Serologic Assessment Of Antigenic Type-V And Other Outer Membrane Proteins From Brucella Species As Differential Diagnostic Targets For Brucellosis, Samantha D. Lambert`
Honors Theses AY 16/17
The Type V auto-secreting proteins of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens have been shown to be important surface-expressed molecules that facilitate colonization and in vivo survival. In particular, Brucella species have been shown to carry genes with the potential to express several Type V and Type V-like secreted proteins that are antigenic, possess putative virulence function, and may very well contribute to persistence of the microorganism in susceptible hosts (cattle, pigs, bison, sheep, and cervids [elk and deer]). Additionally, some of these proteins may be differentially surface-expressed and thus potentially represent species-specific markers. Experiments were therefore conducted to assess the feasibility of ...
Burkholderia Cenocepacia J2315-Mediated Destruction Of Staphylococcus Aureus Nrs77 Biofilms., 2017 University of Louisville
Burkholderia Cenocepacia J2315-Mediated Destruction Of Staphylococcus Aureus Nrs77 Biofilms., Rachel Thompson
College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder that affects over 30,000 people in the US and more than 70,000 people worldwide. Recurring bacterial infections in CF patients result in tissue damage that dramatically lowers respiratory function and are ultimately fatal. The formation of bacterial biofilms in the mucus and on lung epithelial tissue allows pathogens to be protected from antibiotics and the host immune system, making treatment of infection difficult. The interactions between CF pathogens in co-culture biofilms are not well understood and were examined in this study. Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cenocepacia, two common CF pathogens, were ...
The Regulatory Relationship Of Transcriptional Regulators Msab And Cody In Capsule Production In Staphylococcus Aureus, 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi
The Regulatory Relationship Of Transcriptional Regulators Msab And Cody In Capsule Production In Staphylococcus Aureus, Brittany L. Trunell
There are many transcriptional regulators found in pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. Many of these regulators are essential for the organism’s ability to switch from commensal form to the virulent pathogenic form. One of these main regulators is CodY. This regulator has been shown to be responsive to nutrient availability during phases of growth. Additionally, we have recently found that MsaB, the only protein coding ORF of the msaABCR operon, is a putative co-regulator of capsule along with CodY. To explore these regulator interactions, we produced mutations of codY and msaABCR individually and a double mutation of msaABCR/ codY. We have ...
Molecular Subtyping Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From The U.P. Community For The Presence Of Toxin-Encoding Genes, 2017 Northern Michigan University
Molecular Subtyping Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From The U.P. Community For The Presence Of Toxin-Encoding Genes, Carol I. Kessel
All NMU Master's Theses
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of human bacterial infections; however, humans can also be asymptomatically colonized with S. aureus. Asymptomatic carriers can potentially spread S. aureus infection to others. These infections can range from mild to severe. The pathology of a S. aureus infection is often dependent on which toxins are expressed and the virulence factors with which they are associated. One goal of this study was to isolate S. aureus from healthy, consenting adult volunteers who submitted nasal swabs for culture and qRT-PCR analysis to determine which strains are present in the community. This knowledge could potentially ...
Borrelia Burgdorferi-Specific Iga In Lyme Disease, 2017 New York Medical College
Borrelia Burgdorferi-Specific Iga In Lyme Disease, Christina D'Arco, Raymond Dattwyler, Paul Arnaboldi
NYMC Faculty Publications
The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223)-modVlsE(275-291), a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope ...
Evaluating The Impact Of Post-Translational Modifications By The Secreted Zinc Metalloprotease, Gele, On The Major Autolysin Of E. Faecalis, Atla, And A Stress-Induced Protein, Salb, 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Evaluating The Impact Of Post-Translational Modifications By The Secreted Zinc Metalloprotease, Gele, On The Major Autolysin Of E. Faecalis, Atla, And A Stress-Induced Protein, Salb, Emily K. Stinemetz
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
AtlA is the major peptidoglycan hydrolase of E. faecalis involved in cell separation of dividing cells. SalB is a secreted stress-induced protein regulated by the CroRS system. In addition, these two proteins also appear to be affected by the virulence factor, gelatinase (GelE). GelE is a secreted zinc metalloprotease known to impact various cellular functions by post- translational modification of protein substrates. The overall objective of this work was to understand how GelE cleavage of secreted proteins, specifically AtlA and SalB, changes their function. Herein, I discovered that GelE modifies both AtlA and SalB. As visualized by Western blot analysis ...
