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Determining The Detective Quantum Efficiency (Dqe) Of X-Ray Detectors In Clinical Environments, Terenz R. Escartin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Determining The Detective Quantum Efficiency (Dqe) Of X-Ray Detectors In Clinical Environments, Terenz R. Escartin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

According to Health Canada, dental and medical radiography accounts for more than 90% of total man-made radiation dose to the general population. Ensuring patients receive the health benefits of diagnostic x-ray imaging without use of higher radiation exposures requires knowledge and understanding of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Currently, the DQE is not measured in clinics because it requires specialized instrumentation and specific DQE-expertise to perform an accurate analysis. In this regard, the goals of this thesis were to: 1) address the limitations of measuring the DQE in clinical environments that affects the accuracy of the measurement; 2) develop and ...


The Application Of Self-Administered Nutrition Screening Tools And Evaluations Of The Impact Of Malnutrition On Quality Of Life In Individuals With Head And Neck Cancer, Mark J. P. Lynch 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Application Of Self-Administered Nutrition Screening Tools And Evaluations Of The Impact Of Malnutrition On Quality Of Life In Individuals With Head And Neck Cancer, Mark J. P. Lynch

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

Background: Individuals with head and neck cancer (HNCa) are at an increased risk of malnutrition. Therefore, self-administered nutrition screens which attempt to address their nutritional concerns may yield benefits for treatment outcomes and quality of life (QOL).

Methods: 34 participants (26 men, 8 women) completed one demographic and two QOL surveys, two nutrition self-screening tools, a nutrition assessment and an ease-of-use questionnaire. Results of the screens were compared to those of the assessment, and relationships between QOL, nutrition status, and demographics were examined.

Results: 32.3% of participants were identified as nutritionally compromised. The sensitivity and specificity for the ...


A State-Wide Initiative To Promote Genetic Testing In An Underserved Population, Meghan L. Underhill, Traci M. Blonquist, Karleen Habin, Debra Lundquist, Kristen Shannon, Kathryn Robinson, Mary-Lou Woodford, Jean Boucher 2017 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

A State-Wide Initiative To Promote Genetic Testing In An Underserved Population, Meghan L. Underhill, Traci M. Blonquist, Karleen Habin, Debra Lundquist, Kristen Shannon, Kathryn Robinson, Mary-Lou Woodford, Jean Boucher

Open Access Articles

Genetic testing for cancer susceptibility has been widely studied and utilized clinically. Access to genetic services in research and practice is largely limited to well-insured, Caucasian individuals. In 2009, the Cancer Resource Foundation (CRF) implemented the Genetic Information for Treatment Surveillance and Support (GIFTSS) program to cover the out-of-pocket expenses associated with cancer genetic testing, targeting high-risk individuals with limited financial means and limited health insurance coverage. Here, we (i) describe the characteristics of participants in the Massachusetts (MA) GIFTSS program and (ii) evaluate mutations found in this diverse sample. A secondary retrospective data analysis was performed using de-identified demographic ...


Neuroanatomical Tracing Of The Gut -- Brain Axis, Ricardo P. Torres, Elizabeth A. Davis, Coltan G. Parker, Megan J. Dailey 2017 Waubosee Community College

Neuroanatomical Tracing Of The Gut -- Brain Axis, Ricardo P. Torres, Elizabeth A. Davis, Coltan G. Parker, Megan J. Dailey

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

This poster summarizes a variety of methods to further characterize the gut-brain axis by tracing motor and sensory nerves between the gut and brain and identifying cell bodies in the sensory ganglia. Determines the meth method to trace the sensory and motor nerves was through fluorescence and the best method to identify sensory neuron cell bodies was the Nissi stain.


