Developing A Real-Time Translator From Neural Signals To Text: An Articulatory Phonetics Approach, 2019 University of California, Los Angeles
Developing A Real-Time Translator From Neural Signals To Text: An Articulatory Phonetics Approach, Lindy Comstock, Ariel Tankus, Michelle Tran, Nader Pouratian, Itzhak Fried, William Speier
Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics
New developments in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) harness machine learning to decode spoken language from electrocorticographic (ECoG) and local field potential (LFP) signals. Orienting to signals associated with motor movements that produce articulatory features improves phoneme detection quality: individual phonemes share features, but possess a unique feature set; classification by feature set allows for a finer distinction between neural signals. Data indicates vowels are more detectable, consonants have greater detection accuracy, place of articulation informs precision, and manner of articulation affects recall. Findings have implications for the multisensory integration of speech and the role of motor imagery in phonemic neural representations.
Ultrasound Use In Resource-Limited Settings: A Systematic Review, 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University; Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center
Ultrasound Use In Resource-Limited Settings: A Systematic Review, Ravindra Gopaul, Gonzalo Bearman, Michael P. Stevens
Journal of Global Radiology
Purpose: Over the past decade, ultrasound (US) machines have become smaller, less expensive, more reliable, durable and user-friendly, making ultrasonography an ideal imaging modality in resource-poor settings. We conducted a literature review to examine the use of ultrasound in resource-limited settings, with emphasis on common applications, barriers to implementation, and impact on clinical decision-making and patient disposition.
Methods and Materials: Literature review. We conducted a PubMed and Cochrane Central search on the clinical use of ultrasound in the developing world. Search terms included ultrasonography, developing countries, resource limited, remote setting, poverty, and low income. Articles from 2000 to 2015 that ...
Real-World Comparative Effectiveness Of Tocilizumab Monotherapy Vs. Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors With Methotrexate In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Real-World Comparative Effectiveness Of Tocilizumab Monotherapy Vs. Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors With Methotrexate In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Jennie Best, Steve Zlotnick, Joel M. Kremer
Open Access Articles
INTRODUCTION: Controlled clinical studies have shown that the efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) monotherapy is superior to that of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) monotherapy and comparable to that of TCZ plus methotrexate (MTX) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study compared the real-world effectiveness of TCZ monotherapy vs. TNFis plus MTX in US patients with RA.
METHODS: TCZ-naive patients from the Corrona RA registry with prior exposure to > /= 1 TNFi who initiated TCZ monotherapy or TNFi + MTX were included. Outcomes included mean change in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), achievement of low disease activity (LDA; CDAI < /= 10), achievement of modified American College of Rheumatology (mACR) 20/50 responses, and mean change in modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) at 6 months. Patients initiating TNFi + MTX were grouped by MTX dose ( < /= 10 mg; > 10 to ...
Computational Investigation Of The Interactions Between Bioactive Compounds And Biological Assemblies, 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus
Computational Investigation Of The Interactions Between Bioactive Compounds And Biological Assemblies, Tye D. Martin
Shared Knowledge Conference
Design of small molecules is an ongoing focus for developing agents against pathogenic viruses and bacteria that are threats to worldwide health. Viruses such as Zika feature assemblies of repeat peptide subunits or capsid proteins which are potential targets for antiviral compounds. Other protein assemblies are implicated in pathology of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and additional neurodegenerative diseases characterized by large assemblies of misfolded proteins such as amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau. Recent studies on a class of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) with phenylene ethynylene moieties and charged functional groups have shown potential both as bioactive antimicrobials and theragnostic sensing agents for ...
Ethical Implications Of Treatment For Gender Dysphoria In Youth, 2018 College of Our Lady of the Elms
Ethical Implications Of Treatment For Gender Dysphoria In Youth, Kelsey Hayes
Online Journal of Health Ethics
This manuscript explores ethical implications on treatment for youth with diagnosed gender dysphoria. The ethical considerations outlined and analyzed in this essay involve illuminating an understanding of whether the administration of pubertal suppression with GnRH agonists, and cross-sex hormones to children with gender dysphoria is morally justified as treatment to manage their psychological distress, or if safer more understood alternatives exist. This essay emphasizes that as health care professionals we must ensure youth with gender dysphoria receive adequate medical treatment and care however, this essay concludes through extensive literature review, that the use of inconclusive and under researched methods to ...
