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Lipid Transport Required To Make Lipids Of Photosynthetic Membranes, Evan LaBrant, Allison C. Barnes, Rebecca Roston 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Lipid Transport Required To Make Lipids Of Photosynthetic Membranes, Evan Labrant, Allison C. Barnes, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Photosynthetic membranes provide much of the usable energy for life on earth. To produce photosynthetic membrane lipids, multiple transport steps are required, including fatty acid export from the chloroplast stroma to the endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the chloroplast envelope membranes. Transport of hydrophobic molecules through aqueous space is energetically unfavorable and must be catalyzed by dedicated enzymes, frequently on specialized membrane structures. Here, we review photosynthetic membrane lipid transport to the chloroplast in the context of photosynthetic membrane lipid synthesis. We independently consider the identity of transported lipids, the proteinaceous transport components, and membrane ...


Study Of The Visual Adaptation Mechanism In Marine Species With The Change Of Habitation Depth., Demid Osipov, Daniil Moshnikov 2018 Physical-Technical High School

Study Of The Visual Adaptation Mechanism In Marine Species With The Change Of Habitation Depth., Demid Osipov, Daniil Moshnikov

The International Student Science Fair 2018

The goal of our work was to determine the principal mechanisms that provide the difference in visual perception of two marine species that live on different depths: T. Pacificus and O. Vulgaris. In nature, visual perception of species that live deeper is shifted towards the blue region. This is related to the fact that red, orange and yellow light is absorbed more strongly by water than the blue light. On the other hand, the visual perception spectrum of an animal is determined by the absorption spectrum of the "light sensor" located in rods and cones of its eye retina. These ...


The Characterization Of The Transcription Factor Msab And Its Role In Staphylococcal Virulence, Justin Batte 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Characterization Of The Transcription Factor Msab And Its Role In Staphylococcal Virulence, Justin Batte

Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen that is responsible for a wide range of infections, ranging from relative minor skin infections to life-threatening disease such as bacteremia, septicemia, and endocarditis. S. aureus possesses many different virulent factors that aid in its ability to cause this wide array of infections. One major virulence factor includes the production of capsular polysaccharide (CP). The production of CP plays a major role in the virulence response during infection specifically by providing S. aureus an antiphagocytic mechanism that allows the pathogen to evade phagocytosis during an infection. S. aureus has developed complex genetic regulatory ...


Diurnal And Developmental Differences In Gene Expression Between Adult Dispersing And Flightless Morphs Of The Wing Polymorphic Cricket, Gryllus Firmus: Implications For Life-History Evolution, Anthony J. Zera, Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal, Jennifer A. Brisson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Diurnal And Developmental Differences In Gene Expression Between Adult Dispersing And Flightless Morphs Of The Wing Polymorphic Cricket, Gryllus Firmus: Implications For Life-History Evolution, Anthony J. Zera, Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal, Jennifer A. Brisson

Anthony Zera Publications

The functional basis of life history adaptation is a key topic of research in life history evolution. Studies of wing polymorphism in the cricket Gryllus firmus have played a prominent role in this field. However, prior in-depth investigations of morph specialization have primarily focused on a single hormone, juvenile hormone, and a single aspect of intermediary metabolism, the fatty-acid biosynthetic component of lipid metabolism. Moreover, the role of diurnal variation in life history adaptation in G. firmus has been understudied, as is the case for organisms in general. Here, we identify genes whose expression differs consistently between the ...


Intraperitoneal Nanotherapy For Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Based On Sirna-Mediated Suppression Of Dj-1 Protein Combined With A Low Dose Of Cisplatin, Canan Schumann, Stephanie Chan, Jess A. Miller, Yuliya Bortnyak, Katherine Carey, Alex Fedchyk, Leon Wong, Tetiana Korzun, Abraham S. Moses, Anna Lorenz, Delany Shea, Olena Taratula, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Oleh Taratula 2018 Oregon State University

Intraperitoneal Nanotherapy For Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Based On Sirna-Mediated Suppression Of Dj-1 Protein Combined With A Low Dose Of Cisplatin, Canan Schumann, Stephanie Chan, Jess A. Miller, Yuliya Bortnyak, Katherine Carey, Alex Fedchyk, Leon Wong, Tetiana Korzun, Abraham S. Moses, Anna Lorenz, Delany Shea, Olena Taratula, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Oleh Taratula

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Herein, we report an efficient combinatorial therapy for metastatic ovarian cancer based on siRNA-mediated suppression of DJ-1 protein combined with a low dose of cisplatin. DJ-1 protein modulates, either directly or indirectly, different oncogenic pathways that support and promote survival, growth, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. To evaluate the potential of this novel therapy, we have engineered a cancer-targeted nanoplatform and validated that DJ-1 siRNA delivered by this nanoplatform after intraperitoneal injection efficiently downregulates the DJ-1 protein in metastatic ovarian cancer tumors and ascites. In vivo experiments revealed that DJ-1 siRNA monotherapy outperformed cisplatin alone by inhibiting tumor growth ...


