Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

447 Full-Text Articles 1,058 Authors 83,630 Downloads 85 Institutions

All Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Faceted Search

447 full-text articles. Page 5 of 18.

Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta 2017 Old Dominion University

Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Increased engorgement weights were noted for ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on ...


Rapid Bactericidal Activity Of An Amphiphilic Polyacrylate Terpolymer System Comprised Of Same-Centered Comonomers With 2-Carbon And 6- Carbon Spacer Arms And An Uncharged Repeat Unit, Kamia Punia, Ashish Punia, Kaushiki Chatterjee, Sumit Mukherjee, Jimmie E. Fata, Probal Banerjee, Krishnaswami Raja, Nan-Loh Yang 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Rapid Bactericidal Activity Of An Amphiphilic Polyacrylate Terpolymer System Comprised Of Same-Centered Comonomers With 2-Carbon And 6- Carbon Spacer Arms And An Uncharged Repeat Unit, Kamia Punia, Ashish Punia, Kaushiki Chatterjee, Sumit Mukherjee, Jimmie E. Fata, Probal Banerjee, Krishnaswami Raja, Nan-Loh Yang

Publications and Research

The global health threat of antimicrobial resistance has created a pressing need to develop practical alternatives to conventional antibiotic agents. Peptide mimetic synthetic amphiphilic polymers are known to non-specifically disrupt the bacterial cell surface thus leading to highly hindered bacterial resistance development. We investigated the antibacterial activities of a terpolymer macromolecular architecture with a combination of 6- carbon and 2-carbon spacer arms (distance from polymer backbone to pendent cationic center) interspersed with counits with hydrophobic side groups. A random copolymer with a combination of 6-carbon spacer arm repeat units (60 mol%) and 2-carbon spacer arm (40 mol%) units is moderately ...


Expression Of Matrix Metalloproteinases In Naegleria Fowleri And Their Role In Degradation Of The Extracellular Matrix, Charlton Lam 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Expression Of Matrix Metalloproteinases In Naegleria Fowleri And Their Role In Degradation Of The Extracellular Matrix, Charlton Lam

Theses and Dissertations

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in freshwater lakes and ponds that is the causative agent of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been described in protozoa, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei, and Balamuthia mandrillaris, and have been linked to their increased motility and invasive capability by degrading components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, MMPs are often upregulated in tumorigenic cells and have been attributed as responsible for the metastasis of certain cancers. In the present study, in vitro experiments indicated that MMPs are linked functionally to the ECM degradation process. Gelatin zymography demonstrated ...


Amixicile Inhibits Anaerobic Bacteria Within An Oral Microbiome Derived From Patients With Chronic Periodontitis, Kane Ramsey 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Amixicile Inhibits Anaerobic Bacteria Within An Oral Microbiome Derived From Patients With Chronic Periodontitis, Kane Ramsey

Theses and Dissertations

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by pathogenic bacteria residing in a complex biofilm within a susceptible host. Amixicile is a non-toxic, readily bioavailable novel antimicrobial that targets strict anaerobes through inhibition of the activity of Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase (PFOR), a major enzyme mediating oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of amixicile, when compared to metronidazole, in inhibiting the growth of bacteria present in a microbiome harvested from patients with chronic periodontitis.

Plaque samples were harvested from patients with severe chronic periodontitis and cultured under anaerobic conditions. The microbiomes were grown in the presence ...


Characterization Of A Putative Hemolysin Expressed By Sneathia Amnii, A Preterm Birth-Associated Pathogen, Lizette Carrasco, Kimberly Jefferson 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterization Of A Putative Hemolysin Expressed By Sneathia Amnii, A Preterm Birth-Associated Pathogen, Lizette Carrasco, Kimberly Jefferson

Undergraduate Research Posters

The gram-negative bacteria Sneathia amnii is a poorly-characterized commensal of the female urogenital tract frequently associated with adverse clinical outcomes such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), amnionitis, and preterm labor. To investigate its potential role in virulence, we sought to identify and characterize virulence determinants produced by S. amnii in an effort to better understand the pathogenesis of infectious preterm birth. Through sequencing of the Sn35 genome (type strain of S. amnii), we identified two genes with amino acid sequence similarity and structural similarity to the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) protein of Bordetella pertussis and its Type Vb transporter. Because S. amnii ...