How To Translate Self-Management Support Tools Into Clinical Practice, 2018 University of Colorado School of Medicine
How To Translate Self-Management Support Tools Into Clinical Practice, Matthew J. Simpson, Jeanette M. Daly, Douglas H. Fernald, John M. Westfall, Leann C. Michaels, Barcey T. Levy, David L. Hahn, Lyle J. Fagnan, Donald E. Nease Jr.
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Purpose: Patient self-management is an inevitable part of the work of being a patient, and self-management support (SMS) has become increasingly important in chronic disease management. However, the majority of SMS resources available in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality SMS Resource Library were developed without explicit collaboration between clinicians and patients.
Methods: Translation of SMS tools derived from the library into primary care practices occurred utilizing boot camp translation in four different practice-based research networks (PBRNs). The typical model of boot camp translation was adapted for the purpose of the Implementing Networks’ Self-management Tools Through Engaging Patients and ...
The Wilbarger Protocol, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
The Wilbarger Protocol, Brittany Hatlestad
Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works
Sensory processing disorder (SPD) is ever-increasing in children with and without disabilities. The prevalence of such a diagnosis has given rise to many different therapeutic practices. The most prescriptive, the Wilbarger protocol, will be the topic of this technique and literature review with discussions of what sensory problems are, the Wilbarger protocol, the deep pressure and proprioceptive portion of the protocol, oral tactile techniques, mechanisms of the protocol, the limitations, other options for treatment, and will conclude by looking to future research.
Comparison Of Prescribing Practices For Older Adults Treated By Female Versus Male Physicians: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Paula A. Rochon, Jerry H. Gurwitz
Open Access Articles
IMPORTANCE: Subtle but important differences have been described in the way that male and female physicians care for their patients, with some evidence suggesting women are more likely to adhere to best practice recommendations.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if male and female physicians differ in their prescribing practices as measured by the initiation of lower-than-recommended dose cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) drug therapy for dementia management.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: All community-dwelling Ontario residents aged 66 years and older with dementia and newly dispensed an oral ChEI drug (donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine) between April 1, 2010 and June 30, 2016 were included.
7t Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Of Non-Lesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
7t Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Of Non-Lesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, John Robert Adams
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy, and one that is generally amenable to surgical treatment when surgery is necessary. Unfortunately, roughly 25-30% of the patient population have no visible lesions on clinical MRI scans. Without anatomical abnormalities to help guide surgical resection, the success of surgical treatment decreases substantially. However, metabolic abnormalities may exist that could allow for accurate localization of epileptic tissue in this cohort. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a technique that can detect and measure the concentration of metabolically important molecules within tissue, giving insight into the underlying cellular metabolism.
Protection Induced By A Francisella Tularensis Subunit Vaccine Delivered By Glucan Particles, 2018 Dstl Porton Down
Protection Induced By A Francisella Tularensis Subunit Vaccine Delivered By Glucan Particles, Adam O. Whelan, Helen C. Flick-Smith, Jane Homan, Zu T. Shen, Zoe Carpenter, Payam Khoshkenar, Ambily Abraham, Nicola J. Walker, Stuart M. Levitz, Gary R. Ostroff, Petra C. F. Oyston
Open Access Articles
Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen causing the disease tularemia, and an organism of concern to biodefence. There is no licensed vaccine available. Subunit approaches have failed to induce protection, which requires both humoral and cellular immune memory responses, and have been hampered by a lack of understanding as to which antigens are immunoprotective. We undertook a preliminary in silico analysis to identify candidate protein antigens. These antigens were then recombinantly expressed and encapsulated into glucan particles (GPs), purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls composed primarily of beta-1,3-glucans. Immunological profiling in the mouse was used to down-selection to seven lead ...
How Concussions Alter Brain Network Properties: Towards Better Diagnoses Of Concussions, 2018 University of Richmond
How Concussions Alter Brain Network Properties: Towards Better Diagnoses Of Concussions, Sara Krehbiel, Joanna R. Wares
Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research
No abstract provided.