Mutations In Rhodopsin Transmembrane Helix 5 And Dimerization Interface, Margaret Pinkevitch 2018 The University of Akron

Mutations In Rhodopsin Transmembrane Helix 5 And Dimerization Interface, Margaret Pinkevitch

Honors Research Projects

G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with many functional roles. This family of receptors is expansive, with several subfamilies. Here, a member of subfamily A, rhodopsin (Rho) is studied. Mutations in rhodopsin have been linked to the disease retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Some of these mutations have been found to disrupt the dimerization/oligomerization of Rho at the TM4/TM5 proposed dimerization interface, causing pathogenesis of RP. In this study, two mutations of transmembrane helix 5 were investigated for changes in dimerization and stability, cell trafficking, and signaling. It was found that the V209M and F220C mutations did not ...


Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett

CMC Senior Theses

Fossils belonging to the genus Homo, dating as far back as two million years ago, exhibit uniquely efficient features suggesting that early humans had evolved to become exceptional endurance runners. Although they did not have the cushion or stability-control features provided in our modern day running shoes, our early human ancestors experienced far less of the running-related injuries we experience today. The injury rate has been estimated as high as 90% annually for Americans training for a marathon and as high as 79% annually for all American endurance runners. There is an injury epidemic in conventionally shod populations that does ...


Recently Discovered Benzo(A)Pyrene Induced Health Effects And Their Threat To The Inland Empire, Quinn Navarro 2018 University of Redlands

Recently Discovered Benzo(A)Pyrene Induced Health Effects And Their Threat To The Inland Empire, Quinn Navarro

Armacost Library Undergraduate Research Award (ALURA)

This study investigated recent discoveries of Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) in order to determine the current threat BaP poses to residents of Southern California. Literature reviews comprise the research done on BaP-induced health effects. Primary articles reviewed include “Adverse Effect of Sub-Chronic Exposure to Benzo(a)Pyrene and Protective Effect of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Learning and Memory Ability in Male

Sprague-Dawley Rat” by Xiao Liang (2014), and “Bioaccumulation and oxidative damage in juvenile scallop Chlamys farreri exposed to benzo[a]Pyrene, benzo[b]Fluoranthene and chrysene” by Meng Xiu (2014). These studies conclude that BaP potentially impairs memory and learning ...


Total Mercury Determination In Muscle And Liver Tissue Samples From Brazilian Amazon Fish Using Slurry Sampling, João Vitor de Queiroz, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Izabela da Cunha Bataglioli, Alis Correia Bittarello, Camila Pereira Braga, Grasieli de Oliveira, Cilene do Carmo Federici Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães Padilha 2018 São Paulo State University

Total Mercury Determination In Muscle And Liver Tissue Samples From Brazilian Amazon Fish Using Slurry Sampling, João Vitor De Queiroz, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Izabela Da Cunha Bataglioli, Alis Correia Bittarello, Camila Pereira Braga, Grasieli De Oliveira, Cilene Do Carmo Federici Padilha, Pedro De Magalhães Padilha

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

This paper presents a slurry sampling method for total mercury determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) in tissue of fish from the Amazon. The tissue samples were lyophilized and macerated, and then the slurry samples were prepared by putting 20 mg of tissue, added to a solution containing Triton X-100, Suprapur HNO3, and zirconium nitrate directly in sampling vials of a spectrometer. Mercury standard solutions were prepared under the same conditions as the slurry samples. The slurry samples and the mercury standard solutions were sonicated for 20 s. Twenty microliters of slurry samples were injected into the ...


Cancerdiscover: An Integrative Pipeline For Cancer Biomarker And Cancer Class Prediction From High-Throughput Sequencing Data, Akram Mohammed, Greyson Biegert, Jiri Adamec, Tomáš Helikar 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cancerdiscover: An Integrative Pipeline For Cancer Biomarker And Cancer Class Prediction From High-Throughput Sequencing Data, Akram Mohammed, Greyson Biegert, Jiri Adamec, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Accurate identification of cancer biomarkers and classification of cancer type and subtype from High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) data is a challenging problem because it requires manual processing of raw HTS data from various sequencing platforms, quality control, and normalization, which are both tedious and timeconsuming. Machine learning techniques for cancer class prediction and biomarker discovery can hasten cancer detection and significantly improve prognosis. To date, great research efforts have been taken for cancer biomarker identification and cancer class prediction. However, currently available tools and pipelines lack flexibility in data preprocessing, running multiple feature selection methods and learning algorithms, therefore, developing ...


