

The Effect Of Blue Light On Pilot And Flight Attendant Behavioral Alertness, Lori J. Brown, Toine Schoutens, Geoffrey Whitehurst, Troy Booker, Travis Davis, Spencer Losinski, Ryan Diehl

Lori J. Brown

The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of blue light therapy to improve behavioral alertness in flight crew-members. Western Michigan University, College of Aviation, Jeppesen (a Boeing Company), Nature Bright Company, Airline participants, and a leading sleep researcher Schoutens, A.M.C. of FluxPlus, BV, The Netherlands, collaborated to examine whether timed blue light could improve flight crewmember alertness. During the four week study, crewmembers wore actigraph bands to monitor sleep behaviors. Self-assessed levels of sleepiness were recorded using the Karlosinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and self-assessed fatigue was measured using the Samn-Perelli (SP) fatigue scale. Participants completed psychomotor vigilance tests ...


Heart Attack And Kidney Attack: Evolution Of Lay And Clinical Terms For Spontaneous, Acute Organ Injury Syndromes, Claudio Ronco, Peter A. McCullough, Pupulan Iyngkaran, Lakhmir S. Chawla 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Heart Attack And Kidney Attack: Evolution Of Lay And Clinical Terms For Spontaneous, Acute Organ Injury Syndromes, Claudio Ronco, Peter A. Mccullough, Pupulan Iyngkaran, Lakhmir S. Chawla

Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Rehabilitation Of The Upper Extremity After Stroke: Current Practice As A Guide For Curriculum, Mylene Schriner PhD, OTR/L, Janell Thome OTR/L, Monica Carrier OTR/L 2014 Western Michigan University

Rehabilitation Of The Upper Extremity After Stroke: Current Practice As A Guide For Curriculum, Mylene Schriner Phd, Otr/L, Janell Thome Otr/L, Monica Carrier Otr/L

The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the United States and a top diagnosis for occupational therapy (OT) services among neurological conditions. Academic programs teach OT students neurological frames of reference (FORs) to provide a foundation for future practice. To meet accreditation standards, entry-level curricula must reflect current practice and evidence-based interventions. A survey of OT practitioners working in upper extremity stroke rehabilitation was conducted to investigate current clinical practice in a variety of treatment settings. Survey questions probed the use of motor rehabilitation techniques exclusive to one of six neurological FORs: Brunnstrom, Constraint-induced Movement Therapy, Neurodevelopmental Treatment, Proprioceptive ...


Renal Recovery, Stuart L. Goldstein, Lakhmir S. Chawla, Claudio Ronco, John A. Kellum 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Renal Recovery, Stuart L. Goldstein, Lakhmir S. Chawla, Claudio Ronco, John A. Kellum

Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine Faculty Publications

Acute kidney injury (AKI) research in the past decade has mostly focused upon development of a standard AKI definition, validation of early novel biomarkers to predict AKI prior to serum creatinine rise and predict AKI severity, and assessment of aspects of renal replacement therapies and their impact on survival. Given the independent association between AKI and mortality in the acute phase, such focus makes imminent sense. More recently, the recognition that AKI is associated with subsequent development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, with the attendant increase in mortality, has led to interest in the clinical epidemiology and ...


A Qualitative Study Of Rural Primary Care Clinician Views On Remote Monitoring Technologies, Melinda M. Davis, Jillian M. Currey, Sonya Howk, Molly R. DeSordi, Linda Boise, Lyle J. Fagnan, Nancy Vuckovic 2014 Portland State University

A Qualitative Study Of Rural Primary Care Clinician Views On Remote Monitoring Technologies, Melinda M. Davis, Jillian M. Currey, Sonya Howk, Molly R. Desordi, Linda Boise, Lyle J. Fagnan, Nancy Vuckovic

Community Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Purpose: Remote monitoring technologies (RMTs) may improve the quality of care, reduce access barriers, and help control medical costs. Despite the role of primary care clinicians as potential key users of RMTs, few studies explore their views. This study explores rural primary care clinician interest and the resources necessary to incorporate RMTs into routine practice.

Methods: We conducted 15 in-depth interviews with rural primary care clinician members of the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN) from November 2011 to April 2012. Our multidisciplinary team used thematic analysis to identify emergent themes and a cross-case comparative analysis to explore variation by ...