Adeno-Associated Virus Neutralizing Antibodies In Large Animals And Their Impact On Brain Intraparenchymal Gene Transfer, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Adeno-Associated Virus Neutralizing Antibodies In Large Animals And Their Impact On Brain Intraparenchymal Gene Transfer, Dan Wang, Li Zhong, Mengxin Li, Jia Li, Karen Tran, Lingzhi Ren, Ran He, Jun Xie, Richard P. Moser, Cara Fraser, Tim Kuchel, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Terence R. Flotte, Neil Aronin, Guangping Gao
Open Access Articles
Pre-existing neutralizing antibody (NAb) against adeno-associated virus (AAV) commonly found in primates is a major host barrier that can severely compromise in vivo gene transfer by AAV vectors. To achieve proof-of-concept success in clinical development of recombinant AAV (rAAV)-based in vivo gene therapy, it is crucial to consider the potential interference of NAb and to enroll serologically compatible study subjects. In this study, we report a large AAV NAb dataset comprising multiple large animal species and AAV serotypes and compare two NAb assays based on in vitro or in vivo transduction inhibition, respectively. Together with previously published AAV seroepidemiology ...
Hptlc Assay Of Nicotine And Cotinine In Biological Samples, 2018 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
Hptlc Assay Of Nicotine And Cotinine In Biological Samples, Ana Maria Vlasceanu, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Anne Marie Ciobanu, Vlad D. Constantin, Liana Ples, Cristian Balalau, Miriana Stan
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
This study presents the development of a simple high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in human plasma and urine.
The following mobile phases: methanol: ammonia (100:1.5, v:v), chloroform: acetone: ammonia (48.75: 48.75: 2.5, v:v:v), methanol: chloroform: ammonia (48.75: 48.75: 0.5, v:v:v) and glass plates precoated with silicagel 60 F254 (20x20) as a stationary phase were used. Densitometric scanning was performed at 263 nm. Two different extraction procedures have been applied: liquid-liquid extraction using dichloromethane at alkaline pH and ...
Abdominal-Pelvic Pain In Female Patients With Endometriosis - A Review Of The Literature, 2018 Carol Davila University, Bagdasar Arseni Clinical Hospital, Department of Surgery, Bucharest, Romania
Abdominal-Pelvic Pain In Female Patients With Endometriosis - A Review Of The Literature, Cristinel Dumitru Badiu, Marina Romina Sima, Claudia Mehedintu, Bogdan Mastalier, Mihaela Mandu, Liliana Florina Andronache, Dan Nicolae Paduraru, Anca Mihaela Pantea Stoian, Valentin Titus Grigorean
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Abdominal-pelvic pain is the dominant symptom in endometriosis, one of the most common pathologies that affect women, being also a multifactorial disorder. Exploratory laparoscopy allows the correct assessment of the location as well as severity and extent of the lesions, thus representing the current gold standard in diagnosis. The correlation of pain intensity with the evolutionary stage of endometriosis is inconstant. Surgical treatment, preferably performed laparoscopically, includes the excision of the ectopic endometrium, having as a primary objective the control of persistent pain and the removal of all endometriotic foci. This procedure helps to improve the life quality of the ...
Oxcarbazepine Overdose In A Polysubstance Related Suicide, 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital
Oxcarbazepine Overdose In A Polysubstance Related Suicide, Melissa Beals, Robert J. Krumsick, C. Clinton Frazee Iii, Lindsey J. Haldiman, Uttam Garg
Oxcarbazepine is a derivative of carbamazepine that is used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy, and experimentally as a mood-stabilizer in adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Oxcarbazepine is converted through oxidation to its pharmacologically active metabolite 10-OH-Carbazepine, which is thought to be responsible for most of the anticonvulsant action of the drug. Adverse effects of oxcarbazepine are generally dose-dependent and may include fatigue, somnolence, dizziness, diplopia, nystagmus, and ataxia. Additive sedative effects have been noted when oxcarbazepine is used in combination with other CNS depressionproducing medications. Furthermore, oxcarbazepine and 10-OH-Carbazepine are powerful CYP2C19 inhibitors, potentially increasing ...
