Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biophysics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

948 Full-Text Articles 1,577 Authors 208,296 Downloads 125 Institutions

All Articles in Biophysics

Faceted Search

948 full-text articles. Page 4 of 43.

Comparative Analysis Of Conformational Transition Pathways In Homologous Proteins, Dylan Sebastien Ogden 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Comparative Analysis Of Conformational Transition Pathways In Homologous Proteins, Dylan Sebastien Ogden

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are routinely used to study the dynamics of proteins. However, conventional MD limited to the sampling of local conformational changes as the functionally important conformational transitions of proteins often extend beyond the timescales of the simulations employed, for example, membrane transport proteins. We have determined the combination of multiple MD based techniques that allows for a rigorous characterization of energetics and kinetics of large-scale conformational changes in membrane proteins. The methodology is based on biased, nonequilibrium collective variable based simulations including nonequilibrium pulling, string method with swarms of trajectories, bias-exchange umbrella sampling, and rate estimation techniques. …


Cell Division Dynamics Of Escherichia Coli In Extreme Environments, Steven P. Murray 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cell Division Dynamics Of Escherichia Coli In Extreme Environments, Steven P. Murray

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Life is remarkable in how resilient it can be. Many organism, classified as ex- tremophiles, can not only survive in extreme environments, but they can thrive in them. In the search for extraterrestrial life, the best candidates to harbor life exist with some kind of extreme condition. Europa, for example, is a favorite for the possibility of accommodating life as we know it within our solar system. Thought there is believed to be a liquid ocean under its icy surface, this habitat would be under immense pressures and high salinity. To best know where to look for extraterrestrial life, it …


The Metabolic Change Of Lipid Species In Stam Mice With Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Devin J. Peart 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Metabolic Change Of Lipid Species In Stam Mice With Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Devin J. Peart

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Primary liver cancer hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In the US, primary liver cancer is the most rapidly increasing type of cancer due to increases in hepatitis B and C and the continued trend of greater and greater percentages of the population suffering from obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. The prognosis for this disease is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of 26% as compared to only 2% when the cancer is metastatic. Unfortunately, current strategies for early detection of HCC, including routine CT imaging or alpha-fetoprotein biomarker, are suboptimal and tend …


Ferrocenium Salt Aided Substitution Reactions And Synthesis Of Glycosylated Curcumin Derivatives, Deva Saroja Talasila 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Ferrocenium Salt Aided Substitution Reactions And Synthesis Of Glycosylated Curcumin Derivatives, Deva Saroja Talasila

Dissertations

Organic synthesis has been significantly advanced with the employment of transition metal complexes. The discovery of transition metal catalysts provided the synthetic community with powerful tools for accelerating reactions and making them more selective and efficient. Many chemical reactions do not happen without a catalyst.

Iron-based catalysts have several advantages for the chemical industry because it is a non-toxic and ecologically friendly metal. Our group previously found that ferrocenium cations with a 3+ oxidation state of iron-catalyzed propargylic substitution reactions at low temperatures. The sandwich structure of ferrocenes allows substituents to be introduced on the cyclopentadienyl rings, which allows for …


Regulation Of Tissue Mechanics And Adherens Junctions By Small Gtpase Rhoa During Drosophila Embryogenesis, Hanqing Guo 2022 Dartmouth College

Regulation Of Tissue Mechanics And Adherens Junctions By Small Gtpase Rhoa During Drosophila Embryogenesis, Hanqing Guo

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Actomyosin contractility plays an important role at both the cell and tissue level during developments. In this study, we developed an optogenetic tool that can acutely inhibit actomyosin contractility by targeting its main activator Rho1. This optogenetic tool can achieve myosin inhibition within one minute and thus enable further dissection of actomyosin function in development. In my first two projects, I used Drosophila mesoderm invagination (also known as ventral furrow formation) as a model to study epithelial folding, a fundamental mechanism for constructing complex 3D tissues. Apical constriction mediated by actomyosin contractility is a common mechanism for epithelial folding. However, …


