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Leucine Supplementation Does Not Improve Muscle Recovery From Resistance Exercise In Young Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Crossover Study, Jeferson L. Jacinto, João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Juliano Casonato, Mirela C. Roveratti, Bruna N. S. Sena, Edilson S. Cyrino, Rubens A. da Silva, Andreo F. Aguiar 2021 Londrina State University

Leucine Supplementation Does Not Improve Muscle Recovery From Resistance Exercise In Young Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Crossover Study, Jeferson L. Jacinto, João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Juliano Casonato, Mirela C. Roveratti, Bruna N. S. Sena, Edilson S. Cyrino, Rubens A. Da Silva, Andreo F. Aguiar

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(2): 486-497, 2021. This study aimed to investigate the effects of free leucine supplementation on muscle recovery from resistance exercise (RE) in young adults. Fourteen untrained subjects (23.9 ± 3.6 years old) underwent RE sessions (leg press and hack squat: three sets of 8-12 reps at 70% 1RM) supplemented with leucine (LEU: two daily doses of 3g) or a placebo (PLA), separated by a seven-day washout period. Following each occasion, participants were evaluated in three subsequent days (24h, 48h, and 72h) for muscle recovery via a repetition-to-failure test. The following markers were assessed ...


Transversus Abdominis And Lumbar Multifidus Thickness Among Three Dance Positions In Argentine Tango Dancers, Eleni Gouridou, Eleftherios Kellis, Ermioni Katartzi, Nikolaos Kofotolis 2021 Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Transversus Abdominis And Lumbar Multifidus Thickness Among Three Dance Positions In Argentine Tango Dancers, Eleni Gouridou, Eleftherios Kellis, Ermioni Katartzi, Nikolaos Kofotolis

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(1): 473-485, 2021. Core muscle function is considered a risk factor for low back pain appearance in dancers. The purpose of this study was to examine the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus thickness among Argentine Tango dancers in different functional dance positions. A secondary purpose was to compare muscle thickness at rest and contraction between dancers and untrained participants. Ten trained dancers and ten untrained women aged 33.8 ± 6.09 years participated in this study. Using ultrasonography, the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscle thickness were measured at rest and during contraction in ...


Exercise And Bone: Older Adults, Type Ii Diabetes, And Ketogenic Diets, Matthew Casey Scott 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Exercise And Bone: Older Adults, Type Ii Diabetes, And Ketogenic Diets, Matthew Casey Scott

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Exercise is a well-appreciated modulator of bone and has other positive implications for overall fitness and health. The purpose of this dissertation was to determine the effects of exercise on bone in conjunction with other known modifiers: old age, type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and ketogenic diets. The three studies discussed in this dissertation utilized multiple methods of measuring bone to examine the effect of exercise on bone in individuals with type II diabetes, rodents consuming a ketogenic diet, and older adults participating in a novel resistance training intervention. The first study examined the effects of a 9-month resistance, aerobic ...


Nox2 Inhibition Regulates Stress Response And Mitigates Skeletal Muscle Fiber Atrophy During Simulated Microgravity, John M. Lawler, Jeffrey M. Hord, Pat Ryan, Dylan Holly, Mariana Janini Gomes, Dinah Rodriguez, Vinicius Guzzoni 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Nox2 Inhibition Regulates Stress Response And Mitigates Skeletal Muscle Fiber Atrophy During Simulated Microgravity, John M. Lawler, Jeffrey M. Hord, Pat Ryan, Dylan Holly, Mariana Janini Gomes, Dinah Rodriguez, Vinicius Guzzoni

Health & Human Performance Faculty Publications and Presentations

Insufficient stress response and elevated oxidative stress can contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy during mechanical unloading (e.g., spaceflight and bedrest). Perturbations in heat shock proteins (e.g., HSP70), antioxidant enzymes, and sarcolemmal neuronal nitric oxidase synthase (nNOS) have been linked to unloading-induced atrophy. We recently discovered that the sarcolemmal NADPH oxidase-2 complex (Nox2) is elevated during unloading, downstream of angiotensin II receptor 1, and concomitant with atrophy. Here, we hypothesized that peptidyl inhibition of Nox2 would attenuate disruption of HSP70, MnSOD, and sarcolemmal nNOS during unloading, and thus muscle fiber atrophy. F344 rats were divided into control (CON), hindlimb ...


