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Effects Of Synthetic Turf And Shockpads On Impact Attenuation Related Biomechanics During Drop Landing, Hang Qu 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effects Of Synthetic Turf And Shockpads On Impact Attenuation Related Biomechanics During Drop Landing, Hang Qu

Masters Theses

Synthetic turf has been widely utilized in sports since 1964. Discrepancies, however, in injury incidence on synthetic turf and natural grass have been reported throughout studies. Adding a shock pad under synthetic turf carpet is claimed to aid in energy absorption and decrease impact loading. Although some studies have conducted materials tests and compared mechanical characteristics of synthetic turf with different shock pads, no studies have examined biomechanical characteristics of impact related human movements on an infilled synthetic turf system with different underlying shock pads. The purpose of this research was to investigate effects of an infilled synthetic turf with ...


Effects Of Wider Step Width On Knee Biomechanics In Obese And Healthy-Weight Participants During Stair Ascent, Derek Scott Yocum 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effects Of Wider Step Width On Knee Biomechanics In Obese And Healthy-Weight Participants During Stair Ascent, Derek Scott Yocum

Masters Theses

An increased likelihood of developing obesity-related knee osteoarthritis may be associated with increased peak internal knee abduction moment. Increases in step width may act to reduce this moment. This study focused on how step width influenced the knee joint during stair ascent by healthy and obese participants. Participants ascended stairs while walking at their preferred speed and under one of two step width conditions – preferred and increased. Obese participants experienced greater mediolateral and vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs), as well as increased peak knee extensor moments and push-off peak internal knee adduction moments. The findings of this study indicate that ...


The Use Of P3b As An Indicator Of Neurophysiologic Change From Subconcussive Impacts In Football Players, Jeffrey S. Brooks 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Use Of P3b As An Indicator Of Neurophysiologic Change From Subconcussive Impacts In Football Players, Jeffrey S. Brooks

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a growing appreciation in research that subconcussive impacts may affect cognitive functioning. Canadian University football players (n=45) were separated into three groups based on their position/skill (small skilled, big skilled and big unskilled). An impact measuring device (GForceTracker) was used to record the number of impacts that each player experienced in a season. Player groups were separated into two levels of impact exposure: low and high. Players completed baseline, midseason, postseason, and follow-up neurophysiological tests (four months later) to measure P3b amplitude in response to a visual oddball paradigm, and high versus low impact subgroups for ...


Molybdenum Disulfide-Conducting Polymer Composite Structures For Electrochemical Biosensor Applications, Hongxiang Jia 2016 University of South Florida

Molybdenum Disulfide-Conducting Polymer Composite Structures For Electrochemical Biosensor Applications, Hongxiang Jia

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lactic acid is widely existing in human bodies, animals and microorganisms. Recently, using biosensor to detect the concentration of lactic acid and diagnose disease have attracted great research and development interests. Nanocomposites is one of the best material used for biosensor because their wonderful conductivity, optical and electrochemical properties. In the study, MoS 2 and polypyrrole (PPY) are used for the composite material electrode. To determine whether lactate oxidase (LOD) was helpful for the biosensor’s detective properties, both PPY-MoS 2 film with LOD and PPY-MoS 2 film without LOD are being tested. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ...


Get Up, Stand Up: A Brief History Of Sedentarism And Why Movement Is Good Medicine, Tony Federico 2016 Selected Works

Get Up, Stand Up: A Brief History Of Sedentarism And Why Movement Is Good Medicine, Tony Federico

Tony Federico

Chairs first emerged as a way for high-status individuals to designate their social standing, and their use was almost exclusively the domain of the affluent class until the Industrial Revolution made affordable, mass-produced seating possible. Prior to this point, the vast majority of people sat on improvised objects such as beds, tree stumps, or benches, or simply squatted on their haunches. Social aspirations, continued technological innovations (e.g. the automobile), and a shift towards sedentary work drove the adoption of the chair until its use became ubiquitous at home, at work, at school, and at play (e.g. computer and ...


