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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Leishmania Amazonensis Engages Cd36 To Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation, Kendi Okuda, Mei Tong, Brian Dempsey, Kathryn J. Moore, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Neal S. Silverman 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Leishmania Amazonensis Engages Cd36 To Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation, Kendi Okuda, Mei Tong, Brian Dempsey, Kathryn J. Moore, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Neal S. Silverman

Open Access Articles

Leishmania amastigotes manipulate the activity of macrophages to favor their own success. However, very little is known about the role of innate recognition and signaling triggered by amastigotes in this host-parasite interaction. In this work we developed a new infection model in adult Drosophila to take advantage of its superior genetic resources to identify novel host factors limiting Leishmania amazonensis infection. The model is based on the capacity of macrophage-like cells, plasmatocytes, to phagocytose and control the proliferation of parasites injected into adult flies. Using this model, we screened a collection of RNAi-expressing flies for anti-Leishmania defense factors. Notably, we ...


The Effects Of Quorum Sensing And Temperature On The Soluble Proteome Of Vibrio Salmonicida, Christopher L. Massey 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Effects Of Quorum Sensing And Temperature On The Soluble Proteome Of Vibrio Salmonicida, Christopher L. Massey

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Vibrio salmonicida causes cold-water vibriosis in salmon populations around the world and causes financial damage to fisheries designed to farm these salmon. Very little is known about the physiology of how V. salmonicida causes disease and measures to contain vibriosis are restricted to either vaccinating individual fish against disease or administering antibiotics when an outbreak is detected. These procedures are costly and increase the risk for selection of antibiotic-resistant V. salmonicida strains. A recent reoccurrence of outbreaks in Norwegian fisheries provided incentive to better understand the virulence mechanisms of V. salmonicida. In this thesis, a proteomic approach was used to ...


Needle In The Haystack: Combining Intravital Imaging And Mathematical Modeling To Understand How Vaccine-Induced T Cells Find Malaria-Infected Cells In Murine Livers, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Ian Cockburn, Reka Kelemen 2016 University of Tennessee

Needle In The Haystack: Combining Intravital Imaging And Mathematical Modeling To Understand How Vaccine-Induced T Cells Find Malaria-Infected Cells In Murine Livers, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Ian Cockburn, Reka Kelemen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

In introducing the infectious disease focus for this edition of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, the author describes the unsolved mysteries surrounding the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces and the related pathogenesis of pulmonary blastomycosis.


Exploring The Mechanisms Of Action Of Antifungal Peptides Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae., Michelle L. Mason 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring The Mechanisms Of Action Of Antifungal Peptides Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae., Michelle L. Mason

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Candida albicans is a normal inhabitant of the skin and mucosal membranes of humans, however, in individuals with depressed immune systems or disrupted cutaneous flora, Candida can overgrow and cause serious infection. Candida infection is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infection in the United States. These infections are often associated with longer hospital stays and higher mortality. Current drug therapies for this infection are largely ineffective due to the increased drug resistance of Candida species, and for some therapeutics, high levels of drug toxicity to humans. Histatin 5 is a naturally occurring salivary peptide that has strong antifungal properties ...


Identification Of Host Factors Required For Yersinia Pestis Macrophage Intracellular Survival And Their Impact On Vacuole Maturation, Acidification And Trafficking., Michael Graylin Connor 2016 University of Louisville

Identification Of Host Factors Required For Yersinia Pestis Macrophage Intracellular Survival And Their Impact On Vacuole Maturation, Acidification And Trafficking., Michael Graylin Connor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Y. pestis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of plague. This bacterium, while most noted or the Black Death during the European 14th century, is not a historic pathogen but a re-emerging pandemic with both domestic and global impact. Y. pestis is capable of colonizing the macrophage, and actively subverts phagolysosome maturation to establish a replicative niche known as the Yersinia containing vacuole (YCV). The exploited host factors required to support the YCV are unknown. Here we identified a comprehensive list of host factors required for Y. pestis survival through a genome-wide RNAi high-throughput screen. We ...


A Novel And Rapid Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterial Identification Method Utilizing Immunomagnetic Beads And Single Cell Laser-Light Scattering, Kaylagh Hollen 2016 Northern Michigan University

A Novel And Rapid Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterial Identification Method Utilizing Immunomagnetic Beads And Single Cell Laser-Light Scattering, Kaylagh Hollen

All NMU Master's Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated human associated bacterial pathogen. It plays an important role in skin and soft-tissue infections, pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, foreign-body infections, and sepsis. S. aureus diagnosis and treatment requires a minimum of 24-48. With this in mind, previous studies suggest that faster pathogen identification has been linked to improved patient outcomes. Improved patient outcomes including a reduction in hospitalization time, decreased risk of nosocomial infections, and decreased in medical costs. The impact of faster identification on patient outcome has led us to develop an alternative method of S. aureus identification via ImmunoMagnetic Separation (IMS) and ...