Conformational Dynamics And Aggregation Of Thermally Stressed Proteins Studied By Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry, Nastaran Nosrat Tajoddin 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Conformational Dynamics And Aggregation Of Thermally Stressed Proteins Studied By Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry, Nastaran Nosrat Tajoddin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Proteins perform various biological functions, e.g., as enzymes or transporters. In addition to naturally occurring proteins, the use of protein therapeutic drugs for treating cancer and other diseases is a rapidly growing area. A thorough biophysical characterization of proteins and protein therapeutics opens the door to a more comprehensive understanding of their role in health and disease. This dissertation aims to expand the capabilities of an existing technique (Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry, HDX-MS), which is widely used for probing protein structure and dynamics. Conventionally, HDX-MS experiments are performed as a function of labelling time. Here we aim to establish …


Investigation Of Kinase Conformational Dynamics And Analytes Detection With Protein Nanopore, FANJUN LI 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Investigation Of Kinase Conformational Dynamics And Analytes Detection With Protein Nanopore, Fanjun Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Protein nanopores are pore-forming proteins which have been developed as single-molecule biosensors. Due to the high sensitivity, selectivity, label-free and real-time detection methodology, protein nanopores have been used for a wide variety of applications. In this dissertation, we use ClyA nanopore to investigate kinase conformational dynamics and develop a kinase/nanopore system for the specific detection of kinase allosteric inhibitors. Besides, we engineer OmpG nanopore to be a sensor for nucleic acid detection. Protein kinases play essential roles in cellular regulation by catalyzing the phosphorylation of target proteins and are promising drug targets. The conformational dynamics are critical for kinase functions. …


Controlling Myosin’S Function Via Interactions Between The Substrate And The Active Site, Mike K. Woodward 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Controlling Myosin’S Function Via Interactions Between The Substrate And The Active Site, Mike K. Woodward

Doctoral Dissertations

Molecular motors, such as myosin, have evolved to transduce chemical energy from ATP into mechanical work to drive essential cellular processes, from muscle contraction to vesicular transport. Dysfunction in these motors is a root cause of many pathologies necessitating the application of intrinsic control over molecular motor function. We hypothesized that altering the myosin’s energy substrate via minor positional changes to the triphosphate portion of the molecule will allow us to control the protein and affect its in vitro function. We utilized positional isomers of a synthetic non-nucleoside triphosphate, azobenzene triphosphate, and assessed whether myosin’s force- and motion-generating capacity could …


The Relationship Between Joint Stiffness And Leg Morphology In Spiders, Lachlan Fisher 2022 Western University

The Relationship Between Joint Stiffness And Leg Morphology In Spiders, Lachlan Fisher

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

This poster investigates the relationship between joint stiffness and spider leg morphology, with an interest in collecting data to create more accurate biomechanical models of spiders.


Co-Twin Relationship Quality As A Moderator Of Genetic And Environmental Factors On Urinary Cortisol Levels Among Adult Twins, Joseph A. Schwartz, Scott Jessick, Jessica L. Calvi, Douglas A. Granger 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Co-Twin Relationship Quality As A Moderator Of Genetic And Environmental Factors On Urinary Cortisol Levels Among Adult Twins, Joseph A. Schwartz, Scott Jessick, Jessica L. Calvi, Douglas A. Granger

Athletic Performance Research

Previous research has indicated that genetic and environmental factors shape physiological activity. Cortisol levels, in particular, have received significant attention, with studies indicating substantive heritability estimates across various sampling techniques. A related line of research has indicated that genetic and environmental factors that explain variability in cortisol levels may vary across context and experiences by way of gene-environment interactions (G×Es). Despite these findings, a limited number of studies have examined the extent to which interpersonal relationships may operate as a moderator. The current study focused on co-twin relationship quality as a source of moderation, as twins are more likely to …


Role Of Ligand Architecture On Collective Cell Invasion, Amrit Bagchi 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Role Of Ligand Architecture On Collective Cell Invasion, Amrit Bagchi

