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Analysis Of The Local And Systemic Cytokine Response Profiles In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Relationship With Disease Severity And Outcomes., Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Paula Peyrani, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Analysis Of The Local And Systemic Cytokine Response Profiles In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Relationship With Disease Severity And Outcomes., Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Paula Peyrani, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

The goals of this study were to investigate the relationship of systemic and local cytokine responses with time to clinical stability (TCS) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to develop a model to integrate multiple cytokine data into “cytokine response profiles” based on local vs. systemic and pro- vs. anti-inflammatory cytokine patterns in order to better understand their relationships with measures of CAP severity and outcomes. Forty hospitalized patients enrolled through the Community Acquired Pneumonia Inflammatory Study Group (CAPISG) were analyzed. Based on the ranked distribution of the levels of eight different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8 ...


Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine 2017 University of Wyoming

Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are an accurate reflection of bacterial replication within the human body. By deciphering between bacterial and viral invasion, antibiotic therapy will be reduced contributing to the reduction of antibiotic resistance. For atypical patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), PCT levels will detect when antibiotic therapy is effective and when it is safe to discontinue antibiotics. Hospital stay length will be reduced and patients to nurse ratios will improve. One simple diagnostic PCT test used as an adjunct with traditional diagnostic testing for CAP will help minimize morbidity and mortality rates among patients. Traditionally used with septic patients ...


Examination Of Neurocorrelates Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Young Adults, Rachel J. Raucci 2017 Ursinus College

Examination Of Neurocorrelates Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Young Adults, Rachel J. Raucci

Neuroscience Honors Papers

In recent years, there has been an upswing in the number of concussion diagnoses per year in the United States, particularly in young athletes with still-developing brains. Accompanying this recent trend is an increased amount of research on concussions and their long-term impacts. This ongoing research project collects and compares data from concussed and non-concussed individuals using various neuropsychological batteries, self-report surveys and participants’ EEG readings. Data analysis of the results from 51 participants indicates that previously concussed individuals differ from their non-concussed counterparts. Specifically, individuals who have suffered a concussion exhibit specific and occasionally idiosyncratic deficits in executive control ...


Head Out Of Water Weighing: A Valid Method To Measure Body Fat Storage?, Molly Hussey 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Head Out Of Water Weighing: A Valid Method To Measure Body Fat Storage?, Molly Hussey

Annual Graduate Student Symposium

Underwater weighing with full lung expiration has been established as a valid method to assess body composition. Many people do not prefer this method due to various reasons. Hydrostatic weighing with head above water at full lung capacity has been tested although not accepted as an alternative method. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to examine if hydrostatic weighing with the head above water could be a better method to measure body composition. Methods: Fifty-nine subjects (F=29, M=30) participated in performing four different methods of underwater weighing: complete immersion at full lung expiration (UWWRV) and total ...


A Nurse-Led Education And Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-Based Intervention Among Adults With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomised Controlled Trial., Lisa Whitehead, Marie T. Crowe, Janet D. Carter, Virginia R. Maskill, David Carlyle, Carol Bugge, Chris M.A Frampton 2017 Edith Cowan University

A Nurse-Led Education And Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-Based Intervention Among Adults With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomised Controlled Trial., Lisa Whitehead, Marie T. Crowe, Janet D. Carter, Virginia R. Maskill, David Carlyle, Carol Bugge, Chris M.A Frampton

ECU Publications Post 2013

Rationale, aims and objectives: Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and escalating health care costs. Research has consistently demonstrated the importance of glycaemic control in delaying the onset, and decreasing the incidence, of both the short-term and long-term complications of diabetes. Although glycaemic control is difficult to achieve and challenging to maintain, it is key to reducing negative disease outcomes.

The aim of this study was to determine whether a nurse-led educational intervention alone or a nurse-led intervention using education and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) was effective in reducing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in people living ...