Analysis Of The Local And Systemic Cytokine Response Profiles In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Relationship With Disease Severity And Outcomes., Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Paula Peyrani, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Analysis Of The Local And Systemic Cytokine Response Profiles In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Relationship With Disease Severity And Outcomes., Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Paula Peyrani, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

The goals of this study were to investigate the relationship of systemic and local cytokine responses with time to clinical stability (TCS) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to develop a model to integrate multiple cytokine data into “cytokine response profiles” based on local vs. systemic and pro- vs. anti-inflammatory cytokine patterns in order to better understand their relationships with measures of CAP severity and outcomes. Forty hospitalized patients enrolled through the Community Acquired Pneumonia Inflammatory Study Group (CAPISG) were analyzed. Based on the ranked distribution of the levels of eight different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8 ...


Building Better Tumor Models In Vitro: An Investigation Into The Improvement Of 3d Cell Culture Techniques, Brandon Piel, Michael Doane, Praveena Velpurisiva, Prakash Rai 2017 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Building Better Tumor Models In Vitro: An Investigation Into The Improvement Of 3d Cell Culture Techniques, Brandon Piel, Michael Doane, Praveena Velpurisiva, Prakash Rai

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

In cancer drug discovery, 3D cell culture is a segue between monolayer cell culture and animal testing, offering better predictive modelling of drug performance before animal testing commences. However, even though cell spheroids in 3D cultures superficially resemble tumors, they typically lack the complexity and scale of tumors formed in vivo. Spheroids typically consist of a single cell type whereas tumors contain a whole ecosystem of cells. Also, most 3D protocols stop at day 10, where the spheroids are roughly 500-600 μm in diameter at the largest, whereas tumors that develop in the body are, on average, 7.5 cm ...


Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine 2017 University of Wyoming

Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are an accurate reflection of bacterial replication within the human body. By deciphering between bacterial and viral invasion, antibiotic therapy will be reduced contributing to the reduction of antibiotic resistance. For atypical patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), PCT levels will detect when antibiotic therapy is effective and when it is safe to discontinue antibiotics. Hospital stay length will be reduced and patients to nurse ratios will improve. One simple diagnostic PCT test used as an adjunct with traditional diagnostic testing for CAP will help minimize morbidity and mortality rates among patients. Traditionally used with septic patients ...


Quantifying Joint Coordination Variability In Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Individuals During Walking, Kylie Davis 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Quantifying Joint Coordination Variability In Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Individuals During Walking, Kylie Davis

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The knee is the second most common joint to sustain injury. An estimated 200,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures occur each year in the United States alone, and about 100,000 ACL reconstruction (ACLR) surgeries are performed annually. There is a significant risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee after incurring an ACL injury, and the incidence of ipsilateral or contralateral injury is six times greater in individuals who have a surgically repaired ACL. Past studies have analyzed kinetic and kinematic characteristics of individual lower extremity joints to reveal differences between subjects with and without ACLR. Despite reports of ...


Examination Of Neurocorrelates Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Young Adults, Rachel J. Raucci 2017 Ursinus College

Examination Of Neurocorrelates Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Young Adults, Rachel J. Raucci

Neuroscience Honors Papers

In recent years, there has been an upswing in the number of concussion diagnoses per year in the United States, particularly in young athletes with still-developing brains. Accompanying this recent trend is an increased amount of research on concussions and their long-term impacts. This ongoing research project collects and compares data from concussed and non-concussed individuals using various neuropsychological batteries, self-report surveys and participants’ EEG readings. Data analysis of the results from 51 participants indicates that previously concussed individuals differ from their non-concussed counterparts. Specifically, individuals who have suffered a concussion exhibit specific and occasionally idiosyncratic deficits in executive control ...


Keeping Weight Off: Study Protocol Of An Rct To Investigate Brain Changes Associated With Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Carl E. Fulwiler, Julia A. Siegel, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Judson A. Brewer, Jean A. King 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Keeping Weight Off: Study Protocol Of An Rct To Investigate Brain Changes Associated With Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Carl E. Fulwiler, Julia A. Siegel, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Judson A. Brewer, Jean A. King

Jean A. King

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes.

METHODS ...