Comparison Of Countermovement And Squat Jumps Performance In Recreationally Trained Males, Paul Donahue, Samuel Wilson, Charles Williams, Christopher Hill, John Garner 2021 University of Southern Mississippi

Comparison Of Countermovement And Squat Jumps Performance In Recreationally Trained Males, Paul Donahue, Samuel Wilson, Charles Williams, Christopher Hill, John Garner

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(1): 462-472, 2021. The vertical jump has been shown to be an effective tool in assessing neuromuscular fatigue. The two most common iterations of the vertical jump are the countermovement and squat jumps. This investigation sought to identify if differences exist between the two jumping strategies with regard to electromyography (EMG) and kinetics in a group of recreationally trained males. Twenty-two participants completed one experimental session, where three countermovement (CMJ) and three squat jumps (SJ) were performed using a counterbalanced within-subject design. Jump performance was evaluated with data obtained using a force platform. Additionally ...


Effect Of Neck Strength On Simulated Head Impacts During Falls In Female Ice Hockey Players, Brittany Pennock, Derek Kivi, Carlos Zerpa 2021 Lakehead University

Effect Of Neck Strength On Simulated Head Impacts During Falls In Female Ice Hockey Players, Brittany Pennock, Derek Kivi, Carlos Zerpa

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(1): 446-461, 2021. This study examined the effect of isometric cervical strength and impact location of the hockey helmet in mitigating the risk of concussions for two different mechanisms of injury from a fall during head impact simulation testing. Isometric cervical strength was measured on 25 female hockey players to compute and model neck strength on a mechanical neckform. A dual-rail vertical drop system with a helmet mounted on a surrogate headform simulated the mechanisms of injury causing concussions on female ice hockey players. Measures of peak linear acceleration and risk of injury due ...


Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Screening Tool Practices Among Athletic Trainers In Secondary School And Collegiate Settings, Megan B. Fowler, Elizabeth R. Neil, Cameron J. Powden 2021 Indiana State University

Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Screening Tool Practices Among Athletic Trainers In Secondary School And Collegiate Settings, Megan B. Fowler, Elizabeth R. Neil, Cameron J. Powden

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: Musculoskeletal (MSK) screening tools can allow athletic trainers (AT) to focus prevention efforts by providing patient risk information. The purpose of this study is to examine lower extremity MSK screening tool practices and perceptions of ATs in traditional settings. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to 4,937 full- and part-time collegiate and secondary school ATs randomly selected by the NATA. MSK screening tools were grouped into 7 categories: Range of Motion (ROM), Strength, Balance, Drop and Jump Landing (D/J Land), Double- and Single-Leg Hopping (D/S Hop), Movement Quality (MQual), and Injury History (History). For ...


Indiana Secondary School Athletic Directors Perceptions Of Athletic Training Services And Influences On Hiring Athletic Trainers, Thomas J. Greffly, Matthew Rivera, Lindsey E. Eberman 2021 Indiana State University

Indiana Secondary School Athletic Directors Perceptions Of Athletic Training Services And Influences On Hiring Athletic Trainers, Thomas J. Greffly, Matthew Rivera, Lindsey E. Eberman

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Indiana Secondary School Athletic Directors Perceptions of Athletic Training Services and Influences on Hiring Athletic Trainers

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine ADs perceptions on satisfaction of current care provided, factors influencing the hiring of ATs, and the roles and responsibilities of ATs.

Methods: We used a mixed methods design with an online survey (Qualtrics®, Provo, UT), which we distributed to Indiana secondary school ADs (n = 410) with publicly available emails. The survey remained open for 5 weeks with reminder emails sent weekly. We used a panel (n=2) with experience in survey research and/or the ...