Use Of Structural Equation Models To Predict Dengue Illness Phenotype, 2018 Brown University
Use Of Structural Equation Models To Predict Dengue Illness Phenotype, Sangshin Park, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Louis Macareo, Sharone Green, Jennifer F. Friedman, Alan L. Rothman
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Early recognition of dengue, particularly patients at risk for plasma leakage, is important to clinical management. The objective of this study was to build predictive models for dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) using structural equation modelling (SEM), a statistical method that evaluates mechanistic pathways.
METHODS/FINDINGS: We performed SEM using data from 257 Thai children enrolled within 72 h of febrile illness onset, 156 with dengue and 101 with non-dengue febrile illnesses. Models for dengue, DHF, and DSS were developed based on data obtained three and one day(s) prior to fever resolution (fever ...
Hand Issues On Scleroderma Patients, 2018 City University of New York (CUNY)
Hand Issues On Scleroderma Patients, Ana Font Hernandez
Publications and Research
Based on the design of a 3D-printed spoon prototype, we surveyed scleroderma patients about the device's value. 75% of patients mentioned having problems on their hands due to scleroderma. 85% of patients said their hand form changed because of the disease. Answers to the frequency or speed of the changes provide inconclusive results. The 3D printing technology has the potential to solve specific issues scleroderma patients face in their daily lives. Nevertheless, further research is needed to fully understand how hands shape change over time.
The Chapman Bone Algorithm: A Diagnostic Alternative For The Evaluation Of Osteoporosis, 2018 Chapman University
The Chapman Bone Algorithm: A Diagnostic Alternative For The Evaluation Of Osteoporosis, Elise Levesque, Anton Ketterer, Wajiha Memon, Cameron James, Noah Barrett, Cyril Rakovski, Frank Frisch
Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research
Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease and goes largely undiagnosed throughout the world, due to the inaccessibility of DXA machines. Multivariate analyses of serum bone turnover markers were evaluated in 226 Orange County, California, residents with the intent to determine if serum osteocalcin and serum pyridinoline cross-links could be used to detect the onset of osteoporosis as effectively as a DXA scan. Descriptive analyses of the demographic and lab characteristics of the participants were performed through frequency, means and standard deviation estimations. We implemented logistic regression modeling to find the best classification algorithm for osteoporosis. All calculations and ...
Reduced Incidence And Better Liver Disease Outcomes Among Chronic Hcv Infected Patients Who Consume Cannabis, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Reduced Incidence And Better Liver Disease Outcomes Among Chronic Hcv Infected Patients Who Consume Cannabis, Adeyinka Adejumo, Oluwole Muyiwa Adegbala, Kelechi Lauretta Adejumo, Terence N. Bukong
Open Access Articles
Background and Aim: The effect of cannabis use on chronic liver disease (CLD) from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, the most common cause of CLD, has been controversial. Here, we investigated the impact of cannabis use on the prevalence of CLD among HCV infected individuals.
Methods: We analyzed hospital discharge records of adults (age > /= 18 years) with a positive HCV diagnosis. We evaluated records from 2007 to 2014 of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). We excluded records with other causes of chronic liver diseases (alcohol, hemochromatosis, NAFLD, PBC, HBV, etc.). Of the 188,333 records, we matched cannabis users to ...
The Impact Of Joint Commission International Accreditation On Time Periods In The Operating Room: A Retrospective Observational Study, Takenori Inomata, Ju Mizuno, Masao Iwagami, Shiori Kawasaki, Akie Shimada, Eiichi Inada, Tina Shiang, Atsushi Amano
Open Access Articles
The Joint Commission International (JCI) is responsible for upholding standards in healthcare and organizations in compliance receive accreditation. JCI requires quality improvement on patient safety goals, but requirements may prolong the total procedure/surgery time and reduce efficiency. Here, we evaluate the impact of JCI requirements on time periods in the operating room. We included patients who received elective and emergency surgeries under general anesthesia at Juntendo University Hospital between December 2014 and June 2016. Patients were classified as before and after JCI accreditation on December 12, 2015. The primary outcome was total procedure/surgery time. Secondary outcomes include five ...