Differential Effects Of Sodium And Magnesium Sulfate On Water Consumption By Beef Cattle, A. S. Grout, D. M. Veira, D. M. Weary, M. A. G. von Keyserlingk, D. Fraser 2017 University of British Columbia

Differential Effects Of Sodium And Magnesium Sulfate On Water Consumption By Beef Cattle, A. S. Grout, D. M. Veira, D. M. Weary, M. A. G. Von Keyserlingk, D. Fraser

David Fraser, Ph.D.

The existing guidelines for maximum sulfate (SO4) in cattle drinking water are based on Na2SO4, although many water sources contain greater concentrations of MgSO4. Two experiments compared the effect of different SO4 salts on water consumption and fecal DM of cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 yearling heifers (initial BW = 345 ± 8 kg; mean ± SD) were watered twice daily with tapwater or water containing Na2SO4 or MgSO4 at target levels of 1,500, 3,000, or 4,500 mg of SO4/L for 2-d treatment periods separated by 2 d of access to tapwater. In Exp. 2, 16 yearling cattle (initial ...


Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose McGlauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel 2017 University of Iowa

Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose Mcglauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood.

Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo.

Methods and Results: Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter. This is associated with increased palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation ...


Purification From Human Milk Of Matriptase Complexes With Secreted Serpins: Mechanism For Inhibition Of Matriptase Other Than Hai-1, I-Chu Tseng, Feng-Pai Chou, Sheng-Feng Su, Michael Oberst, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Ming-Shyue Lee, Jehng-Kang Wang, David E. Sloane, Michael Johnson, Chen-Yong Lin 2017 University of Maryland at Baltimore

Purification From Human Milk Of Matriptase Complexes With Secreted Serpins: Mechanism For Inhibition Of Matriptase Other Than Hai-1, I-Chu Tseng, Feng-Pai Chou, Sheng-Feng Su, Michael Oberst, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Ming-Shyue Lee, Jehng-Kang Wang, David E. Sloane, Michael Johnson, Chen-Yong Lin

Michael C. Johnson

Matriptase, a type 2 transmembrane serine protease, is predominately expressed by epithelial and carcinoma cells in which hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 1 (HAI-1), a membrane-bound, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, is also expressed. HAI-1 plays dual roles in the regulation of matriptase, as a conventional protease inhibitor and as a factor required for zymogen activation of matriptase. As a consequence, activation of matriptase is immediately followed by HAI-1-mediated inhibition, with the activated matriptase being sequestered into HAI-1 complexes. Matriptase is also expressed by peripheral blood leukocytes, such as monocytes and macrophages; however, in contrast to epithelial cells, monocytes and macrophages ...


Ydj1 Governs Fungal Morphogenesis And Stress Response, And Facilitates Mitochondrial Protein Import Via Mas1 And Mas2, Jinglin L. Xie, Iryna Bohovych, Erin O.Y. Wong, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Anne-Claude Gingras, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Leah E. Cowen, Michelle D. Leach 2017 University of Aberdeen

Ydj1 Governs Fungal Morphogenesis And Stress Response, And Facilitates Mitochondrial Protein Import Via Mas1 And Mas2, Jinglin L. Xie, Iryna Bohovych, Erin O.Y. Wong, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Anne-Claude Gingras, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Leah E. Cowen, Michelle D. Leach

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mitochondria underpin metabolism, bioenergetics, signalling, development and cell death in eukaryotes. Most of the ~1,000 yeast mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and synthesised as precursors in the cytosol, with mitochondrial import facilitated by molecular chaperones. Here, we focus on the Hsp40 chaperone Ydj1 in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, finding that it is localised to both the cytosol and outer mitochondrial membrane, and is required for cellular stress responses and for filamentation, a key virulence trait. Mapping the Ydj1 protein interaction network highlighted connections with co-chaperones and regulators of filamentation. Furthermore, the mitochondrial processing peptidases Mas1 and ...


Identification Of Potential Tissue-Specific Cancer Biomarkers And Development Of Cancer Versus Normal Genomic Classifiers, Akram Mohammed, Greyson Biegert, Jiri Adamec, Tomáš Helikar 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Identification Of Potential Tissue-Specific Cancer Biomarkers And Development Of Cancer Versus Normal Genomic Classifiers, Akram Mohammed, Greyson Biegert, Jiri Adamec, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Machine learning techniques for cancer prediction and biomarker discovery can hasten cancer detection and significantly improve prognosis. Recent “OMICS” studies which include a variety of cancer and normal tissue samples along with machine learning approaches have the potential to further accelerate such discovery. To demonstrate this potential, 2,175 gene expression samples from nine tissue types were obtained to identify gene sets whose expression is characteristic of each cancer class. Using random forests classification and ten-fold cross-validation, we developed nine single-tissue classifiers, two multi-tissue cancer-versus-normal classifiers, and one multi-tissue normal classifier. Given a sample of a specified tissue type, the ...