Examination Of Anger Prevalence In Ncaa Division I Student-Athletes, Robert Madden, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Samantha R. Weber, Erin M. Moore, Toni M. Torres-McGehee 2021 University of South Carolina

Examination Of Anger Prevalence In Ncaa Division I Student-Athletes, Robert Madden, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Samantha R. Weber, Erin M. Moore, Toni M. Torres-Mcgehee

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: Anger associated with sports participation may affect inability to acutely process anger, may decrease performance and increase the likelihood of risk-taking behavior in collegiate athletes. Therefore, the purpose was to examine the prevalence of anger in collegiate student-athletes across sex, academic status, and sport type. Methods: A cross sectional study over a three-year period examined 759 NCAA Division I student-athletes at one institution (age=20±1 years; males: n=259; females: n=500) completed an optional pre-participation behavioral health screening questionnaire, personal demographic information and the Anger Index Self-Test. Results: Overall, 37.2% (n=282/759; males=127/259 ...


Creatine Supplementation On Cognitive Performance Following Exercise In Female Muay Thai Athletes, Lawert A.M. Pires, Scott C. Forbes, Darren G. Candow, Marco Machado 2021 University of Iguaçu

Creatine Supplementation On Cognitive Performance Following Exercise In Female Muay Thai Athletes, Lawert A.M. Pires, Scott C. Forbes, Darren G. Candow, Marco Machado

NeuroSports

BACKGROUND: Creatine supplementation has some beneficial effects on cognitive processing in healthy adults, including athletes; however the effects on cognitive function following exhaustive exercise in athletes is unknown. Therefore, the purpose was to determine the effects of 28 days of creatine supplementation on tasks of cognitive performance immediately following exhaustive exercise in Muay Thai female athletes compared to placebo. METHODS: Using a repeated measures, double-blind, placebo controlled design, 26 female Muay Thai athletes (age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass: 65.1 ± 6.6 kg; height: 162 ± 5 cm; training experience: 2.6 ± 0.6 years) were randomized to supplement with ...


Quantifying Step Count And Oxygen Consumption With Portable Technology During The 2-Min Walk Test In People With Lower Limb Amputation, John Smith, Gary Guerra 2021 Texas A&M University-San Antonio

Quantifying Step Count And Oxygen Consumption With Portable Technology During The 2-Min Walk Test In People With Lower Limb Amputation, John Smith, Gary Guerra

Kinesiology Faculty Publications

Step counts and oxygen consumption have yet to be reported during the 2-min walk test (2MWT) test in persons with lower-limb amputations (LLA). The purpose of this study was to determine step counts and oxygen consumption during the 2MWT in LLA. Thirty-five men and women walked for two minutes as quickly as possible while wearing activity monitors (ActiGraph Link on the wrist (LW) and ankle (LA), Garmin vivofit3 on the wrist (VW) and ankle (VA), and a modus StepWatch on the ankle (SA), and a portable oxygen analyzer. The StepWatch on the ankle (SA) and the vivofit3 on the wrist ...


An Assessment Of Mobile Applications Designed To Address Physical Activity During Pregnancy And Postpartum, Rachel A. Tinius, Mackenzie Polston, Hannah Bradshaw, Paula Ashley, Ashley Greene, Angel Parker 2021 Western Kentucky University

An Assessment Of Mobile Applications Designed To Address Physical Activity During Pregnancy And Postpartum, Rachel A. Tinius, Mackenzie Polston, Hannah Bradshaw, Paula Ashley, Ashley Greene, Angel Parker

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(7): 382-399, 2021. Only 15% of women meet physical activity guidelines during and after pregnancy despite the well-established positive impacts on both the mother and the neonate. There is a clear lack of guidance on this topic, and mobile health interventions are a promising direction for future interventions to facilitate a necessary increase in physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum. The purpose of the study was to objectively assess the quality and perceived impact of existing free mobile apps that are designed to cover physical activity during and after pregnancy. The Mobile Application Rating ...


