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Characterization And Normalization Of Rat Salivary Cholinesterase, Elise Klohe 2010 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Characterization And Normalization Of Rat Salivary Cholinesterase, Elise Klohe

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Cholinesterase (ChE) is an enzyme which allows neurons to return to a resting state by hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Organophosphate pesticides, which are commonly used in agriculture, inhibit the activity of ChE. The inhibition of ChE activity in plasma and red blood cells is used as a biomarker for human pesticide exposure. Currently, salivary ChE activity is being examined as a non-invasive biomarker; however little is known about baseline ChE activity in saliva. In order to characterize baseline salivary ChE, saliva was collected from 5 adult male SpragueDawley rats, salivary ChE was measured using the Ellman assay, and total salivary ...


Effect Of Membrane Cholesterol Levels And Allelic Variation On Prion Conversion, Ross Hartman 2010 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Effect Of Membrane Cholesterol Levels And Allelic Variation On Prion Conversion, Ross Hartman

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is caused by an accumulation of misfolded prion proteins (PrPsc) and subsequent plaque formation in the central nervous system. CWD is horizontally transferable; misfolded prions from one animal can enter another and cause normal prion proteins (PrPc) to misfold. This misfolding process is termed prion conversion. In natural deer populations an allelic variation in the prion gene is thought to confer resistance to CWD. Wild type mule deer are serine (S) homozygotes at codon 225. Mule deer that are Serine/ Phenyalanine (S/F) heterozygotes exhibit resistance to prion infection. In this study the F encoding allele ...


The Development Of A Quantitative Assay To Measure The Effects Of Protein Disulfide Isomerase On Prion Protein Misfolding, Lauren Vogl 2010 Carroll College, Helena, MT

The Development Of A Quantitative Assay To Measure The Effects Of Protein Disulfide Isomerase On Prion Protein Misfolding, Lauren Vogl

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The objective ofthis project was to develop a quantitative assay to measure the misfolding ofprion proteins that can be used to assess the effects of Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) on the misfolding process ofthe Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) prion protein. CWD is a spongiform encephalopathy native to animals in the family Cervidae, which includes whitetail deer, mule deer, elk and moose. CWD is caused by the misfolding ofprion proteins. Qualitative observations from previous studies indicate that disulfide bond rearrangement might be a rate limiting step in the misfolding process. There is a need to be able to quantitate the amount ...


A Comparison Of Three Computer-Based Methods Used To Determine Emg Signal Amplitude, Doug Renshaw 2010 University of Texas of the Permian Basin

A Comparison Of Three Computer-Based Methods Used To Determine Emg Signal Amplitude, Doug Renshaw

Doug Renshaw

No abstract provided.


Locus Of Control And The Age Difference In Free Recall From Episodic Memory, Paul Amrhein, Judith K. Bond, Derek Hamilton 2010 Montclair State University

Locus Of Control And The Age Difference In Free Recall From Episodic Memory, Paul Amrhein, Judith K. Bond, Derek Hamilton

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The authors investigated the relation of locus of control (LOC) to age differences in free-recall memory performance. Older and younger participants completed P. C. Duttweiler's (1984) Internal Control Index (ICI) and subsequently performed free-recall memory tasks. Compared with the younger participants, the older participants exhibited poorer recall with more intrusions and uncorrected repetition errors as well as reduced categorical clustering. For the older participants with less internal LOC, recall proportion and item-pair associative recall clustering were lower than for the older participants with more internal LOC. By contrast, the younger participants did not exhibit any LOC effects in their ...


Animal Models Of Focal Brain Ischemia, Kenneth M. Sicard, Marc Fisher 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Animal Models Of Focal Brain Ischemia, Kenneth M. Sicard, Marc Fisher

Marc Fisher

Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death in many countries. Understanding the pathophysiology of ischemic injury and developing therapies is an important endeavor that requires much additional research. Animal stroke models provide an important mechanism for these activities. A large number of stroke models have been developed and are currently used in laboratories around the world. These models are overviewed as are approaches for measuring infarct size and functional outcome.


Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Actions Of A Gdnf Propeptide, Luke H. Bradley, Josh Fuqua, April Richardson, Jadwiga Turchan-Cholewo, Yi Ai, Kristen A. Kelps, John D. Glass, Xiuquan He, Zhiming Zhang, Richard Grondin, O. Meagan Littrell, Peter Huettl, Francois Pomerleau, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt 2010 University of Kentucky

Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Actions Of A Gdnf Propeptide, Luke H. Bradley, Josh Fuqua, April Richardson, Jadwiga Turchan-Cholewo, Yi Ai, Kristen A. Kelps, John D. Glass, Xiuquan He, Zhiming Zhang, Richard Grondin, O. Meagan Littrell, Peter Huettl, Francois Pomerleau, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), have shown great promise for protection and restoration of damaged or dying dopamine neurons in animal models and in some Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical trials. However, the delivery of neurotrophic factors to the brain is difficult due to their large size and poor bio-distribution. In addition, developing more efficacious trophic factors is hampered by the difficulty of synthesis and structural modification. Small molecules with neurotrophic actions that are easy to synthesize and modify to improve bioavailability are needed.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we present the neurobiological actions of ...


Motor Neuron Synapse And Axon Defects In A C. Elegans Alpha-Tubulin Mutant, Renee Baran, Liliana Castelblanco, Garland Tang, Ian Shapiro, Alexandr Goncharov, Yishi Jin 2010 Occidental College

Motor Neuron Synapse And Axon Defects In A C. Elegans Alpha-Tubulin Mutant, Renee Baran, Liliana Castelblanco, Garland Tang, Ian Shapiro, Alexandr Goncharov, Yishi Jin

Renee Baran

Regulation of microtubule dynamics underlies many fundamental cellular mechanisms including cell division, cell motility, and transport. In neurons, microtubules play key roles in cell migration, axon outgrowth, control of axon and synapse growth, and the regulated transport of vesicles and structural components of synapses. Loss of synapse and axon integrity and disruption of axon transport characterize many neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, mutations that specifically alter the assembly or stability of microtubules have been found to directly cause neurodevelopmental defects or neurodegeneration in vertebrates. We report here the characterization of a missense mutation in the C-terminal domain of C. elegans alpha-tubulin, tba-1 ...


Does Food Color Influence Taste And Flavor Perception In Humans?, Charles Spence, Carmel Levitan, Maya Shankar, Massimiliano Zampini 2010 Occidental College

Does Food Color Influence Taste And Flavor Perception In Humans?, Charles Spence, Carmel Levitan, Maya Shankar, Massimiliano Zampini

Carmel Levitan

In this paper, we review the empirical literature concerning the important question of whether or not food color influences taste and flavor perception in humans. Although a superficial reading of the literature on this topic would appear to give a somewhat mixed answer, we argue that this is, at least in part, due to the fact that many researchers have failed to distinguish between two qualitatively distinct research questions. The first concerns the role that food coloring plays in the perception of the intensity of a particular flavor (e.g., strawberry, banana, etc.) or taste attribute (e.g., sweetness, saltiness ...


Lpa Induces Il-6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via An Lpa1-Regulated, Pkc-Dependent, And P38alpha-Mediated Pathway, F Hao, M Tan, D Wu, Xuemin Xu, Mei-Zhen Cui 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Lpa Induces Il-6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via An Lpa1-Regulated, Pkc-Dependent, And P38alpha-Mediated Pathway, F Hao, M Tan, D Wu, Xuemin Xu, Mei-Zhen Cui

Xuemin Xu

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent bioactive lysophospholipid. Accumulated evidence supports a role for LPA in inflammation. To profile LPA-induced cytokine production in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we used a cytokine antibody array system and found that LPA prominently induces the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from human aortic SMCs (HASMCs). The mechanism by which LPA induces MCP-1 expression in SMCs has been previously reported. However, LPA induction of IL-6 secretion from vascular SMCs and its regulatory mechanism are unknown. The present study reveals that LPA induces the expression of IL-6 mRNA and protein in ...