Comparison Of Anti-Pneumococcal Functions Of Native And Modified Forms Of C-Reactive Protein, Donald Neba Ngwa 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Comparison Of Anti-Pneumococcal Functions Of Native And Modified Forms Of C-Reactive Protein, Donald Neba Ngwa

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The anti-pneumococcal function of native C-reactive protein (CRP) involves its binding to phosphocholine molecules present on Streptococcus pneumoniae and subsequent activation of the complement system. However, when pneumococci recruit complement inhibitory protein factor H on their surface, they escape complement attack. Non-native forms of CRP have been shown to bind immobilized factor H. Accordingly, we hypothesized that modified CRP would bind to factor H on pneumococci, masking its complement inhibitory activity, allowing native CRP to exert its anti-pneumococcal function. As reported previously, native CRP protected mice from lethal pneumococcal infection when injected 30 minutes before infection but not when injected ...


Insights Into Determinants That Contribute To Colonization, Virulence And Antibiotic Resistance In Enterococci, Maria Camila Montealegre 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Insights Into Determinants That Contribute To Colonization, Virulence And Antibiotic Resistance In Enterococci, Maria Camila Montealegre

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are increasingly common as causative agents of human infections, many of which are very difficult to treat due to multi-drug resistance. The work presented in the first part of this dissertation elucidates a mechanism for the regulation of pilus expression. I showed that ATT is the initiation codon of ebpA, the first gene of an operon that codes for the endocarditis and biofilm-associated pili (Ebp), a recognized virulence factor in E. faecalis. The presence of this rare start codon downregulates EbpA translation and protein levels, diminishing biofilm and binding abilities of E ...


Characterization Of The Ato Gene Family In Alternative Carbon Metabolism, Heather A. Danhof 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomediical Sciences at Houston

Characterization Of The Ato Gene Family In Alternative Carbon Metabolism, Heather A. Danhof

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

As a commensal colonizer and opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans is the most clinically important human associated fungus. Systemic infection carries an unacceptably high mortality rate of ~40% in the growing population of immunocompromised individuals. Macrophages are important innate immune cells that limit the niches in the human body in which C. albicans can persist through phagocytic removal. However, following phagocytosis C. albicans readily escapes from the immune cell by differentiating into filamentous hyphae, a process that should be inhibited in the normally acidic phagolysosome. We have shown that C. albicans induces germination by neutralizing the phagolysosome. To better understand this ...


The Ccaat-Binding Factor Dependent Regulation Of The Oxidative Stress Response In Candida Albicans, Ananya Chakravarti 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Ccaat-Binding Factor Dependent Regulation Of The Oxidative Stress Response In Candida Albicans, Ananya Chakravarti

Theses and Dissertations

The success of Candida albicans as an opportunistic human pathogen has been attributed to several factors, including the ability to survive in limiting iron environments and the ability to evade the respiratory burst of human macrophages and neutrophils. The goal of this research is to elucidate the role of the CCAAT-binding factor in the oxidative stress response of Candida albicans. Prior whole genome microarray studies performed in our lab compared the gene expression of a wild type Candida albicans strain versus a hap5Δ strain under iron-limiting growth conditions. Among the differentially regulated genes, CTA1, encoding catalase, had a four-fold higher ...


Mechanisms Of Helicobacter Pylori Adhesion Regulation And Impacts On Host Immune Response, Catherine Rose Acio 2016 College of William and Mary

Mechanisms Of Helicobacter Pylori Adhesion Regulation And Impacts On Host Immune Response, Catherine Rose Acio

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosal layer of 50% of the world’s population. H. pylori utilizes a variety of adhesin proteins to adhere to the gastric epithelial layer, allowing the bacterium to successfully colonize its host, gain access to nutrients, and persist even during gastric mucosal shedding. The present study investigates transcriptional regulation of adhesin-encoding genes sabA and hopZ in the H. pylori strain J99. Several adhesin-encoding genes, including sabA and hopZ, possess a repeating homopolymeric nucleotide tract within their promoter region and a poly-cytosine-thymine (poly-CT) tract downstream of the translational start site ...


Xct Increases Tuberculosis Susceptibility By Regulating Antimicrobial Function And Inflammation, Yi Cai, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Christopher M. Sassetti, Fudi Wang, Xinchun Chen 2016 Guangdong Medical College

Xct Increases Tuberculosis Susceptibility By Regulating Antimicrobial Function And Inflammation, Yi Cai, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Christopher M. Sassetti, Fudi Wang, Xinchun Chen

Open Access Articles

The physiological functions of macrophage, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, depend on its redox state. System xc-, a cystine-glutamate transporter, which consists of xCT and CD98, influences many ROS-dependent pathways by regulating the production of the antioxidant glutathione. xCT's ability to alter this critical host redox balance by increasing the glutathione synthesis aspect of phagocyte physiology suggested that it might influence tuberculosis pathogenesis. In this study, we found that the xCT expression was increased in peripheral blood monocyte of active tuberculosis. xCT expression in macrophage was induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through TLR2/Akt- ...


Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

The marine environment is home to a taxonomically diverse ecosystem. Organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, corals, and tunicates have evolved to survive the high concentrations of infectious and surface-fouling bacteria that are indigenous to ocean waters. Both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (diatoms) contain pharmacologically active compounds such as phlorotannins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, peptides, and terpenes which combat bacterial invasion. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics has become a global epidemic. Marine algae derivatives have shown promise as candidates in novel, antibacterial drug discovery. The efficacy of these compounds, their mechanism of action, applications as antibiotics, disinfectants, and ...


Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

In introducing the infectious disease focus for this edition of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, the author describes the unsolved mysteries surrounding the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces and the related pathogenesis of pulmonary blastomycosis.


The Effects Of The Fungus Beauvaria Sp. On The Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus Subterraneus, Christina N. Walker, Derrick J. Jent, Claire A. Fuller 2016 Murray State University

The Effects Of The Fungus Beauvaria Sp. On The Cave Cricket, Hadenoecus Subterraneus, Christina N. Walker, Derrick J. Jent, Claire A. Fuller

Scholars Week

The cave cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus, is a keystone species in cave ecosystems within Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP). Within MCNP, many cricket cadavers have been found

with a thick, white fungus growing on them; this fungus has previously been identified to be Beauveria bassiana. However, new molecular data suggests that this may actually be the species B. amorpha. Cricket cadavers with Beauveria sp. were collected from MCNP and cultured on potato dextrose agar. Cultures will be sent to the USDA for a genetic analysis and identification of the fungus. The purpose of this study is to examine if the relationship ...


At The Interface Of Glycolipids And Glycoproteins In The Two Gastro-Intestinal Pathogens Campylobacter Jejuni And Helicobacter Pylori, Najwa Zebian 2016 The University of Western Ontario

At The Interface Of Glycolipids And Glycoproteins In The Two Gastro-Intestinal Pathogens Campylobacter Jejuni And Helicobacter Pylori, Najwa Zebian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori are phylogenetically related human gastro-intestinal pathogens. C. jejuni colonizes the intestine and is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. H. pylori colonizes the stomach of half the world’s population, causing gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Both pathogens express glycoproteins and glycolipids (capsule, lipooligosaccharide or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) that are important in pathogenesis. Sugar units from capsule or LPS can modify proteins in several bacteria. We reasoned that this may occur in C. jejuni and H. pylori as means to diversify their surface glycosylation and aid in colonization, immune evasion and virulence.

The putative ...


Doxycycline Resistance In Plasmodium Falciparum Linked To Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In The Plasmodium Falciparum Apicoplast Small Subunit Ribosomal Rna (Pfssrrna) Gene, Amanda Wasko 2016 Dominican University of California

Doxycycline Resistance In Plasmodium Falciparum Linked To Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In The Plasmodium Falciparum Apicoplast Small Subunit Ribosomal Rna (Pfssrrna) Gene, Amanda Wasko

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2019

Plasmodium falciparum, a protozoan parasite known as malaria, widely impacts human health; thus antimalarial drug investigations are critical. Doxycycline is a commonly used antimalarial prophylactic, but its mechanism of action is unclear. In prokaryotes, doxycycline works as an antibacterial by disrupting protein translation via the small subunit ribosome. Interestingly, P. falciparum has a small subunit ribosome of prokaryotic origins in the apicoplast, a plastid-like organelle. Therefore, we hypothesized that doxycycline works in P. falciparum by inhibiting protein synthesis via the small subunit ribosomal RNA and that mutations in the gene encoding the P. falciparum apicoplast small subunit ribosomal RNA (pfSSrRNA ...


Defining The Binding Region In Factor H To Develop A Therapeutic Factor H-Fc Fusion Protein Against Non-Typeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sandy M. Wong, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Brian J. Akerley 2016 University of Mississippi Medical Center

Defining The Binding Region In Factor H To Develop A Therapeutic Factor H-Fc Fusion Protein Against Non-Typeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sandy M. Wong, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Brian J. Akerley

Open Access Articles

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) cause a range of illnesses including otitis media, sinusitis, and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infections that contribute to the problem of antibiotic resistance and are themselves often intractable to standard antibiotic treatment regimens. We investigated a strategy to exploit binding of the complement inhibitor Factor H (FH) to NTHi as a functional target for an immunotherapeutic containing the NTHi binding domain of FH fused to the Fc domain of IgG1. Chimeric proteins containing the regions that most FH-binding bacteria use to engage human FH, domains 6 and 7 (FH6,7/Fc) and/or 18 ...


Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta

UCARE Research Products

Amino acids are the building blocks of life. If DNA is the blueprint, amino acids are the lumber that proteins are built with. Proteins are built with left-handed, L- forms of amino acids. Bacteria have an essential cell wall component that happens to be an exception: peptidoglycan. Bacteria have enzymes called racemases that convert L- amino acid forms into right-handed, D- forms. Amino acids participate in many reactions with keto acids. Transaminases allow conversion between amino acids by transfer of an amino group.

Previous reports claimed there is no D-ala transaminase activity in mycobacteria and thus alr and murI genes ...


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