Molecular Diversity Of Foliar Fungal Endophytes In Relation To Defense Strategies And Disease In Whitebark Pine, Lorinda Bullington 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Molecular Diversity Of Foliar Fungal Endophytes In Relation To Defense Strategies And Disease In Whitebark Pine, Lorinda Bullington

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

An invasive fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola (the causative agent of white pine blister rust) infects and kills whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) throughout the western US. Blister rust has decreased whitebark pine populations by over 90% in some areas. Whitebark pine, a keystone species, has been proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act in the U.S., and the loss of this conifer is predicted to have severe impacts on forest composition and function in high elevations. Hundreds of asymptomatic fungal species live inside whitebark pine tissue, and recent studies suggest that these fungi can influence the frequency and severity ...


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Controlling Brochothrix Thermosphacta As A Spoilage Risk Using In Package Atmospheric Cold Plasma, Apurva Patange, Daniela Boehm, Carmen Bueno-Ferrer, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology

Controlling Brochothrix Thermosphacta As A Spoilage Risk Using In Package Atmospheric Cold Plasma, Apurva Patange, Daniela Boehm, Carmen Bueno-Ferrer, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke

Articles

Brochothrix thermosphacta is a predominant spoilage microorganism in meat and its control in processing environments is important to maintain meat product quality. Atmospheric cold plasma is of interest for control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in foods. This study ascertained the potential of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DBD-ACP) for control of B. thermosphacta in response to key parameters such as treatment time, voltage level, interactions with media composition and post treatment storage conditions. Challenge populations were evaluated as suspensions in PBS, as biofilms in meat model medium and surface attached on raw lamb chops under MAP.

ACP treatment ...


The Antimicrobial And Biofilm Disruption Activity Of Novel Amphiphiles, Elizabeth A. Rogers 2017 James Madison University

The Antimicrobial And Biofilm Disruption Activity Of Novel Amphiphiles, Elizabeth A. Rogers

Masters Theses

Antibiotic resistant infections are responsible for approximately 23,000 deaths every year in the United States alone. The formation of bacterial biofilms makes resistant bacteria difficult to eliminate completely using chemical treatment. Therefore, novel antimicrobial compounds such as amphiphiles are essential to slow or stop the spread of resistant bacteria. Several novel series of amphiphiles were synthesized, and discrete aspects of their chemical structure were altered to investigate the relationship between structure and antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were used to measure antibacterial activity against two Gram-negative and five Gram-positive bacteria, and the most effective compounds were tested ...


Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay 2017 University of Montana

Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Bartonella bacilliformis is a gram negative alpha-proteobacterium native to the Andes of South America. Bartonella causes Carrion’s disease, a potentially life threatening disease transmitted by the sand fly. It has a mortality rate of 88% when untreated and 10% when treated. Diagnostics and control measures for the disease are underdeveloped and no vaccine is available. Recent outbreaks indicate that the range of the pathogen is increasing with nearly 1.7 million people in western South America at risk. Little is known about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of B. bacilliformis. Recent research done by UC San Diego found a paralogous ...