The Making Of A Pathogen: Implications Of Phage Domestication In Acinetobacter Baumannii, 2017 Bellarmine University
The Making Of A Pathogen: Implications Of Phage Domestication In Acinetobacter Baumannii, Allison Welp
Mutations and horizontal gene transfer have allowed for rapid evolution of many species of bacteria, allowing them to become more virulent and resistant to antibiotics. As a result of these changes, Acinetobacter baumannii has become one of the most prominent drug-resistant bacteria in hospitals. This nosocomial pathogen is capable of causing a range of infections—from pneumonia to sepsis—and is extremely difficult to eradicate from hospital settings. Despite its current status, this species has not always been apparent in healthcare. The emergence of this organism has been extremely rapid; once an innocuous environmental organism, A. baumannii is now resistant ...
Non-Capsular Virulence Factors Of Cryptococcus Neoformans, 2017 Liberty University
Non-Capsular Virulence Factors Of Cryptococcus Neoformans, Kirk Nickish
Senior Honors Theses
Cryptococcus neoformans is an emerging pathogen that kills hundreds of thousands every year, especially in underdeveloped areas with little access to modern medical care. New treatments for the disease are needed to shorten treatment and decrease the side effects and costs associated with the drugs currently in use. Many C. neoformans genes have been identified that are necessary for full virulence in the host. Cir1, a regulatory protein associated with iron regulation, and Zip1, a surface zinc transporter, are both necessary for full virulence in the host. Anti-fungals targeted at these proteins or the proteins produced by other genes discussed ...
The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, 2017 Cedarville University
The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins
The Research and Scholarship Symposium
Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised individuals such as cystic fibrosis patients. B. cepacia infections are typically characterized by the formation of complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Because B. cepacia biofilms are difficult to eradicate using antibiotics, it is important to pursue alternative treatment methods. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a type of therapy that uses light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen to elicit cell death through the production of reactive oxygen species. PDT has been shown in previous studies to be successful in killing both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we ...
E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, 2017 Cedarville University
E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins
The Research and Scholarship Symposium
Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...
Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri
Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression
With the average American consuming 26 chickens per year, poultry is in high demand. Avian related infectious disease is rising and bacteria pose serious concerns for the health of livestock and possess zoonotic potential. The goal of the study is to evaluate surface protein EtsC highly prevalent among Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC), as a vaccine antigen candidate against these pathogens in chickens. The objective of this study is to determine antibody response in chickens vaccinated with the EtsC recombinant antigen. Eighteen 4 day-old White Leghorns (N=9/group) were subcutaneously vaccinated twice at two-week interval with PBS (control) or ...
Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell
Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression
Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC) significantly impacts the poultry industry by causing the disease colibacillosis in chickens. In this research study, a vaccine containing Outer membrane protein A (OmpA), prevalent among APEC, was evaluated for its broad potential protectivity against APEC. The objectives of our study are to 1) evaluate whether an OmpA vaccine would stimulate an antibody response in chickens and 2) show in vitro broad protection against bacteria. At 4 days-old, White Leghorn chickens (9/group) were vaccinated subcutaneously twice at two week-intervals with either PBS (control) or 50 μg OmpA in CpG adjuvant. On day 33 of ...
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Of Essential Oils On Candida Fungus, 2017 Glester4@student.gsu.edu
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Of Essential Oils On Candida Fungus, Geoffrey Elliot Lester
Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference
No abstract provided.
Genomic Analysis Of Factors Associated With Low Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistance In Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 95 Strains, Craig M. Stephens, Sheila Adams-Sapper, Manraj Sekhon, James R. Johnson, Lee W. Riley
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains belonging to multilocus sequence type 95 (ST95) are globally distributed and a common cause of infections in humans and domestic fowl. ST95 isolates generally show a lower prevalence of acquired antimicrobial resistance than other pandemic ExPEC lineages. We took a genomic approach to identify factors that may underlie reduced resistance. We fully assembled genomes for four ST95 isolates representing the four major fimH-based lineages within ST95 and also analyzed draft-level genomes from another 82 ST95 isolates, largely from the western United States. The fully assembled genomes of antibiotic-resistant isolates carried resistance genes exclusively on ...