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Epithelial cell collectives utilize extra-cellular matrix (ECM) fibers to undergo collective migration critical in regeneration, repair and cancer metastasis. However, very little is known about the various factors which determine the ability of cellular collectives to utilize ECM fibers to undergo these critical processes in-vivo. First part of the dissertation focusses on understanding how cell collectives exploit specific properties, like stiffness and fiber length to undergo collective streaming. It is also unclear how cellular forces, cell-cell adhesion, and velocities are coordinated within streams. To independently tune stiffness and collagen fiber length, we developed new hydrogels and discovered invasion-like streaming of …


Improving The Ribozyme Toolbox: From Structure-Function Insights To Synthetic Biology Applications, Jessica Michelle Roberts 2022 Boise State University

Improving The Ribozyme Toolbox: From Structure-Function Insights To Synthetic Biology Applications, Jessica Michelle Roberts

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Self-cleaving ribozymes are a naturally occurring class of catalytically active RNA molecules which cleave their own phosphate backbone. In nature, self-cleaving ribozymes are best known for their role in processing concatamers of viral genomes into monomers during viral replication in some RNA viruses, but to a lesser degree have also been implicated in mRNA regulation and processing in bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition to their biological relevance, these RNA enzymes have been harnessed as important biomolecular tools with a variety of applications in fields such as bioengineering. Self-cleaving ribozymes are relatively small and easy to generate in the lab using …


Modeling Electrostatics In Molecular Biology And Its Relevance With Molecular Mechanisms Of Diseases, Mahesh Koirala 2022 Clemson University

Modeling Electrostatics In Molecular Biology And Its Relevance With Molecular Mechanisms Of Diseases, Mahesh Koirala

All Dissertations

Electrostatics plays an essential role in molecular biology. Modeling electrostatics in molecular biology is complicated due to the water phase, mobile ions, and irregularly shaped inhomogeneous biological macromolecules. This dissertation presents the popular DelPhi package that solves PBE and delivers the electrostatic potential distribution of biomolecules. We used the newly developed DelPhiForce steered Molecular Dynamics (DFMD) approach to model the binding of barstar to barnase and demonstrated that the first-principles method could also model the binding. This dissertation also reflects the use of existing computational approaches to model the effects of Single Amino Acid Variations (SAVs) to reveal molecular mechanisms …


Habitability, And Evolution Of Microorganisms Under Extreme Conditions, Azarin Yazdani 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Habitability, And Evolution Of Microorganisms Under Extreme Conditions, Azarin Yazdani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The choice of a solvent determines the possible biochemistry of life. Life on Earth is based on carbon biochemistry and has evolved in an environment with water as a solvent. As a polar solvent abundant on Earth, water has unique physical properties, including a large range of liquidity and low viscosity, making it a very good solvent for terrestrial life. Liquids other than water are abundant in the universe, and the chemical nature of these liquids might lead to different chemistries of life. In the first chapter, we review the main characteristics of a good solvent, and then we use …


Amyloid Fibril Formation And Polymorphism : A Critical Role Of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid Residues, Tatiana Quiñones-Ruiz 2022 University at Albany, State University of New York

Amyloid Fibril Formation And Polymorphism : A Critical Role Of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid Residues, Tatiana Quiñones-Ruiz

Legacy Theses & Dissertations (2009 - 2024)

Protein aggregation that results in the formation of amyloid fibrils has been linked to many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. The sulfur atoms in methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) residues of proteins can be readily oxidized, significantly affecting their properties. Oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids has recently been shown to affect protein fibrillation. This work presents novel findings on Cys and Met redox reactions that are related to the formation of amyloid fibrils and on the polymorphism of a model fibrillogenic protein, hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). Biophysical techniques including Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron paramagnetic …


Cellular Mechanisms Underlying State-Dependent Neural Inhibition With Magnetic Stimulation, Hui Ye, Vincent Chiun-Fan Chen, Jenna Hendee 2022 Loyola University Chicago