Total Volume And Composition Of Fluid Intake And Mortality In Older Women: A Cohort Study, Wai H. Lim, Germaine Wong, Joshua R. Lewis, Charmaine E. Lok, Kevan R. Polkinghorne, Jonathan Hodgson, Ee M. Lim, Richard L. Prince 2017 Edith Cowan University

Total Volume And Composition Of Fluid Intake And Mortality In Older Women: A Cohort Study, Wai H. Lim, Germaine Wong, Joshua R. Lewis, Charmaine E. Lok, Kevan R. Polkinghorne, Jonathan Hodgson, Ee M. Lim, Richard L. Prince

ECU Publications Post 2013

Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women.

Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia.

Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black ...


Defining The 5 And 3 Landscape Of The Drosophila Transcriptome With Exo-Seq And Rnaseh-Seq, Shaked Afik, Osnat Bartok, Maxim N. Artyomov, Alexander A. Shishkin, Sabah Kadri, Mor Hanan, Xiaopeng Zhu, Manuel Garber, Sebastian Kadener 2017 The Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Defining The 5 And 3 Landscape Of The Drosophila Transcriptome With Exo-Seq And Rnaseh-Seq, Shaked Afik, Osnat Bartok, Maxim N. Artyomov, Alexander A. Shishkin, Sabah Kadri, Mor Hanan, Xiaopeng Zhu, Manuel Garber, Sebastian Kadener

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Cells regulate biological responses in part through changes in transcription start sites (TSS) or cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PAS). To fully understand gene regulatory networks, it is therefore critical to accurately annotate cell type-specific TSS and PAS. Here we present a simple and straightforward approach for genome-wide annotation of 5- and 3-RNA ends. Our approach reliably discerns bona fide PAS from false PAS that arise due to internal poly(A) tracts, a common problem with current PAS annotation methods. We applied our methodology to study the impact of temperature on the Drosophila melanogaster head transcriptome. We found hundreds of previously ...


Design Of Radio-Frequency Arrays For Ultra-High Field Mri, Ian R O Connell 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Design Of Radio-Frequency Arrays For Ultra-High Field Mri, Ian R O Connell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an indispensable, non-invasive diagnostic tool for the assessment of disease and function. As an investigational device, MRI has found routine use in both basic science research and medicine for both human and non-human subjects.

Due to the potential increase in spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the ability to exploit novel tissue contrasts, the main magnetic field strength of human MRI scanners has steadily increased since inception. Beginning in the early 1980’s, 0.15 T human MRI scanners have steadily risen in main magnetic field strength with ultra-high field (UHF) 8 T MRI systems ...


Can A Layer Of Antimicrobial Agents Be Placed Around Breast Implants To Prevent Staph Infections From Occurring?, Valerie L. Tran 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Can A Layer Of Antimicrobial Agents Be Placed Around Breast Implants To Prevent Staph Infections From Occurring?, Valerie L. Tran

Undergraduate Research Posters

The most common infection that occurs after breast augmentation is a staph infection. Currently, there are only three ways to treat this type of infection, all of which treat the breast implant after the infection has developed. The first option is to treat the infection with an oral antibiotic. If this doesn’t completely rid the infection, then intravenous antibiotics are used. If this too doesn’t remove the infection, then surgery will be performed to remove the breast implant and a new implant will be inserted. Although, these options have a low mortality rate, the success rate of completely ...


Assessment Protocol For Cognitive And Auditory Processing Skills For Clients Receiving Neurofeedback Treatment For Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion: Literature Review, Elexea N. Aurilio, Miranda Hendrus 2017 The University of Akron

Assessment Protocol For Cognitive And Auditory Processing Skills For Clients Receiving Neurofeedback Treatment For Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion: Literature Review, Elexea N. Aurilio, Miranda Hendrus

Honors Research Projects

Neurofeedback has become increasingly popular in the medical world and will hopefully become more commonly used in the fields of speech-language pathology and audiology. Currently, there is a lack of a singular, baseline and progression diagnostic tool to measure a client’s cognitive and auditory processing skills once they are referred for neurofeedback treatment.