Hydrodynamic Performance Of Aquatic Flapping: Efficiency Of Underwater Flight In The Manta, Frank E. Fish, Christian M. Schreiber, Keith W. Moored, Geng Liu, Haibo Dong, Hilary Bart-Smith 2016 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Hydrodynamic Performance Of Aquatic Flapping: Efficiency Of Underwater Flight In The Manta, Frank E. Fish, Christian M. Schreiber, Keith W. Moored, Geng Liu, Haibo Dong, Hilary Bart-Smith

Biology Faculty Publications

The manta is the largest marine organism to swim by dorsoventral oscillation (flapping) of the pectoral fins. The manta has been considered to swim with a high efficiency stroke, but this assertion has not been previously examined. The oscillatory swimming strokes of the manta were examined by detailing the kinematics of the pectoral fin movements swimming over a range of speeds and by analyzing simulations based on computational fluid dynamic potential flow and viscous models. These analyses showed that the fin movements are asymmetrical up- and downstrokes with both spanwise and chordwise waves interposed into the flapping motions. These motions ...


Walking Abnormalities Are Associated With Copd: An Investigation Of The Nhanes Iii Dataset, Jenna M. Yentes, Harlan Sayles, Jane Meza, David M. Mannino, Stephen I. Rennard, Nicholas Stergiou 2016 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Walking Abnormalities Are Associated With Copd: An Investigation Of The Nhanes Iii Dataset, Jenna M. Yentes, Harlan Sayles, Jane Meza, David M. Mannino, Stephen I. Rennard, Nicholas Stergiou

David M. Mannino

Research on the peripheral effects of COPD has focused on physiological and structural changes. However, different from muscular weakness or decreased physical activity, mechanical abnormalities of the muscular system, e.g. walking, have yet to be investigated. Our purpose was to utilize the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset to determine whether walking abnormalities are associated with COPD severity. To determine if walking abnormalities were independently associated with COPD severity, our analysis aimed to investigate the association of physical activity levels with COPD severity and with walking abnormalities. The NHANES III dataset that contains data for 31,000 ...


Using An Aerial Drone To Examine Lateral Movement In Sweep Rowers, Joseph S. Munn 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Using An Aerial Drone To Examine Lateral Movement In Sweep Rowers, Joseph S. Munn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rowing is a sport that is performed on the water, because of this there are many challenges associated with studying rowing. The primary challenges are an inability to control the environment and limitations with the equipment that can be used to collect data on the water. In order to try and overcome some of these challenges an aerial drone fitted with a high resolution camera was used to examine an understudied element of the rowing stroke, lateral movement in sweep rowers. Oar and shoulder angles and lateral movement of the shoulders and hands were calculated and compared between five different ...


Constraining Kinematics During Single-Leg Squats And Step-Ups Can Reduce Quadratus Lumborum Activation And Facilitate Gluteal Activation, Shaylyn Kowalchuk 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Constraining Kinematics During Single-Leg Squats And Step-Ups Can Reduce Quadratus Lumborum Activation And Facilitate Gluteal Activation, Shaylyn Kowalchuk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increased quadratus lumborum activation and decreased gluteal activation may lead to lateral pelvic drop and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during single-leg exercises. These activation patterns and motions are associated with low back pain or lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if mechanically restricting hip adduction and internal rotation of the femur affected muscle activation. Twenty female track and field athletes performed single-leg squats and step-ups, and the quadratus lumborum, gluteus medius and maximus muscles activations were measured with surface electromyography. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanically restricted exercises would decrease quadratus lumborum ...


