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Movement Variability And Sensorimotor Cortical Activation During Forward And Backward Walking, Boman Groff 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Movement Variability And Sensorimotor Cortical Activation During Forward And Backward Walking, Boman Groff

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Previous research has used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to show that motor areas of the cortex are activated more while walking backward compared to walking forward. It is also known that head movement creates motion artifacts in fNIRS data. The aim of this study was to expand on previous findings by examining cortical activation during forward and backward walking, while also measuring head movement. We hypothesized that greater activation in motor areas while walking backward would be concurrent with increased head movement.

Participants (N=8) performed forward and backward walking on a treadmill. Participants wore motion capture markers on their ...


A Comparison Of Balance Between A Smoker And Never-Smoker, Robert J. Barber 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

A Comparison Of Balance Between A Smoker And Never-Smoker, Robert J. Barber

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

“Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the third leading cause of death in the United States.” “While COPD is defined in terms of fixed airflow limitation, it’s also characterized by the frequent association of complications outside the lung, including compromised balance.” Research has shown “medio-lateral (i.e., side-to-side) balance is altered in patients with COPD compared to controls and is further affected by challenging sensory systems (e.g., eyes closed or uneven surface).” “Smoking increases risk for onset of COPD”, therefore the objective of this study was to investigate balance in smokers. It’s hypothesized that smokers will demonstrate balance ...


Effects Of Serial Subtractions On Elderly Gait Speed In A Virtual Reality Setting, Taylor Leeder 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Effects Of Serial Subtractions On Elderly Gait Speed In A Virtual Reality Setting, Taylor Leeder

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Falls are the leading cause of fatal injuries in older adults aged 65+ with one in three adults falling each year. Cognitive processes are involved in gait, and thus, as cognitive changes are normative with age, this may impact fall risk in the elderly. Sixteen older adults aged 70.8±5.3 years took part in a dual-task (DT) study where they walked on a split-belt self-paced treadmill with and without a virtual reality (VR) setting while simultaneously performing a serial subtraction (SS) task. For SS, individuals were given a random 3-digit starting number and told to subtract by three ...


Influence Of Neuromuscular Fatigue On The Reliability Of Gait Variability Measures, Nicholas Reynolds 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Influence Of Neuromuscular Fatigue On The Reliability Of Gait Variability Measures, Nicholas Reynolds

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Walking in healthy young adults displays an optimal pattern of variability from one stride to the next. This level ensures that each step taken is not stereotyped but also not completely unpredictable. Previous studies have investigated differences in stride-to-stride characteristics comparing groups of young to groups of elderly. The consistency of gait variability measures on an individual level remains to be determined. The first aim of this study is to determine the between day and between trial consistency of gait variability measures in healthy young adults. We hypothesize that there will be a high level of consistency from day-to-day and ...


An Investigation In Muscle Activation During Load Carrying, Sidney Baudendistel 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

An Investigation In Muscle Activation During Load Carrying, Sidney Baudendistel

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Carrying items is essential to everyday living, but is often reported to be a functional limitation in individuals with respiratory dysfunction. The interaction between breathing and carrying a bimanual load (i.e., carrying an evenly distributed load in each hand) is not well understood and limits the capacity to derive interventions to address functional limitations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of two bimanual loads, 10% and 5% of body weight, on gait. Fourteen healthy, young adults walked with and without a load on each wrist (2.5 and 5% of body weight) using wrist weights ...