Loss Of Outer Membrane Porins In Clonally Related Clinical Isolates Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Modifies The Bacteria; Resulting In Altered Resistance To Phagocytosis By Macrophages, Debra Nickole Brunson 2017 University of North Florida

Loss Of Outer Membrane Porins In Clonally Related Clinical Isolates Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Modifies The Bacteria; Resulting In Altered Resistance To Phagocytosis By Macrophages, Debra Nickole Brunson

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for lobar pneumoniae, liver abscess, and septicemia. Clinical isolates are found to be extended spectrum beta lactamase positive with differential expression of the two classical porins, OmpK35 and OmpK36. Porin loss is associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations of beta lactam, cephalosporin, and carbapenem antibiotics that target the peptidoglycan. However, little is known about how porin loss affects other aspects of the cell envelope. The focus of this study was to characterize clinical isolates exhibiting differential porin expression and determine if the cumulative changes altered the resistance to phagocytosis by macrophages. The results ...


Bathing In Bacteria: Mycobacteria Relative Abundance On Showerhead Biofilms, Robin G. Hacker-Cary 2017 CIRES

Bathing In Bacteria: Mycobacteria Relative Abundance On Showerhead Biofilms, Robin G. Hacker-Cary

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria that contains many human pathogens, causing diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy, and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease. Diagnosed cases of NTM lung disease, are increasing rapidly across the United States. Recent studies have indicated that this respiratory infection is acquired through the inhalation of aerosolized mycobacteria derived from the biofilms found on the inside of household showerheads.

To asses the factors that influence mycobacteria abundance on the interior biofilms of showerheads we analyzed bacterial and protistan communities from showerhead samples gathered across the United States. Further, we investigated water chemistry, specifically total chorine concentration ...


Genomic Plasticity And Rapid Host Switching Can Promote The Evolution Of Generalism: A Case Study In The Zoonotic Pathogen Campylobacter, Dan J. Woodcock, Peter Krusche, Norval J. C. Strachan, Ken J. Forbes, Frederick M. Cohan, Guillaume Meric, Samuel K. Sheppard 2016 University of Warwick

Genomic Plasticity And Rapid Host Switching Can Promote The Evolution Of Generalism: A Case Study In The Zoonotic Pathogen Campylobacter, Dan J. Woodcock, Peter Krusche, Norval J. C. Strachan, Ken J. Forbes, Frederick M. Cohan, Guillaume Meric, Samuel K. Sheppard

Frederick M. Cohan

Horizontal gene transfer accelerates bacterial adaptation to novel environments, allowing selection to act on genes that have evolved in multiple genetic backgrounds. This can lead to ecological specialization. However, little is known about how zoonotic bacteria maintain the ability to colonize multiple hosts whilst competing with specialists in the same niche. Here we develop a stochastic evolutionary model and show how genetic transfer of host segregating alleles, distributed as predicted for niche specifying genes, and the opportunity for host transition could interact to promote the emergence of host generalist lineages of the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter. Using a modelling approach we ...


Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi

Jennifer Hayashi

Mycobacterium is a diverse genus of actinobacteria that includes the causative agents of human tuberculosis and leprosy. Mycobacteria are protected by their unique, multilaminar cell envelope, which grants them intrinsic resistance to environmental challenges such as antibiotics. This essential cellular structure is elongated at the polar ends of cells, but the regulation of cytosolic precursor synthesis and localized envelope synthesis remains unclear. Here, we present the PMf (plasma membrane free of cell wall components), a membrane domain distinct from the bulk plasma membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Proteomic and lipidomic characterization demonstrate that the PMf contains lipidic substrates ...


Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce

Masters Theses

Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), a perennial grass native to North America, is a leading biomass feedstock candidate for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol. Switchgrass is considered a viable option for biofuel production due to its cheap production cost and ability to grow on marginal land. Biofuel derived from switchgrass has been shown to be very energy efficient, producing 540% more renewable energy versus nonrenewable energy expended. Switchgrass-derived biofuel is also estimated to have greenhouse gas emissions that are 94% lower than emissions from gasoline (Schmer et al 2008). Biofuels are created through biochemical processes that utilize various enzymes and microorganisms for ...