Considerations In Perioperative Assessment Of Valproic Acid Coagulopathy, Claude Abdallah 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Considerations In Perioperative Assessment Of Valproic Acid Coagulopathy, Claude Abdallah

Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine Faculty Publications

Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the widely prescribed antiepileptic drugs in children with multiple indications. VPA-induced coagulopathy may occur and constitute a pharmacological and practical challenge affecting pre-operative evaluation and management of patients receiving VPA therapy. This review summarizes the different studies documenting the incidence, severity and available recommendations related to this adverse effect.


Vibrational Spectroscopy: Disease Diagnostics And Beyond, Hugh J. Byrne, Kamila Ostrowska, Haq Nawaz, Jennifer Dorney, Aidan D. Meade, Franck Bonnier, Fiona M. Lyng 2014 Dublin Institute of Technology

Vibrational Spectroscopy: Disease Diagnostics And Beyond, Hugh J. Byrne, Kamila Ostrowska, Haq Nawaz, Jennifer Dorney, Aidan D. Meade, Franck Bonnier, Fiona M. Lyng

Books/Book Chapters

Summary

This chapter outlines some developments in the applications of vibrational spectroscopy for disease diagnostics and demonstrates how the applications of the spectroscopic techniques can be extended to the analysis and evaluation of disease aetiology and the mechanisms of interaction and the cellular and subcellular responses to, for example chemotherapeutic agents and nanoparticles. The primary emphasis is on Raman spectroscopy, although some examples are based on infrared absorption spectroscopy. The studies presented are chosen to illustrate how a range of multivariate analytical techniques can be employed to maximize the potential benefits of the complex spectral information obtained from tissue or ...


A Pilot Study To Investigate Concerns In Patients Undergoing Neck Dissection Surgery, Daniel Sundar Raj Arulananda Doss 2013 Western University

A Pilot Study To Investigate Concerns In Patients Undergoing Neck Dissection Surgery, Daniel Sundar Raj Arulananda Doss

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract:

This study investigates concerns in patients undergoing neck dissection surgery. Forty patients were recruited at Pre-surgery, Discharge and 1-month Post-surgery. The Patient Concerns Inventory - Level of Importance questionnaire (PCI-LOI), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), Neck Dissection Impairment Index (NDII) and the University of Washington - Quality of Life questionnaire (UWQOL) were used.

The study identified "Anxiety" at Pre-surgery and "Appearance" at Discharge and 1-month Post-surgery as the important patient concerns. Patients’ concerns were found to change over time. Support for cross-sectional convergent validity of the PCI-LOI was evidenced by significant correlations between the PCI-LOI and the UWQOL (r = -0 ...


Neuroprotective Agents For Traumatic Brain Injury: Theoretical Therapy Or The Future Of Treatment?, Helen Genis 2013 McMaster University

Neuroprotective Agents For Traumatic Brain Injury: Theoretical Therapy Or The Future Of Treatment?, Helen Genis

The Meducator

An increasing awareness of concussions in sports has led researchers to uncover that brain tissue damage is not instantaneous, but rather a delayed process following the initial injury. Recently, neuroprotective agents have been developed that will be administered after injury to reduce the effects of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). These agents include NMDA receptor antagonists that aim to interfere with excitotoxicity and reduce neuronal death. While these agents have improved learning and cognitive performance in animal models, their effects have not been as positive in clinical trials. Calpain inhibitors have also shown neuroprotective effects, and protect against axonal damage in ...


Functional 3-D Cellulose & Nitrocellulose Paper-Based, Mulitplex Diagnostic Platforms Without Coupling Agents, Mackenzie Elizabeth Tageson 2013 California Polytechnic State University

Functional 3-D Cellulose & Nitrocellulose Paper-Based, Mulitplex Diagnostic Platforms Without Coupling Agents, Mackenzie Elizabeth Tageson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The purpose of this thesis was to demonstrate device functionality of 3-D paper-based, multiplex platforms, µPADs, without the use of coupling agents between layers. Previously, these platforms were fabricated with double-sided tape and cellulose powder to try to augment proper fluid routing, but difficulties with this method occurred. An acrylic housing unit with strategically placed pressure tabs was designed to aid horizontal and vertical fluid routing through the platform, thus eliminating the inconsistencies associated with coupling agents. Channel characterization studies, a COMSOLTM simulation, and development time studies were performed to aid device design and demonstrate device functionality.

The implementation ...


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