An Analysis Of Outer Inflammatory Protein A In Cag Pathogenicity Island Negative And Positive Strains Of Helicobacter Pylori, 2017 College of William and Mary
An Analysis Of Outer Inflammatory Protein A In Cag Pathogenicity Island Negative And Positive Strains Of Helicobacter Pylori, Danielle N. Horridge
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) is an outer membrane protein virulence factor of the bacterial gastric pathogen, Helicobacter pylori. oipA gene expression is regulated by phase variation at a CT dinucleotide repeat located within the 5’ end of the gene, such that the gene is alternatively in-frame (phase on) or out-of-frame (phase off). OipA has been shown to play a role in inflammation and as an adhesin that assists in the attachment of H. pylori to host cells. H. pylori isolates lacking the cag Pathogenicity Island (cagPAI negative), the primary virulence determinant of H. pylori, induce less host inflammation ...
Molecular Detection Of Candidatus Bartonella Mayotimonensis In North American Bats, 2017 Bucknell University
Molecular Detection Of Candidatus Bartonella Mayotimonensis In North American Bats, Thomas M. Lilley, Cali Ann Wilson, Riley F. Bernard, Emma V. Wilcox, Eero J. Vesterinen, Quinn Mr Webber, Laura Ann Kurpiers, Jenni M. Prokkola, Imran Ejotre, Allen Kurta, Kenneth A. Field, Deeann M. Reeder, Arto T. Pulliainen
Faculty Journal Articles
Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis was detected in 2010 from an aortic valve sample of a patient with endocarditis from Iowa, the United States of America. The environmental source of the potentially new endocarditis-causing Bartonellaremained elusive. We set out to study the prevalence and diversity of bat-associated Bartonella in North America. During 2015, mist nets and harp traps were used to capture 92 bats belonging to two species: little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugusLe Conte 1831, n = 73) and the gray myotis (M. grisescens A.H. Howell 1909, n = 19) in Kentucky, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. DNA preparations of peripheral blood ...
Virus-Mediated Suppression Of Host Non-Self Recognition Facilitates Horizontal Transmission Of Heterologous Viruses, 2017 Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Virus-Mediated Suppression Of Host Non-Self Recognition Facilitates Horizontal Transmission Of Heterologous Viruses, Songsong Wu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Tao Chen, Daohong Jiang, Said A. Ghabrial, Jiatao Xie
Plant Pathology Faculty Publications
Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses. We found that cell death in ...
Natural Vertical Transmission Of Wnv In Montana, 2017 Carroll College, Helena, MT
Natural Vertical Transmission Of Wnv In Montana, Inderbir Bains
Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses
West Nile Virus (WNV) emerged and rapidly spread throughout the United States within several years. WNV is spread in Montana primarily by the mosquito vector Culex tarsalis. Horizontal transmission of WNV has been extensively studied, while little is known regarding vertical transmission. Previous research suggests vertical transmission is possible in controlled laboratory studies. This research attempts to document natural vertical transmission in Montana. Larvae were collected and analyzed for WNV via RTPCR. Results show no presence of natural vertical transmission. Culex larvae and adult male mosquito collection methods were insufficient, fluctuations in temperatures and variant rainfall were contributing factors. Future ...
Neurotrophic Factors Ngf, Gdnf And Ntn Selectively Modulate Hsv1 And Hsv2 Lytic Infection And Reactivation In Primary Adult Sensory And Autonomic Neurons, Andy Y. Yanez, Telvin Harrell, Heather J. Sriranganathan, Angela M. Ives, Andrea S. Bertke
Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) establish latency in peripheral ganglia after ocular or genital infection, and can reactivate to produce different patterns and frequencies of recurrent disease. Previous studies showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) maintains HSV1 latency in embryonic sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, adult sensory neurons are no longer dependent on NGF for survival, some populations cease expression of NGF receptors postnatally, and the viruses preferentially establish latency in different populations of sensory neurons responsive to other neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Thus, NGF may not maintain latency in adult sensory neurons. To identify NTFs important for maintaining HSV1 ...
Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, 2017 Old Dominion University
Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Increased engorgement weights were noted for ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on ...