Head Out Of Water Weighing: A Valid Method To Measure Body Fat Storage?, Molly Hussey 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Head Out Of Water Weighing: A Valid Method To Measure Body Fat Storage?, Molly Hussey

Annual Graduate Student Symposium

Underwater weighing with full lung expiration has been established as a valid method to assess body composition. Many people do not prefer this method due to various reasons. Hydrostatic weighing with head above water at full lung capacity has been tested although not accepted as an alternative method. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to examine if hydrostatic weighing with the head above water could be a better method to measure body composition. Methods: Fifty-nine subjects (F=29, M=30) participated in performing four different methods of underwater weighing: complete immersion at full lung expiration (UWWRV) and total ...


A Nurse-Led Education And Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-Based Intervention Among Adults With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomised Controlled Trial., Lisa Whitehead, Marie T. Crowe, Janet D. Carter, Virginia R. Maskill, David Carlyle, Carol Bugge, Chris M.A Frampton 2017 Edith Cowan University

A Nurse-Led Education And Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-Based Intervention Among Adults With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomised Controlled Trial., Lisa Whitehead, Marie T. Crowe, Janet D. Carter, Virginia R. Maskill, David Carlyle, Carol Bugge, Chris M.A Frampton

ECU Publications Post 2013

Rationale, aims and objectives: Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and escalating health care costs. Research has consistently demonstrated the importance of glycaemic control in delaying the onset, and decreasing the incidence, of both the short-term and long-term complications of diabetes. Although glycaemic control is difficult to achieve and challenging to maintain, it is key to reducing negative disease outcomes.

The aim of this study was to determine whether a nurse-led educational intervention alone or a nurse-led intervention using education and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) was effective in reducing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in people living ...


Total Volume And Composition Of Fluid Intake And Mortality In Older Women: A Cohort Study, Wai H. Lim, Germaine Wong, Joshua R. Lewis, Charmaine E. Lok, Kevan R. Polkinghorne, Jonathan Hodgson, Ee M. Lim, Richard L. Prince 2017 Edith Cowan University

Total Volume And Composition Of Fluid Intake And Mortality In Older Women: A Cohort Study, Wai H. Lim, Germaine Wong, Joshua R. Lewis, Charmaine E. Lok, Kevan R. Polkinghorne, Jonathan Hodgson, Ee M. Lim, Richard L. Prince

ECU Publications Post 2013

Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women.

Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia.

Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black ...


Defining The 5 And 3 Landscape Of The Drosophila Transcriptome With Exo-Seq And Rnaseh-Seq, Shaked Afik, Osnat Bartok, Maxim N. Artyomov, Alexander A. Shishkin, Sabah Kadri, Mor Hanan, Xiaopeng Zhu, Manuel Garber, Sebastian Kadener 2017 The Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Defining The 5 And 3 Landscape Of The Drosophila Transcriptome With Exo-Seq And Rnaseh-Seq, Shaked Afik, Osnat Bartok, Maxim N. Artyomov, Alexander A. Shishkin, Sabah Kadri, Mor Hanan, Xiaopeng Zhu, Manuel Garber, Sebastian Kadener

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Cells regulate biological responses in part through changes in transcription start sites (TSS) or cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PAS). To fully understand gene regulatory networks, it is therefore critical to accurately annotate cell type-specific TSS and PAS. Here we present a simple and straightforward approach for genome-wide annotation of 5- and 3-RNA ends. Our approach reliably discerns bona fide PAS from false PAS that arise due to internal poly(A) tracts, a common problem with current PAS annotation methods. We applied our methodology to study the impact of temperature on the Drosophila melanogaster head transcriptome. We found hundreds of previously ...


Design Of Radio-Frequency Arrays For Ultra-High Field Mri, Ian R O Connell 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Design Of Radio-Frequency Arrays For Ultra-High Field Mri, Ian R O Connell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an indispensable, non-invasive diagnostic tool for the assessment of disease and function. As an investigational device, MRI has found routine use in both basic science research and medicine for both human and non-human subjects.