Lpa Induces Il-6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via An Lpa1-Regulated, Pkc-Dependent, And P38alpha-Mediated Pathway, F Hao, M Tan, D Wu, Xuemin Xu, Mei-Zhen Cui 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Lpa Induces Il-6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via An Lpa1-Regulated, Pkc-Dependent, And P38alpha-Mediated Pathway, F Hao, M Tan, D Wu, Xuemin Xu, Mei-Zhen Cui

Mei-Zhen Cui

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent bioactive lysophospholipid. Accumulated evidence supports a role for LPA in inflammation. To profile LPA-induced cytokine production in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we used a cytokine antibody array system and found that LPA prominently induces the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from human aortic SMCs (HASMCs). The mechanism by which LPA induces MCP-1 expression in SMCs has been previously reported. However, LPA induction of IL-6 secretion from vascular SMCs and its regulatory mechanism are unknown. The present study reveals that LPA induces the expression of IL-6 mRNA and protein in ...


Functional Generalized Linear Models With Images As Predictors, Philip T. Reiss, R. Todd Ogden 2010 New York University

Functional Generalized Linear Models With Images As Predictors, Philip T. Reiss, R. Todd Ogden

Philip T. Reiss

Functional principal component regression (FPCR) is a promising new method for regressing scalar outcomes on functional predictors. In this paper we present a theoretical justification for the use of principal components in functional regression. FPCR is then extended in two directions: from linear to the generalized linear modeling, and from univariate signal predictors to high-resolution image predictors. We show how to implement the method efficiently by adapting generalized additive model technology to the functional regression context. A technique is proposed for estimating simultaneous confidence bands for the coefficient function; in the neuroimaging setting, this yields a novel means to identify ...


Animal Models Of Focal Brain Ischemia, Kenneth M. Sicard, Marc Fisher 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Animal Models Of Focal Brain Ischemia, Kenneth M. Sicard, Marc Fisher

Neurology Publications and Presentations

Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death in many countries. Understanding the pathophysiology of ischemic injury and developing therapies is an important endeavor that requires much additional research. Animal stroke models provide an important mechanism for these activities. A large number of stroke models have been developed and are currently used in laboratories around the world. These models are overviewed as are approaches for measuring infarct size and functional outcome.


Insertion Of Tetracysteine Motifs Into Dopamine Transporter Extracellular Domains, Deanna M. Navaroli, Haley E. Melikian 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Insertion Of Tetracysteine Motifs Into Dopamine Transporter Extracellular Domains, Deanna M. Navaroli, Haley E. Melikian

GSBS Student Publications

The neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT) is a major determinant of extracellular dopamine (DA) levels and is the primary target for a variety of addictive and therapeutic psychoactive drugs. DAT is acutely regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation and amphetamine exposure, both of which modulate DAT surface expression by endocytic trafficking. In order to use live imaging approaches to study DAT endocytosis, methods are needed to exclusively label the DAT surface pool. The use of membrane impermeant, sulfonated biarsenic dyes holds potential as one such approach, and requires introduction of an extracellular tetracysteine motif (tetraCys; CCPGCC) to facilitate dye binding ...


Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Brain Development, And How Cognitive Neuroscience May Contribute To Levelling The Playing Field, Rajeev Raizada, Mark M. Kishiyama 2010 Dartmouth College

Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Brain Development, And How Cognitive Neuroscience May Contribute To Levelling The Playing Field, Rajeev Raizada, Mark M. Kishiyama

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

The study of socioeconomic status (SES) and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how ...


Bilateral Multi-Electrode Neurophysiological Recordings Coupled To Local Pharmacology In Awake Songbirds, Liisa A. Tremere, Thomas A. Terleph, Jin Kwon Jeong, Raphael Pinaud 2010 University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Bilateral Multi-Electrode Neurophysiological Recordings Coupled To Local Pharmacology In Awake Songbirds, Liisa A. Tremere, Thomas A. Terleph, Jin Kwon Jeong, Raphael Pinaud

Biology Faculty Publications

Here we describe a protocol for bilateral multielectrode neurophysiological recordings during intracerebral pharmacological manipulations in awake songbirds. This protocol encompasses fitting adult animals with head-posts and recording chambers, and acclimating them to periods of restraint. The adaptation period is followed by bilateral penetrations of multiple electrodes to obtain acute, sensory-driven neurophysiological responses before versus during the application of pharmacological agents of interest. These local manipulations are achieved by simultaneous and restricted drug infusions carried out independently for each hemisphere. We have used this protocol to elucidate how neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine systems shape the auditory and perceptual processing of natural, learned ...