The Role Of Osteocyte Estrogen Receptor Beta (Erβ) In Regulating The Skeletal Response To Mechanical Loading, Julia P. Townsend, Russell P. Main 2016 Purdue University

The Role Of Osteocyte Estrogen Receptor Beta (Erβ) In Regulating The Skeletal Response To Mechanical Loading, Julia P. Townsend, Russell P. Main

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Estrogen’s biological functions are mediated by estrogen binding to estrogen receptors (ER). Understanding what role both ERα and ERβ have in bone maintenance and formation can contribute to possible treatment of osteoporosis. This study examined osteocyte specific deletion of ERβ in mice. The cross of ERβ-floxed mice with DMP1-8kb-Cre mice provided both experimental knockout mice as well as littermate control mice. At 24 weeks of age the left tibiae of all mice were mechanically loaded five days per week for two weeks to induce bone formation. Analysis of cortical bone was conducted using microcomputed tomography (microCT) to measure load-induced ...


A Comparison Of Cervical And Trunk Musculoskeletal Characteristics Between Female And Male Army Helicopter Pilots, Takashi Nagai, Karen A. Keenan, John P. Abt, Timothy C. Sell, Brian W. Smalley, Michael D. Wirt, Scott M. Lephart 2016 University of Pittsburgh

A Comparison Of Cervical And Trunk Musculoskeletal Characteristics Between Female And Male Army Helicopter Pilots, Takashi Nagai, Karen A. Keenan, John P. Abt, Timothy C. Sell, Brian W. Smalley, Michael D. Wirt, Scott M. Lephart

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Introduction: Neck pain (NP) and low back pain (LBP) are prevalent among military helicopter pilots. Although there have been few studies on sex differences in the NP/LBP prevalence in this population, females are shown to be at a greater risk of NP/LBP in civilian studies. This disparity may be due to musculoskeletal characteristics differences that predispose females for NP/LBP. The purpose of this study was to compare cervical and trunk musculoskeletal characteristics between male and female pilots. Methods: A total of 8 female pilots (Age: 27.6 ± 4.2yrs, HT: 166.1 ± 7.7cm, WT: 67.9 ...


Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a key function of somatosensory systems. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of motor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in trigeminal networks associated with mechanosensory inputs to the face, or the consequences of movement.

High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilateral saltatory pneumotactile inputs to perioral hairy skin in 20 healthy adults. A custom multichannel, scalable ...


The Development Of A Prosthetic Training Software For Upper Limb Amputees, Tyler Kayne Sullins 2016 University of South Florida

The Development Of A Prosthetic Training Software For Upper Limb Amputees, Tyler Kayne Sullins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to develop an intuitive software that aids in the field of prosthetic training and rehabilitation by creating an individualized visualization of joint angles. This software is titled “the prosthetic training software (PTS) for individualized joint angle representation”, and it enables the individualized portrayal of predicted or pre-recorded joint angles. The PTS is an intuitive program for clinicians and prosthesis users that produces an animation of a virtual avatar reflecting the user’s segment lengths and amputation for rehabilitation and training purposes.

The PTS consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) and a 3D visualization ...


Prosthetic Socket Cooling System, Benjamin K. Kraw, Kathy Ha, Derek Piastrelli, Cuong Lai 2016 California Polytechnic State University – San Luis Obispo

Prosthetic Socket Cooling System, Benjamin K. Kraw, Kathy Ha, Derek Piastrelli, Cuong Lai

Mechanical Engineering

A team of four senior-level undergraduate students in the Interdisciplinary Senior Project Design course in the Engineering Department of California Polytechnic State University: San Luis Obispo have worked to develop a prosthetic socket cooling system, namely for veteran Taylor Morris and exclusively for a transfemoral prosthetic socket, under the Quality of Life+ Laboratory. This cooling system will utilize the thermoelectric effect known as the Peltier effect to transmit heat generated from the residual limb to the surrounding environment by means of forced convection over small aluminum heat sinks. Two measurement devices have also been developed to, one, measure the heat ...


Physical Testing Of Potential Football Helmet Design Enhancements, Michael Jeremy Schuster 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Physical Testing Of Potential Football Helmet Design Enhancements, Michael Jeremy Schuster

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Football is a much loved sport in the United States. Unfortunately, it is also hard on the players and puts them at very high risk of concussion. To combat this an inventor in Santa Barbara brought a new design to Cal Poly to be tested.