A General Model For Estimating Lower Extremity Inertial Properties Of Individuals With Transtibial Amputation, Abbie E. Ferris, Jeremy D. Smith, Gary D. Heise, Richard N. Hinrichs, Philip E. Martin 2017 University of Northern Colorado

A General Model For Estimating Lower Extremity Inertial Properties Of Individuals With Transtibial Amputation, Abbie E. Ferris, Jeremy D. Smith, Gary D. Heise, Richard N. Hinrichs, Philip E. Martin

Kinesiology Publications

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Synthetic Turf And Shockpads On Impact Attenuation Related Biomechanics During Drop Landing, Hang Qu 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effects Of Synthetic Turf And Shockpads On Impact Attenuation Related Biomechanics During Drop Landing, Hang Qu

Masters Theses

Synthetic turf has been widely utilized in sports since 1964. Discrepancies, however, in injury incidence on synthetic turf and natural grass have been reported throughout studies. Adding a shock pad under synthetic turf carpet is claimed to aid in energy absorption and decrease impact loading. Although some studies have conducted materials tests and compared mechanical characteristics of synthetic turf with different shock pads, no studies have examined biomechanical characteristics of impact related human movements on an infilled synthetic turf system with different underlying shock pads. The purpose of this research was to investigate effects of an infilled synthetic turf with ...


Effects Of Wider Step Width On Knee Biomechanics In Obese And Healthy-Weight Participants During Stair Ascent, Derek Scott Yocum 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effects Of Wider Step Width On Knee Biomechanics In Obese And Healthy-Weight Participants During Stair Ascent, Derek Scott Yocum

Masters Theses

An increased likelihood of developing obesity-related knee osteoarthritis may be associated with increased peak internal knee abduction moment. Increases in step width may act to reduce this moment. This study focused on how step width influenced the knee joint during stair ascent by healthy and obese participants. Participants ascended stairs while walking at their preferred speed and under one of two step width conditions – preferred and increased. Obese participants experienced greater mediolateral and vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs), as well as increased peak knee extensor moments and push-off peak internal knee adduction moments. The findings of this study indicate that ...


The Use Of P3b As An Indicator Of Neurophysiologic Change From Subconcussive Impacts In Football Players, Jeffrey S. Brooks 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Use Of P3b As An Indicator Of Neurophysiologic Change From Subconcussive Impacts In Football Players, Jeffrey S. Brooks

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a growing appreciation in research that subconcussive impacts may affect cognitive functioning. Canadian University football players (n=45) were separated into three groups based on their position/skill (small skilled, big skilled and big unskilled). An impact measuring device (GForceTracker) was used to record the number of impacts that each player experienced in a season. Player groups were separated into two levels of impact exposure: low and high. Players completed baseline, midseason, postseason, and follow-up neurophysiological tests (four months later) to measure P3b amplitude in response to a visual oddball paradigm, and high versus low impact subgroups for ...


Molybdenum Disulfide-Conducting Polymer Composite Structures For Electrochemical Biosensor Applications, Hongxiang Jia 2016 University of South Florida

Molybdenum Disulfide-Conducting Polymer Composite Structures For Electrochemical Biosensor Applications, Hongxiang Jia

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lactic acid is widely existing in human bodies, animals and microorganisms. Recently, using biosensor to detect the concentration of lactic acid and diagnose disease have attracted great research and development interests. Nanocomposites is one of the best material used for biosensor because their wonderful conductivity, optical and electrochemical properties. In the study, MoS 2 and polypyrrole (PPY) are used for the composite material electrode. To determine whether lactate oxidase (LOD) was helpful for the biosensor’s detective properties, both PPY-MoS 2 film with LOD and PPY-MoS 2 film without LOD are being tested. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ...


Hydrodynamic Properties Of Fin Whale Flippers Predict Maximum Rolling Performance, Paolo S. Segre, David E. Cade, Frank E. Fish, Jean Potvin, Ann N. Allen, John Calambokidis, Ari S. Friedlaender, Jeremy A. Goldbogen 2016 Stanford University

Hydrodynamic Properties Of Fin Whale Flippers Predict Maximum Rolling Performance, Paolo S. Segre, David E. Cade, Frank E. Fish, Jean Potvin, Ann N. Allen, John Calambokidis, Ari S. Friedlaender, Jeremy A. Goldbogen

Biology Faculty Publications

Maneuverability is one of the most important and least understood aspects of animal locomotion. The hydrofoil-like flippers of cetaceans are thought to function as control surfaces that effect maneuvers, but quantitative tests of this hypothesis have been lacking. Here, we constructed a simple hydrodynamic model to predict the longitudinal-axis roll performance of fin whales, and we tested its predictions against kinematic data recorded by on-board movement sensors from 27 free-swimming fin whales. We found that for a given swimming speed and roll excursion, the roll velocity of fin whales calculated from our field data agrees well with that predicted by ...