Fluid Loss In Recreational Surfers, Jessica Atencio, Richard Armenta, Jeff A. Nessler, Matt Schubert, James Furness, Michael Climstein, Leon Mach, Sean Newcomer 2021 California State University San Marcos

Fluid Loss In Recreational Surfers, Jessica Atencio, Richard Armenta, Jeff A. Nessler, Matt Schubert, James Furness, Michael Climstein, Leon Mach, Sean Newcomer

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(6): 423-434, 2021. Surfing offers unique challenges to thermoregulation and hydration. The purpose of this study was to quantify fluid loss in recreational surfers, and to analyze the effects of water temperature, air temperature, exercise intensity, duration, and garment thickness on the total amount of fluid lost during a surf session. A total of 254 male and 52 female recreational surfers were recruited from San Diego, Costa Rica, and Australia to participate in the study. Participants’ hydration status was assessed by comparing nude body mass pre- and post-surf session. Heart rate (HR), used as ...


Does Resistance Training With Blood Flow Restriction Affect Blood Pressure And Cardiac Autonomic Modulation In Older Adults?, Karynne Grutter Lopes, Paulo Farinatti, Daniel Alexandre Bottino, Maria das Graças Souza, Priscila Alves Maranhão, Eliete Bouskela, Roberto Alves Lourenço, Ricardo Brandão Oliveira 2021 Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Does Resistance Training With Blood Flow Restriction Affect Blood Pressure And Cardiac Autonomic Modulation In Older Adults?, Karynne Grutter Lopes, Paulo Farinatti, Daniel Alexandre Bottino, Maria Das Graças Souza, Priscila Alves Maranhão, Eliete Bouskela, Roberto Alves Lourenço, Ricardo Brandão Oliveira

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(3): 410-422, 2021. Resistance training (RT) with blood flow restriction (BFR) appears to accelerate muscle hypertrophy and strength gains in older populations. However, the training-related effects of RT with BFR upon blood pressure (BP) and cardiac autonomic modulation in the elderly remains unclear. The objective of this study is to compare the chronic effects of low-intensity RT performed with soft BFR (BFR) vs. high-intensity (HI) and low-intensity RT (CON) without BFR on BP and heart rate variability (HRV) indices in older adults. Thirty-two physically inactive participants (72 ± 7 yrs) performed RT for upper and ...


Postpartum Exercise Intervention Targeting Diastasis Recti Abdominis, Faith C. LaFramboise, Rebecca A. Schlaff, Meghan Baruth 2021 Saginaw Valley State University

Postpartum Exercise Intervention Targeting Diastasis Recti Abdominis, Faith C. Laframboise, Rebecca A. Schlaff, Meghan Baruth

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(3): 400-409, 2021. To examine the effectiveness of an online, 12-week exercise intervention on diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) width and negatively associated health outcomes (i.e. weight and core function). Non-pregnant women who were 6-24 months postpartum and ≥ 18 years of age completed the study. Participants (n = 8) were randomized to intervention (exercise) or control groups; with the intervention group completing three exercise sessions per week virtually. Both groups completed three surveys at baseline, 6-weeks, and 12-weeks. DRA width was measured with nylon calipers at baseline and 12-weeks. Repeated measures analysis of covariance examined ...


Effects Of Caffeine On Exercise Duration, Critical Velocity, And Ratings Of Perceived Exertion During Repeated-Sprint Exercise In Physically Active Men, Jesse A. Stein, Heath Gasier, Blake Goodman, Melitza Ramirez, Blanca DeLaTorre, Cassandra Beattie, Thomas J. Barstow, Katie Heinrich 2021 Kansas State University

Effects Of Caffeine On Exercise Duration, Critical Velocity, And Ratings Of Perceived Exertion During Repeated-Sprint Exercise In Physically Active Men, Jesse A. Stein, Heath Gasier, Blake Goodman, Melitza Ramirez, Blanca Delatorre, Cassandra Beattie, Thomas J. Barstow, Katie Heinrich

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(2): 435-445, 2021. Caffeine improves short-to-moderate distance running performance, but the effect of caffeine on repeated sprints are equivocal. This research determined if caffeine improved exercise tolerance during repeated-sprint exercise. iCV is a running velocity that distinguishes intermittent running velocities (velocities ≤ iCV) that are sustainable from those resulting in a predictable time to exhaustion (velocities > iCV). Seven physically active men (age = 21.6 ± 1.5 years, body mass = 72.8 ± 5.1 kg, VO2max = 56.9 ± 9.8 mL/kg/min) ingested caffeine (5 mg/kg) or placebo (crossover design) 60 min prior ...