Due to the potential increase in spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the ability to exploit novel tissue contrasts, the main magnetic field strength of human MRI scanners has steadily increased since inception. Beginning in the early 1980’s, 0.15 T human MRI scanners have steadily risen in main magnetic field strength with ultra-high field (UHF) 8 T MRI systems ...


Assessment Protocol For Cognitive And Auditory Processing Skills For Clients Receiving Neurofeedback Treatment For Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion: Literature Review, Elexea N. Aurilio, Miranda Hendrus 2017 The University of Akron

Assessment Protocol For Cognitive And Auditory Processing Skills For Clients Receiving Neurofeedback Treatment For Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion: Literature Review, Elexea N. Aurilio, Miranda Hendrus

Honors Research Projects

Neurofeedback has become increasingly popular in the medical world and will hopefully become more commonly used in the fields of speech-language pathology and audiology. Currently, there is a lack of a singular, baseline and progression diagnostic tool to measure a client’s cognitive and auditory processing skills once they are referred for neurofeedback treatment.


Can A Layer Of Antimicrobial Agents Be Placed Around Breast Implants To Prevent Staph Infections From Occurring?, Valerie L. Tran 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Can A Layer Of Antimicrobial Agents Be Placed Around Breast Implants To Prevent Staph Infections From Occurring?, Valerie L. Tran

Undergraduate Research Posters

The most common infection that occurs after breast augmentation is a staph infection. Currently, there are only three ways to treat this type of infection, all of which treat the breast implant after the infection has developed. The first option is to treat the infection with an oral antibiotic. If this doesn’t completely rid the infection, then intravenous antibiotics are used. If this too doesn’t remove the infection, then surgery will be performed to remove the breast implant and a new implant will be inserted. Although, these options have a low mortality rate, the success rate of completely ...


Urine Cotinine In Children And Parental Behavior Modification: A Pilot Study, Teresa Lachance 2017 University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service

Urine Cotinine In Children And Parental Behavior Modification: A Pilot Study, Teresa Lachance

Muskie School Capstones

“Urine Cotinine in Children and Parental Behavior Modification” was designed by Dr. Deirdre Burns, a pediatrician at the Barbara Bush Children’s Hospital (BBCH). It was implemented as a pilot study to determine whether urine cotinine testing in children who are admitted to the hospital for respiratory illness and tracking parental smoking behaviors over time was feasible. Parents were given a brief survey to assess their current smoking behaviors and to understand their readiness to quit smoking. They received smoking cessation materials provided by the Breathe Easy Coalition of Maine. These materials outline information about second-hand and third-hand smoke, and ...


Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez 2017 CUNY City College

Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez

Master's Theses

Adolescence is a developmentally critical transition from childhood to adulthood including both maturation of the body and the brain. Neuroplastic changes result in dynamic organization of the brain during adolescence, leaving them vulnerable to development of mental illness and drug-seeking behavior. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the psychostimulant cocaine is the second most popular illicit drug in the world. Cocaine, amongst having many detrimental effects, has shown to also decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, resulting in decreased neuroplasticity and cognitive dysfunction. Previous students in our laboratory have shown that treatment of adult male rats with the essential ...


Associations Between Modifiable Health-Risk Behaviors And Personality Types, Jon C. Schommer, Paul D. Tieger, Anthony W. Olson, Lawrence M. Brown 2017 University of Minnesota

Associations Between Modifiable Health-Risk Behaviors And Personality Types, Jon C. Schommer, Paul D. Tieger, Anthony W. Olson, Lawrence M. Brown

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objectives: The first objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire) are associated with the following modifiable health-risk behaviors: smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, nutrition, sleep, depression-related stress, anxiety-related stress, healthcare professional usage, and self-discipline. The second objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type are associated with (1) the quality of patient-physician relationships, (2) patient-physician communication, and (3) preferred method for receiving information.

Methods: Data were collected from 10,500 adult individuals residing in the United States via an on-line, self-administered survey coordinated by Qualtrics Panels ...


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