Associations Between Modifiable Health-Risk Behaviors And Personality Types, Jon C. Schommer, Paul D. Tieger, Anthony W. Olson, Lawrence M. Brown 2017 University of Minnesota

Associations Between Modifiable Health-Risk Behaviors And Personality Types, Jon C. Schommer, Paul D. Tieger, Anthony W. Olson, Lawrence M. Brown

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objectives: The first objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire) are associated with the following modifiable health-risk behaviors: smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, nutrition, sleep, depression-related stress, anxiety-related stress, healthcare professional usage, and self-discipline. The second objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type are associated with (1) the quality of patient-physician relationships, (2) patient-physician communication, and (3) preferred method for receiving information.

Methods: Data were collected from 10,500 adult individuals residing in the United States via an on-line, self-administered survey coordinated by Qualtrics Panels ...


Urine Cotinine In Children And Parental Behavior Modification: A Pilot Study, Teresa Lachance 2017 University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service

Urine Cotinine In Children And Parental Behavior Modification: A Pilot Study, Teresa Lachance

Muskie School Capstones

“Urine Cotinine in Children and Parental Behavior Modification” was designed by Dr. Deirdre Burns, a pediatrician at the Barbara Bush Children’s Hospital (BBCH). It was implemented as a pilot study to determine whether urine cotinine testing in children who are admitted to the hospital for respiratory illness and tracking parental smoking behaviors over time was feasible. Parents were given a brief survey to assess their current smoking behaviors and to understand their readiness to quit smoking. They received smoking cessation materials provided by the Breathe Easy Coalition of Maine. These materials outline information about second-hand and third-hand smoke, and ...


Conjugated Linoleic Acid Administration Induces Amnesia In Male Sprague Dawley Rats And Exacerbates Recovery From Functional Deficits Induced By A Controlled Cortical Impact Injury, Rastafa I. Gedde, Kentaro Hayashi, Quinn Bongers, Marlyse Wehber, Icelle M. Anderson, Alex D. Jansen, Chase Nier, Emily Fares, Gabrielle Farquhar, Amita Kapoor, Toni E. Ziegler, Sivan VadakkadathMeethal, Ian M. Bird, Craig S. Atwood 2017 Edith Cowan University

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Administration Induces Amnesia In Male Sprague Dawley Rats And Exacerbates Recovery From Functional Deficits Induced By A Controlled Cortical Impact Injury, Rastafa I. Gedde, Kentaro Hayashi, Quinn Bongers, Marlyse Wehber, Icelle M. Anderson, Alex D. Jansen, Chase Nier, Emily Fares, Gabrielle Farquhar, Amita Kapoor, Toni E. Ziegler, Sivan Vadakkadathmeethal, Ian M. Bird, Craig S. Atwood

ECU Publications Post 2013

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are required for normal neural development and cognitive function and have been ascribed various beneficial functions. Recently, oral CLA also has been shown to increase testosterone (T) biosynthesis, which is known to diminish traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced neuropathology and reduce deficits induced by stroke in adult rats. To test the impact of CLA on cognitive recovery following a TBI, 5–6 month old male Sprague Dawley rats received a focal injury (craniectomy + controlled cortical impact (CCI; n = 17)) or Sham injury (craniectomy alone; n = 12) and were injected with 25 ...


Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez 2017 CUNY City College

Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez

Master's Theses

Adolescence is a developmentally critical transition from childhood to adulthood including both maturation of the body and the brain. Neuroplastic changes result in dynamic organization of the brain during adolescence, leaving them vulnerable to development of mental illness and drug-seeking behavior. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the psychostimulant cocaine is the second most popular illicit drug in the world. Cocaine, amongst having many detrimental effects, has shown to also decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, resulting in decreased neuroplasticity and cognitive dysfunction. Previous students in our laboratory have shown that treatment of adult male rats with the essential ...


The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The median survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients from diagnosis is a dismal 3 years. This condition is characterized by pulmonary fibroproliferation and excess production and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in obliteration of the original tissue architecture, loss of lung function and eventual death due to respiratory failure. The main hindrance to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis is the late detection of its progression and is often of unknown cause. Tobacco smoke represents the most important environmental factor linked to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, with over 60% of IPF patients current ...