The Effect Of An Acute Bout Of Foam Rolling On Running Economy, Lauren M. Biscardi, Brian D. Wright, Debra A. Stroiney 2021 George Mason University

The Effect Of An Acute Bout Of Foam Rolling On Running Economy, Lauren M. Biscardi, Brian D. Wright, Debra A. Stroiney

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology Volume 2: Issue 1, Article 4, 2021. This study examined the impact of pre-exercise foam rolling on running economy at 5 km race pace. Sixteen trained distance runners (31.5±12.2 yr; V̇O2max 53.6±11.0) volunteered for the study. Participants completed two treadmill runs at self-selected 5 km race pace; one session with the use of pre-exercise foam rolling and the other with a controlled rest period prior to the run. Running economy was improved during the session with pre-exercise foam rolling applied (t(15)=2.48, p=.026 ...


The 6-Week Effects Of Hiit On Biomarkers Of Tissue And Oxidative Damage In Wistar Rats Previously Supplemented With Pyridoxine, Jéssica Danielle Matos, Felipe J. Aidar, Dihogo Gama de Matos, José Uilien de Oliveira, Ailton Santos Sena Júnior, Jymmys Lopes dos Santos, Anderson Carlos Marçal, Silvan Silva de Araújo 2021 Federal University of Sergipe

The 6-Week Effects Of Hiit On Biomarkers Of Tissue And Oxidative Damage In Wistar Rats Previously Supplemented With Pyridoxine, Jéssica Danielle Matos, Felipe J. Aidar, Dihogo Gama De Matos, José Uilien De Oliveira, Ailton Santos Sena Júnior, Jymmys Lopes Dos Santos, Anderson Carlos Marçal, Silvan Silva De Araújo

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(7): 369-381, 2021. We aimed to analyze the effects of long high-intensity interval training (HIIT) associated with pyridoxin supplementation on tissue and oxidative injury markers in animals. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): sedentary (GS), HIIT (GH), and HIIT + pyridoxine (GHP). The HIIT comprised 18 sessions of 7 repetitions of 2min × 2min rest, 3 times per week. Pyridoxine was administered to the GHP group 1h before the exercise. The Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sulfhydryl group (SH) were analyzed as markers of oxidative stress and CK, LDH, ALT and ...


Ordinal Statistical Models Of Physical Activity Levels From Accelerometer Data, Shafayet S. Hossain, Drew M. Lazar, Munni Begum 2021 Ball State University

Ordinal Statistical Models Of Physical Activity Levels From Accelerometer Data, Shafayet S. Hossain, Drew M. Lazar, Munni Begum

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(7): 338-357, 2021. Improvements in accelerometer technology has led to new types of data on which more powerful predictive models can be built to assess physical activity. This paper explains and implements ordinal random forest and partial proportional odds models which both take into account the ordinality of responses given explanatory accelerometer data. The data analyzed comes from 28 adults performing activities of daily living in two visits while wearing accelerometers on the ankle, hip, right and left wrist. The first visit provided training data and the second testing data so that an independent ...


Skilled Throwing Performance: A Test Of The Optimal Theory, Jacquelyn V.L. Sertic, Jason M. Avedesian, James W. Navalta 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Skilled Throwing Performance: A Test Of The Optimal Theory, Jacquelyn V.L. Sertic, Jason M. Avedesian, James W. Navalta

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 14(5): 358-368, 2021. The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning postulates that autonomy support (AS), enhanced expectancies (EE), and an external focus of attention (EF) facilitate improved motor learning and performance. However, its applicability to elite-level throwing athletes has not been investigated by previous literature. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the successive implementation of AS, EE, and EF factors on overhand throwing performance in elite collegiate softball athletes (14.44 ± 2.75 years of softball experience). The secondary purpose was to determine whether self-efficacy beliefs would be augmented by factor manipulation ...


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