Get Up, Stand Up: A Brief History Of Sedentarism And Why Movement Is Good Medicine, Tony Federico 2016 Selected Works

Get Up, Stand Up: A Brief History Of Sedentarism And Why Movement Is Good Medicine, Tony Federico

Tony Federico

Chairs first emerged as a way for high-status individuals to designate their social standing, and their use was almost exclusively the domain of the affluent class until the Industrial Revolution made affordable, mass-produced seating possible. Prior to this point, the vast majority of people sat on improvised objects such as beds, tree stumps, or benches, or simply squatted on their haunches. Social aspirations, continued technological innovations (e.g. the automobile), and a shift towards sedentary work drove the adoption of the chair until its use became ubiquitous at home, at work, at school, and at play (e.g. computer and ...


Hydrodynamic Performance Of Aquatic Flapping: Efficiency Of Underwater Flight In The Manta, Frank E. Fish, Christian M. Schreiber, Keith W. Moored, Geng Liu, Haibo Dong, Hilary Bart-Smith 2016 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Hydrodynamic Performance Of Aquatic Flapping: Efficiency Of Underwater Flight In The Manta, Frank E. Fish, Christian M. Schreiber, Keith W. Moored, Geng Liu, Haibo Dong, Hilary Bart-Smith

Biology Faculty Publications

The manta is the largest marine organism to swim by dorsoventral oscillation (flapping) of the pectoral fins. The manta has been considered to swim with a high efficiency stroke, but this assertion has not been previously examined. The oscillatory swimming strokes of the manta were examined by detailing the kinematics of the pectoral fin movements swimming over a range of speeds and by analyzing simulations based on computational fluid dynamic potential flow and viscous models. These analyses showed that the fin movements are asymmetrical up- and downstrokes with both spanwise and chordwise waves interposed into the flapping motions. These motions ...


Walking Abnormalities Are Associated With Copd: An Investigation Of The Nhanes Iii Dataset, Jenna M. Yentes, Harlan Sayles, Jane Meza, David M. Mannino, Stephen I. Rennard, Nicholas Stergiou 2016 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Walking Abnormalities Are Associated With Copd: An Investigation Of The Nhanes Iii Dataset, Jenna M. Yentes, Harlan Sayles, Jane Meza, David M. Mannino, Stephen I. Rennard, Nicholas Stergiou

David M. Mannino

Research on the peripheral effects of COPD has focused on physiological and structural changes. However, different from muscular weakness or decreased physical activity, mechanical abnormalities of the muscular system, e.g. walking, have yet to be investigated. Our purpose was to utilize the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset to determine whether walking abnormalities are associated with COPD severity. To determine if walking abnormalities were independently associated with COPD severity, our analysis aimed to investigate the association of physical activity levels with COPD severity and with walking abnormalities. The NHANES III dataset that contains data for 31,000 ...


Using An Aerial Drone To Examine Lateral Movement In Sweep Rowers, Joseph S. Munn 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Using An Aerial Drone To Examine Lateral Movement In Sweep Rowers, Joseph S. Munn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rowing is a sport that is performed on the water, because of this there are many challenges associated with studying rowing. The primary challenges are an inability to control the environment and limitations with the equipment that can be used to collect data on the water. In order to try and overcome some of these challenges an aerial drone fitted with a high resolution camera was used to examine an understudied element of the rowing stroke, lateral movement in sweep rowers. Oar and shoulder angles and lateral movement of the shoulders and hands were calculated and compared between five different ...