Quality Management: A Global Case Study In Organ Transplantation, Cassie L. Rodriguez 2016 University of San Francisco

Quality Management: A Global Case Study In Organ Transplantation, Cassie L. Rodriguez

Master's Projects and Capstones

Every year the US and European countries face an epidemic of organ failure from a multitude of reasons: cancer, genetic predisposition, exposure to harmful chemicals in home or surrounding areas or through drinking, drugs and smoking. Another problem faced, is the ratio of organ donors to organ recipients. Over 121,000 patients are on the waiting for an organ transplant, and a fraction of those waiting will die because of time. The Hanover Medical school and department of quality management, have created an integrated approach to organ transplant avenues. Quality management is a systematic guide for organ transplantation that allows ...


Keeping Weight Off: Study Protocol Of An Rct To Investigate Brain Changes Associated With Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Carl E. Fulwiler, Julia A. Siegel, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Judson A. Brewer, Jean A. King 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Keeping Weight Off: Study Protocol Of An Rct To Investigate Brain Changes Associated With Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Carl E. Fulwiler, Julia A. Siegel, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Judson A. Brewer, Jean A. King

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes.

METHODS ...


A Comparison Of Imaging Modalities For The Diagnosis Of Osteomyelitis, Brandon J. Smith, MD, Grant S. Buchanan, MD, Franklin D. Shuler, MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

A Comparison Of Imaging Modalities For The Diagnosis Of Osteomyelitis, Brandon J. Smith, Md, Grant S. Buchanan, Md, Franklin D. Shuler, Md, Phd

Franklin D. Shuler

Osteomyelitis is an increasingly common pathology that often poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Accurate and timely diagnosis is critical to preventing complications that can result in the loss of life or limb. In addition to history, physical exam, and laboratory studies, diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in the diagnostic process. This narrative review article discusses various imaging modalities employed to diagnose osteomyelitis: plain films, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, bone scintigraphy, and positron emission tomography (PET). Articles were obtained from Pubmed and screened for relevance to the topic of diagnostic imaging for osteomyelitis. The authors ...


Myocardial Infarction In The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: The Interaction Among Environmental, Health, Social, Behavioural And Genetic Factors, Tina K. Gonzales, James A. Yonker, Vicky Chang, Carol L. Roan, Pamela Herd, Craig S. Atwood 2016 Edith Cowan University

Myocardial Infarction In The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: The Interaction Among Environmental, Health, Social, Behavioural And Genetic Factors, Tina K. Gonzales, James A. Yonker, Vicky Chang, Carol L. Roan, Pamela Herd, Craig S. Atwood

ECU Publications Post 2013

Objectives This study examined how environmental, health, social, behavioural and genetic factors interact to contribute to myocardial infarction (MI) risk.

Design Survey data collected by Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), USA, from 1957 to 2011, including 235 environmental, health, social and behavioural factors, and 77 single- nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed for association with MI. To identify associations with MI we utilized recursive partitioning and random forest prior to logistic regression and chi-squared analyses.

Participants 6198 WLS participants (2938 men; 3260 women) who (1) had a MI before 72 years and (2) had a MI between 65 and 72 years.

Results In ...


Barriers And Facilitators To Deaf Trauma Survivors’ Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons For Behavioral Clinical Trials Research: A Master’S Thesis, Melissa L. Anderson 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Barriers And Facilitators To Deaf Trauma Survivors’ Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons For Behavioral Clinical Trials Research: A Master’S Thesis, Melissa L. Anderson

Melissa L. Anderson

Deaf individuals experience significant obstacles to participating in behavioral health research when careful consideration is not given to accessibility in the design of study methodology. To inform such considerations, we conducted a secondary analysis of a mixed-methods study that explored 16 Deaf trauma survivors’ help-seeking experiences. Our objective was to identify key findings and qualitative themes from consumers' own words that can be applied to the design of behavioral clinical trials methodology. In many ways, the themes that emerged are what we would expect of any research participant, Deaf or hearing – a need for communication access, empathy, respect, strict confidentiality ...


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