Gene Expression Profiling Of The Short-Term Adaptive Response To Acute Caloric Restriction In Liver And Adipose Tissues Of Pigs Differing In Feed Efficiency, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver P. Couture, C. Richard Barb, Gary J. Hausman, Dan Nettleton, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle 2010 Iowa State University

Gene Expression Profiling Of The Short-Term Adaptive Response To Acute Caloric Restriction In Liver And Adipose Tissues Of Pigs Differing In Feed Efficiency, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver P. Couture, C. Richard Barb, Gary J. Hausman, Dan Nettleton, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle

Animal Science Publications

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, in which low RFI denotes improved feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and to human health benefits, such as longevity and cancer prevention. We have developed pig lines that differ in RFI, and we are interested in identifying the genes and pathways that underlie feed efficiency. Prepubertal Yorkshire gilts with low RFI (n = 10) or high RFI (n = 10) were fed ad libitum or fed at restricted intake of 80% of maintenance energy requirements for 8 days. We measured serum metabolites and hormones ...


Lineage-Specific Effects Of Notch/Numb Signaling In Post-Embryonic Development Of The Drosophila Brain, Suewei Lin, Sen-Lin Lai, Hung-Hsiang Yu, Takahiro Chihara, Liqun Luo, Tzumin Lee 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Lineage-Specific Effects Of Notch/Numb Signaling In Post-Embryonic Development Of The Drosophila Brain, Suewei Lin, Sen-Lin Lai, Hung-Hsiang Yu, Takahiro Chihara, Liqun Luo, Tzumin Lee

GSBS Student Publications

Numb can antagonize Notch signaling to diversify the fates of sister cells. We report here that paired sister cells acquire different fates in all three Drosophila neuronal lineages that make diverse types of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs). Only one in each pair of postmitotic neurons survives into the adult stage in both anterodorsal (ad) and ventral (v) PN lineages. Notably, Notch signaling specifies the PN fate in the vPN lineage but promotes programmed cell death in the missing siblings in the adPN lineage. In addition, Notch/Numb-mediated binary sibling fates underlie the production of PNs and local interneurons from ...


Effects Of Chlordiazepoxide On Predator Odor-Induced Reductions Of Playfulness In Juvenile Rats, Stephen M. Siviy, Courtney L. Steets, Lauren M. DeBrouse 2010 Gettysburg College

Effects Of Chlordiazepoxide On Predator Odor-Induced Reductions Of Playfulness In Juvenile Rats, Stephen M. Siviy, Courtney L. Steets, Lauren M. Debrouse

Psychology Faculty Publications

The extent to which a non-sedative dose of chlordiazepoxide (CDP) is able to modify the behavioral responses toward a predator odor was assessed in juvenile rats. Play behavior was suppressed and defensive behaviors were enhanced in the presence of a collar previously worn by a cat, when tested 24 hours later in the same context as that where the exposure occurred, and when tested in a context different than that in which the exposure occurred for up to 3 hours after exposure. CDP had no effect on the ability of cat odor to suppress play when rats were tested in ...


Long Term Impact Of Neonatal Injury In Male And Female Rats: Sex Differences, Mechanisms And Clinical Implications, Jamie L. LaPrairie, Anne Z. Murphy PhD 2010 Georgia State University

Long Term Impact Of Neonatal Injury In Male And Female Rats: Sex Differences, Mechanisms And Clinical Implications, Jamie L. Laprairie, Anne Z. Murphy Phd

Neuroscience Institute Faculty Publications

Over the last several decades, the relative contribution of early life events to individual disease susceptibility has been explored extensively. Only fairly recently, however, has it become evident that abnormal or excessive nociceptive activity experienced during the perinatal period may permanently alter the normal development of the CNS and influence future responses to somatosensory input. Given the significant rise in the number of premature infants receiving high‐technology intensive care over the last twenty years, ex‐preterm neonates may be exceedingly vulnerable to the long‐term effects of repeated invasive interventions. The present review summarizes available clinical and laboratory findings ...


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