Constraining Kinematics During Single-Leg Squats And Step-Ups Can Reduce Quadratus Lumborum Activation And Facilitate Gluteal Activation, Shaylyn Kowalchuk 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Constraining Kinematics During Single-Leg Squats And Step-Ups Can Reduce Quadratus Lumborum Activation And Facilitate Gluteal Activation, Shaylyn Kowalchuk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increased quadratus lumborum activation and decreased gluteal activation may lead to lateral pelvic drop and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during single-leg exercises. These activation patterns and motions are associated with low back pain or lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if mechanically restricting hip adduction and internal rotation of the femur affected muscle activation. Twenty female track and field athletes performed single-leg squats and step-ups, and the quadratus lumborum, gluteus medius and maximus muscles activations were measured with surface electromyography. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanically restricted exercises would decrease quadratus lumborum ...


New Tools For Viscoelastic Spectral Analysis, With Application To The Mechanics Of Cells And Collagen Across Hierarchies, Behzad Babaei 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

New Tools For Viscoelastic Spectral Analysis, With Application To The Mechanics Of Cells And Collagen Across Hierarchies, Behzad Babaei

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Viscoelastic relaxation spectra are essential for predicting and interpreting the mechanical responses of materials and structures. For biological tissues, these spectra must usually be estimated from viscoelastic relaxation tests. Interpreting viscoelastic relaxation tests is challenging because the inverse problem is expensive computationally. We present here (1) an efficient algorithm and (2) a quasi-linear model that enable rapid identification of the viscoelastic relaxation spectra of both linear and nonlinear materials. We then apply these methods to develop fundamental insight into the mechanics of collagenous and fibrotic tissues.

The first algorithm, which we term the discrete spectral approach, is fast enough to ...


The Role Of Osteocyte Estrogen Receptor Beta (Erβ) In Regulating The Skeletal Response To Mechanical Loading, Julia P. Townsend, Russell P. Main 2016 Purdue University

The Role Of Osteocyte Estrogen Receptor Beta (Erβ) In Regulating The Skeletal Response To Mechanical Loading, Julia P. Townsend, Russell P. Main

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Estrogen’s biological functions are mediated by estrogen binding to estrogen receptors (ER). Understanding what role both ERα and ERβ have in bone maintenance and formation can contribute to possible treatment of osteoporosis. This study examined osteocyte specific deletion of ERβ in mice. The cross of ERβ-floxed mice with DMP1-8kb-Cre mice provided both experimental knockout mice as well as littermate control mice. At 24 weeks of age the left tibiae of all mice were mechanically loaded five days per week for two weeks to induce bone formation. Analysis of cortical bone was conducted using microcomputed tomography (microCT) to measure load-induced ...


A Comparison Of Cervical And Trunk Musculoskeletal Characteristics Between Female And Male Army Helicopter Pilots, Takashi Nagai, Karen A. Keenan, John P. Abt, Timothy C. Sell, Brian W. Smalley, Michael D. Wirt, Scott M. Lephart 2016 University of Pittsburgh

A Comparison Of Cervical And Trunk Musculoskeletal Characteristics Between Female And Male Army Helicopter Pilots, Takashi Nagai, Karen A. Keenan, John P. Abt, Timothy C. Sell, Brian W. Smalley, Michael D. Wirt, Scott M. Lephart

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Introduction: Neck pain (NP) and low back pain (LBP) are prevalent among military helicopter pilots. Although there have been few studies on sex differences in the NP/LBP prevalence in this population, females are shown to be at a greater risk of NP/LBP in civilian studies. This disparity may be due to musculoskeletal characteristics differences that predispose females for NP/LBP. The purpose of this study was to compare cervical and trunk musculoskeletal characteristics between male and female pilots. Methods: A total of 8 female pilots (Age: 27.6 ± 4.2yrs, HT: 166.1 ± 7.7cm, WT: 67.9 ...


Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a key function of somatosensory systems. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of motor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in trigeminal networks associated with mechanosensory inputs to the face, or the consequences of movement.

High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilateral saltatory pneumotactile inputs to perioral hairy skin in 20 healthy adults. A custom multichannel, scalable ...


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