Modulation Of The Heme Electronic Structure And Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity By Second Coordination Sphere Ligands: The Role Of Heme Ligand Switching In Redox Regulation, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Jay Stasser, Colin L. Weeks, Donald Becker, Thomas G. Spiro, James Penner-Hahn, Ruma Banerjee 2017 The University Of Michigan

Modulation Of The Heme Electronic Structure And Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity By Second Coordination Sphere Ligands: The Role Of Heme Ligand Switching In Redox Regulation, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Jay Stasser, Colin L. Weeks, Donald Becker, Thomas G. Spiro, James Penner-Hahn, Ruma Banerjee

Colin L. Weeks

In humans, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a hemeprotein, which catalyzes a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent condensation reaction. Changes in the heme environment are communicated to the active site, which is ~20 Å away. In this study, we have examined the role of H67 and R266, which are in the second coordination sphere of the heme ligands, H65 and C52 respectively, in modulating the heme's electronic properties and in transmitting information between the heme and active sites. While the H67A mutation is comparable to wild-type CBS, interesting differences are revealed by mutations at the R266 site. The pathogenic mutant, R266K ...


Heme Regulation Of Human Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity: Insights From Fluorescence And Raman Spectroscopy, Colin L. Weeks, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Ruma Banerjee, Thomas G. Spiro 2017 University of Washington

Heme Regulation Of Human Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity: Insights From Fluorescence And Raman Spectroscopy, Colin L. Weeks, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Ruma Banerjee, Thomas G. Spiro

Colin L. Weeks

Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) plays a central role in cysteine metabolism, and malfunction of the enzyme leads to homocystinuria, a devastating metabolic disease. CBS contains a pyridoxal 5′- phosphate (PLP) cofactor which catalyzes the synthesis of cystathionine from homocysteine and serine. Mammalian forms of the enzyme also contain a heme group, which is not involved in catalysis. It may, however, play a regulatory role, since the enzyme is inhibited when CO or NO are bound to the heme. We have investigated the mechanism of this inhibition using fluorescence and resonance Raman spectroscopies. CO binding is found to induce a tautomeric shift ...


Dietary Phytochemicals As Inhibitors Of Primary Amine Oxidase, Padraig Shanahan, Jeffrey O'Sullivan, Keith F. Tipton, Gemma Kinsella, Barry J. Ryan, Gary T. Henehan 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology

Dietary Phytochemicals As Inhibitors Of Primary Amine Oxidase, Padraig Shanahan, Jeffrey O'Sullivan, Keith F. Tipton, Gemma Kinsella, Barry J. Ryan, Gary T. Henehan

Articles

Phytochemicals such as methylxanthines, catechins and polyphenols show health benefits in a range of diseases although their mechanism of action is not fully understood. Primary Amine Oxidase (PrAO) is widely recognised as a therapeutic drug target for the treatment of inflammatory, vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous work in our laboratories showed that caffeine inhibited bovine PrAO activity with a Ki of 1.0mM. In the present study we examined a range of methylxanthines and catechins as inhibitors of bovine PrAO. The methylxanthines tested were caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, theobromine and 7-methylxanthine. Of these, only theobromine was an inhibitor with an IC50 ...


Metalloproteases Of The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Roman M. Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Metalloproteases Of The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Roman M. Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The inner mitochondrial membrane (IM) is among most protein-rich cellular compartments. The metastable IM sub-proteome where the concentration of proteins is approaching oversaturation creates a challenging protein folding environment with high probability for protein malfunction or aggregation. Failure to maintain protein homeostasis in such a setting can impair functional integrity of the mitochondria and drive clinical manifestations. The IM is equipped with a series of highly conserved, proteolytic complexes dedicated to the maintenance of normal protein homeostasis within this mitochondrial sub-compartment. Particularly important is a group of membrane-anchored metallopeptidases commonly known as m-AAA and i-AAA proteases, and the ATP-independent Oma1 ...


The Role Of Interactions Of Long Non-Coding Rnas And Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins In Regulating Cellular Functions, Xinghui Sun, Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen Haider Ali, Matthew Moran 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Role Of Interactions Of Long Non-Coding Rnas And Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins In Regulating Cellular Functions, Xinghui Sun, Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen Haider Ali, Matthew Moran

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of various biological processes and human diseases. The mechanisms of action involve their interactions with proteins, RNA and genomic DNA. Most lncRNAs display strong nuclear localization. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a large family of RNA-binding proteins that are important for multiple aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. hnRNPs are also predominantly expressed in the nucleus. This review discusses the interactions of lncRNAs and hnRNPs in regulating gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels or by changing genomic structure, highlighting their involvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, immune response, DNA damage response ...


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