Cellular Mechanisms Underlying State-Dependent Neural Inhibition With Magnetic Stimulation, Hui Ye, Vincent Chiun-Fan Chen, Jenna Hendee

Engineering Science Faculty Publications

Novel stimulation protocols for neuromodulation with magnetic fields are explored in clinical and laboratory settings. Recent evidence suggests that the activation state of the nervous system plays a significant role in the outcome of magnetic stimulation, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of state-dependency have not been completely investigated. We recently reported that high frequency magnetic stimulation could inhibit neural activity when the neuron was in a low active state. In this paper, we investigate state-dependent neural modulation by applying a magnetic field to single neurons, using the novel micro-coil technology. High frequency magnetic stimulation suppressed single neuron activity …


Wdr5 Network Analysis Using Ensemble Approaches, Ali Imran 2022 Syracuse University

Wdr5 Network Analysis Using Ensemble Approaches, Ali Imran

Dissertations - ALL

Understanding the properties of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is necessary to deconvolute the processes inside living organisms. As such, research in this regard has significant implications for gaining insight into cancers and other diseases. Once understood, drugs can be designed to target these diseases. In these chapters we focus on the network of interactions of WD40 repeat protein 5 (WDR5), a known hub protein. Several of its interactions are significant for regulation of histone methylation and consequently epigenetic regulation. These interacting partners include the SET1 family of proteins and retinoblastoma binding protein-5 (RbBP5). In this work we used multiple ensemble measurement …


The Role Of Conformational Changes In Viral And Bacterial Protein Functions, Md Lokman Hossen 2022 Department of Physics, Florida International University

The Role Of Conformational Changes In Viral And Bacterial Protein Functions, Md Lokman Hossen

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Proteins do versatile work in cells. They require a cascade of structural changes to perform different tasks like binding to the other neighboring biomolecules, transporting small chemicals, activating a chemical reaction, etc. The structural conformations of proteins can be critical in changing their working ability. In this dissertation, I investigated the role of conformational changes of viral protein, e.g., spike and envelope protein of SARS-CoV-2, and bacterial protein, e.g., multidrug transporter and toxic extrusion protein- PfMATE from Pyrococcus furiosus. Also, I performed molecular docking-based drug screening targeting the E protein to suggest a set of drugs that can be repurposed …


Investigating Structures And Functions Of Apoptotic Caspases, Ishankumar V. Soni 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Investigating Structures And Functions Of Apoptotic Caspases, Ishankumar V. Soni

Doctoral Dissertations

Caspases are cysteine aspartate proteases involved in various cellular pathways including apoptosis, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. Caspase-9 is classified as an initiator apoptotic caspase that is activated upon intrinsic stress. Caspase-9 is composed of two domains: an N- terminal CARD domain and a catalytic core domain. We have employed hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) to determine the 1) dynamics of the full-length caspase- 9, 2) dynamic impacts on caspase-9 upon substrate-induced dimerization, and 3) regions involved in the CARD: catalytic core domains interactions. Upon intrinsic stress, caspase-9 activates executioners, procaspase-3 and -7 but not procaspase-6. We have employed site-directed mutagenesis …


Autofluorescence Microscopy: Identifying Bacterial Signals On Rock Samples, Noel Case 2022 Portland State University

Autofluorescence Microscopy: Identifying Bacterial Signals On Rock Samples, Noel Case

University Honors Theses

One common method for identifying microbes present in fluid and non-fluid samples is fluorescent dye staining, in which samples are stained with a fluorophore - a molecule excited by an external light source that re-emits energy as higher-wavelength light. The excitation wavelength used greatly impacts the observability of microbes in the resulting fluorescence images, and deep ultraviolet excitation (200-280 nm) seems to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio of any excitation range. By inoculating rock samples (gypsum and marble) with B. subtilis, staining with SYTO 9, Acridine Orange and FM 1-43 dyes, and imaging with deep UV (275 nm), near …


Digital Commons powered by bepress