The design was tested in small scale first in order to make some preliminary conclusions about the design. In order to fully test the helmet design; however, full scale testing was required. In order to carry out this testing a drop tower was built based on National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment, NOCSAE ...


Range Of Motion And Plantar Foot Pressures In Those With And Without A Lateral Hip Shift During An Overhead Squat, Erin M. Lally 2016 Illinois State University

Range Of Motion And Plantar Foot Pressures In Those With And Without A Lateral Hip Shift During An Overhead Squat, Erin M. Lally

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Asymmetrical loading between lower limbs can theoretically be explained as an inequality of strength, neuromuscular control, or subconscious reliance on one leg more than the other. Asymmetries are often identified utilizing costly equipment such as force plates and 3D motion analysis cameras. It is important to establish less costly ways of identifying movement and loading asymmetries for clinicians to utilize. One qualitative assessment that may identify asymmetries is a ‘lateral hip shift’ during an overhead squat. Objective: To identify differences in lower extremity range of motion (ROM) and plantar foot pressures in individuals with and without a lateral hip ...


Which Is The Primary Factor Influencing Running Stride Parameters: Age Or Lower Limb Strength?, Carl Jewell, Eric Rohr, J. Hamill, Katherine A. Boyer 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Which Is The Primary Factor Influencing Running Stride Parameters: Age Or Lower Limb Strength?, Carl Jewell, Eric Rohr, J. Hamill, Katherine A. Boyer

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Much still remains unknown about the impact of age, and age-related changes in muscle function, on gait parameters. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of strength on running gait parameters across the adult lifespan. We tested the hypothesis that a greater amount of the variance in peak hip, knee and ankle sagittal plane moments would be explained by peak isometric joint torques as compared to age. Twenty-four healthy adults, ages 20-66 years, completed 5 trials on an overground 20-meter runway at a standardized velocity of 3.5 ms-1 (± 5%). Participants performed maximal isometric plantar flexion and ...


Examining Movement Function In Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis, Katherine A. Boyer 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Examining Movement Function In Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis, Katherine A. Boyer

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Biomechanical Gait Analysis for Improving Clinical Outcomes: Applications for Orthopedics, Geriatrics and Community Based Research," this presentation explores research on gait analysis and pain for patients with knee osteoarthritis.


Foot Kinematics And Neuromuscular Preactivation In Habitual Forefoot And Rearfoot Runners, Rhiannon Seneli 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Foot Kinematics And Neuromuscular Preactivation In Habitual Forefoot And Rearfoot Runners, Rhiannon Seneli

Theses and Dissertations

As the rate of running related injuries has failed to decline despite advances in footwear, many researchers have begun focusing on different foot strike patterns possible contribution to injury risk. While many studies have focused on the differences between RFS and FFS running, few have investigated kinematic differences within the distal foot in habitual RFS and FFS runners and have failed to consider mechanical and neuromuscular changes due to fatigue. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate foot kinematics and neuromuscular differences between RFS and FFS runners at the beginning and end of an exhaustive run. Fifteen habitual ...


A Study Of The Hydrostatic And Hydrodynamic Properties Of Aeoliscus Straigatus, Jeremy J. Keifenheim 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

A Study Of The Hydrostatic And Hydrodynamic Properties Of Aeoliscus Straigatus, Jeremy J. Keifenheim

Theses and Dissertations

Aeoliscus strigatus is a highly maneuverable fish found in the Indo-Pacific region. It boasts a unique head down posture and employs median paired fin propulsion to perform precise movements. The need for highly maneuverable underwater AUVs for exploration and testing drove the examination of the hydrostatics and hydrodynamics influencing Aeoliscus. To determine the stability of Aeoliscus the center of gravity and buoyancy were found. Center of gravity was experimentally located using the three plumb line method while center of buoyancy was located using two separate methods. The first method utilized the measured buoyant force, a rigidly mounted fish and a ...


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