Sodium Polyphosphate And Polyethylenimine Enhance The Antimicrobial Activities Of Plant Essential Oils, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2016 Iowa State University

Sodium Polyphosphate And Polyethylenimine Enhance The Antimicrobial Activities Of Plant Essential Oils, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Plant extracts have been used for millennia for treatment of disease, with much recent interest focusing on the antimicrobial activities of plant essential oils (EOs). Although EOs are active against common microbial pathogens, their effective use as topical, environmental, or food antimicrobials will require EO-based formulations with enhanced antimicrobial activities. In this study, two polyionic compounds, sodium polyphosphate (polyP, a polyanion) and polyethylenimine (PEI, a polycation), were evaluated for their abilities to enhance the antimicrobial activities of six EOs against the human pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Minnesota, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and ...


A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne diseases are a growing public health problem. In recent years, many rapid detection methods have been reported, but most of them are still in lab research and not practical for use in the field. In this study, a portable and automatic biosensing instrument was designed and constructed for separation and detection of target pathogens in food samples using nanobead-based magnetic separation and quantum dots (QDs)-labeled fluorescence measurement. The instrument consisted of a laptop with LabVIEW software, a data acquisition card (DAQ), a fluorescent detector, micro-pumps, stepper motors, and 3D printed tube holders. First, a sample in a syringe ...


Genetic Determinants Of Salmonella And Campylobacter Required For In Vitro Fitness, Rabindra Kumar Mandal 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic Determinants Of Salmonella And Campylobacter Required For In Vitro Fitness, Rabindra Kumar Mandal

Theses and Dissertations

Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter play a major role in foodborne illness caused by the consumption of food contaminated by pathogens worldwide. A comprehensive understanding of the genetic factors that increase the survival fitness of these foodborne pathogens will effectively help us formulate mitigation strategies without affecting the nutrition ecology. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic determinants of Salmonella and Campylobacter that are required for fitness under various in vitro conditions. For the purpose, we used a high throughput Transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) that utilizes next generation sequencing (NGS) to screen hundreds of thousands of mutants simultaneously ...


Il-21 Signaling Is Essential For Optimal Host Resistance Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection, Matthew G. Booty, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Stephen Carpenter, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Miye K. Jacques, Britni L. Stowell, Pushpalatha Jayaraman, Gillian Beamer, Samuel M. Behar 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Il-21 Signaling Is Essential For Optimal Host Resistance Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection, Matthew G. Booty, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Stephen Carpenter, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Miye K. Jacques, Britni L. Stowell, Pushpalatha Jayaraman, Gillian Beamer, Samuel M. Behar

Open Access Articles

IL-21 is produced predominantly by activated CD4+ T cells and has pleiotropic effects on immunity via the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R), a member of the common gamma chain (gammac) cytokine receptor family. We show that IL-21 signaling plays a crucial role in T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by augmenting CD8+ T cell priming, promoting T cell accumulation in the lungs, and enhancing T cell cytokine production. In the absence of IL-21 signaling, more CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in chronically infected mice express the T cell inhibitory molecules PD-1 and TIM-3. We correlate these immune alterations with increased susceptibility ...


Elucidating The Role Of Mifs-Mifr Two-Component System In Regulating Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pathogenicity, Gorakh Digambar Tatke 2016 Florida International University

Elucidating The Role Of Mifs-Mifr Two-Component System In Regulating Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pathogenicity, Gorakh Digambar Tatke

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, metabolically versatile, opportunistic pathogen that exhibits a multitude of virulence factors, and is extraordinarily resistant to a gamut of clinically significant antibiotics. This ability is in part mediated by two-component systems (TCS) that play a crucial role in regulating virulence mechanisms, metabolism and antibiotic resistance. Our sequence analysis of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome revealed the presence of two open reading frames, mifS and mifR, which encodes putative TCS proteins, a histidine sensor kinase MifS and a response regulator MifR, respectively. This two-gene operon was found immediately upstream of the poxAB operon, where poxB encodes ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress