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In Silico Identification Of Potential Inhibitors Of The Sars‑Cov‑2 Nucleocapsid Through Molecular Docking‑Based Drug Repurposing, Rukhsar Afreen, Saleem Iqbal, Ab Rauf Shah, Heena Afreen, Maitreyi College, Mohd. Shkir 2022 University of Delhi

In Silico Identification Of Potential Inhibitors Of The Sars‑Cov‑2 Nucleocapsid Through Molecular Docking‑Based Drug Repurposing, Rukhsar Afreen, Saleem Iqbal, Ab Rauf Shah, Heena Afreen, Maitreyi College, Mohd. Shkir

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and its effects on people worldwide continue to grow. Protein-targeted therapeutics are currently unavailable for this virus. As with other coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most conserved RNA-binding structural protein of SARS-CoV-2. The N protein is an appealing target because of its functional role in viral transcription and replication. Therefore, molecular docking method for structure-based drug design was used to investigate the binding energy and binding modes of various anti-N inhibitors in depth. The inhibitors selected were originally developed to target stress granules and other molecules involved in RNA ...


Design, Synthesis, And Analysis Of Paired Coiled-Coil Peptidic Molecular Building Blocks Used For Linearly Controlled Self-Assembly Of Α-Helical Coiled-Coil Heterodimer Peptide Pairs, Jason DiStefano 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Design, Synthesis, And Analysis Of Paired Coiled-Coil Peptidic Molecular Building Blocks Used For Linearly Controlled Self-Assembly Of Α-Helical Coiled-Coil Heterodimer Peptide Pairs, Jason Distefano

Chemistry Theses

Molecular building blocks are fundamental to biological synthesis and processes and have been utilized in advanced materials, drugs and drug delivery systems, and biotechnology. Proteins have been used as molecular building blocks for the construction of complex, well-ordered structures. Coiled-coil protein domains are essential subunits used for the oligomerization of protein complexes, gene expression, and structural elements of biological materials. The synthesis and assembly of proteins utilizing coiled-coil motifs are of great scientific interest due to their potential applications in disease treatment, biomechanical motors, nanoscale delivery systems, etc. However, assembling protein complexes with specific morphology is still challenging because the ...


Als-Associated Kif5a Mutations Abolish Autoinhibition Resulting In A Toxic Gain Of Function, Desiree M. Barron, Adam R. Fenton, Sara Saez-Atienzar, Anthony Giampetruzzi, Aparna Sreeram, Shankaracharya, Pamela J. Keagle, Victoria R. Doocy, Nathan J. Smith, Eric W. Danielson, Megan Andresano, Mary C. McCormack, Jaqueline Garcia, Valérie Bercier, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Jonathan R. Brent, Claudia Fallini, Brian J. Traynor, Erica L.F. Holzbaur, John E. Landers 2022 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Als-Associated Kif5a Mutations Abolish Autoinhibition Resulting In A Toxic Gain Of Function, Desiree M. Barron, Adam R. Fenton, Sara Saez-Atienzar, Anthony Giampetruzzi, Aparna Sreeram, Shankaracharya, Pamela J. Keagle, Victoria R. Doocy, Nathan J. Smith, Eric W. Danielson, Megan Andresano, Mary C. Mccormack, Jaqueline Garcia, Valérie Bercier, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Jonathan R. Brent, Claudia Fallini, Brian J. Traynor, Erica L.F. Holzbaur, John E. Landers

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Understandingthepathogenicmechanismsof diseasemutations is critical toadvancingtreatments.ALS-associated mutations in the gene encoding the microtubulemotor KIF5A result in skipping of exon 27 (KIF5ADExon27) and the encoding of a protein with a novel 39 amino acid residue C-terminal sequence. Here, we report that expression of ALS-linked mutant KIF5A results in dysregulated motor activity, cellular mislocalization, altered axonal transport, and decreased neuronal survival. Single-molecule analysis revealed that the altered C terminus of mutant KIF5A results in a constitutively active state. Furthermore,mutant KIF5A possesses altered protein and RNA interactions and its expression results in altered gene expression/splicing. Taken together, our data support the ...


Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease Inhibitors Repurposed For Hiv-1 Protease Binding, Jacob Minkkinen 2022 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease Inhibitors Repurposed For Hiv-1 Protease Binding, Jacob Minkkinen

CSBSJU Distinguished Thesis

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) led to the COVID-19 global pandemic, with over 460 million cases of infection and over 6 million deaths since the start of the pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is a retrovirus that utilizes a main protease (Mpro). Mpro is a catalytic cys/his protease. Several treatments were proposed to stop the pandemic including repurposing drugs to inhibit the Mpro. Another retrovirus that uses a protease is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) which has been a global epidemic for 40 years and is a devastating disease that attacks the immune system. HIV-1 has infected 79.5 million people and has ...


The Development Of Inhibitors For Sars-Cov-2 Orf8, My Thanh Thao Nguyen 2022 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

The Development Of Inhibitors For Sars-Cov-2 Orf8, My Thanh Thao Nguyen

CSBSJU Distinguished Thesis

An unexpected outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 caused a worldwide pandemic in 2020. Many repurposed drugs were tested, but there are currently only three FDA approved antivirals (Merck’s antiviral Molnupiravir, Pfizer’s antiviral Paxlovid, and Remdisivir).1 Most of the antiviral drugs tested SARS-CoV-2 main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. However, it is important to explore different drug targets of SARS-CoV-2 to prepare for the virus mutations of the future. This research looks at an alternative approach in which SARSCoV- 2 Open Reading Frame 8 (ORF8), which has been shown to be a rapidly evolving hypervariable gene, was chosen to be ...


Conformational Flexibility And Local Frustration In The Functional States Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike B.1.1.7 And B.1.351 Variants: Mutation-Induced Allosteric Modulation Mechanism Of Functional Dynamics And Protein Stability, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2022 Chapman University

Conformational Flexibility And Local Frustration In The Functional States Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike B.1.1.7 And B.1.351 Variants: Mutation-Induced Allosteric Modulation Mechanism Of Functional Dynamics And Protein Stability, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Structural and functional studies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins have recently determined distinct functional states of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 spike variants, providing a molecular framework for understanding the mechanisms that link the effect of mutations with the enhanced virus infectivity and transmissibility. A detailed dynamic and energetic analysis of these variants was undertaken in the present work to quantify the effects of different mutations on functional conformational changes and stability of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We employed the efficient and accurate coarse-grained (CG) simulations of multiple functional states of the D614G mutant, B.1 ...


3d Bioprinted Structures From Cells Of Non-Epithelial Mesodermal And Endodermal Lineage Using A Custom Accessible 3d Bioprinting Platform, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Annette Berkin, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno 2022 Old Dominion University

3d Bioprinted Structures From Cells Of Non-Epithelial Mesodermal And Endodermal Lineage Using A Custom Accessible 3d Bioprinting Platform, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Annette Berkin, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno

College of Engineering & Technology (Batten) Posters

Prior work within our lab has demonstrated the ability to print both murine and human mammary organoids and tumoroids in vitro that can also be reliably transplanted into a murine host for translational studies. Peripherally, this bioprinting system has also been used for 3D printing neurons, stem cells, cancer cells, and a primary cell line rich with fibroblasts, but each of these efforts were with cells of ectodermal lineage. Thus, the system's capacity for use on cells of other origins had been untested. To address this, we have now developed protocols for cells of endodermal and non-epithelial mesodermal/mesenchymal ...


The Role Of Irf-1 In Spontaneous Mouse Glioma, Aakash B. Vaidya 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Role Of Irf-1 In Spontaneous Mouse Glioma, Aakash B. Vaidya

Theses and Dissertations

Glioblastoma Multiforme has been shown to be one of the deadliest primary brain cancers. One of the reasons why GBM is so deadly, is a unique immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that promotes GBM growth and progression. Both astrocyte and microglia have been implicated in immunosuppression. In this study, we explored the role of Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1) in astrocytes and glioma cells on the growth of spontaneous glioma tumors. IRF-1 is regulated by the JAK/STAT pathway and induces expression of Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). PD-L1 downregulates immune responses to glioma. We found that IRF-1 had no effect on ...


Functional Foods: Promising Therapeutics For Nigerian Children With Sickle Cell Diseases, Oladeji John Alabi, Fikayo Noah Adegboyega, Dolapo Samuel Olawoyin, Oluwakemi Arinola Babatunde 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Functional Foods: Promising Therapeutics For Nigerian Children With Sickle Cell Diseases, Oladeji John Alabi, Fikayo Noah Adegboyega, Dolapo Samuel Olawoyin, Oluwakemi Arinola Babatunde

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Sickle cell disease (SCD), also known as sickle cell anemia (SCA) is one of the structural hemoglobinopathies that occurs due to a single nucleotide mutation from GAG to GTG, which changes the amino acid of a β-globin chain of hemoglobin (Hb) from glutamate to valine. This singular mutation results to disorderliness in red blood cells (RBCs) with advent of changes in RBC morphology and other pathological conditions. In the 1980s, intermittent red blood cell transfusions, opioids, and penicillin prophylaxis were the only available therapy for SCA and were commonly reserved for acute, life threatening complications. So far, the US Food ...


Building Digital Twins Of The Human Immune System: Toward A Roadmap, Reinhard Laubenbacher, Anna Niarakis, Tomas Helikar, G. An, B. Shapiro, R. S. Malik-Sheriff, T. J. Sego, P. Macklin, J. A. Glazier 2022 University of Florida

Building Digital Twins Of The Human Immune System: Toward A Roadmap, Reinhard Laubenbacher, Anna Niarakis, Tomas Helikar, G. An, B. Shapiro, R. S. Malik-Sheriff, T. J. Sego, P. Macklin, J. A. Glazier

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Digital twins, customized simulation models pioneered in industry, are beginning to be deployed in medicine and healthcare, with some major successes, for instance in cardiovascular diagnostics and in insulin pump control. Personalized computational models are also assisting in applications ranging from drug development to treatment optimization. More advanced medical digital twins will be essential to making precision medicine a reality. Because the immune system plays an important role in such a wide range of diseases and health conditions, from fighting pathogens to autoimmune disorders, digital twins of the immune system will have an especially high impact. However, their development presents ...


Fish Oil Intake During Gestation And Lactation Attenuated Stz-Induced Diabetes Inmale Offspring Via Activation Of Brown Fat And Modulating Oxylipin Profile, Rong Fan, Shalom Thomas, Mikyoung You, Zhuoheng Li, Brandt Bessell, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Tomáš Helikar, Zhenhua Liu, Soonkyu Chung 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Fish Oil Intake During Gestation And Lactation Attenuated Stz-Induced Diabetes Inmale Offspring Via Activation Of Brown Fat And Modulating Oxylipin Profile, Rong Fan, Shalom Thomas, Mikyoung You, Zhuoheng Li, Brandt Bessell, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Tomáš Helikar, Zhenhua Liu, Soonkyu Chung

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Fish oil (FO) has been demonstrated to activate brown thermogenesis and attenuate inflammation in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). Previously, we have reported thatmaternal FO supplementation promotes BAT activity of the weaned mice pups. However, whether maternal FO intake could confer sustainable metabolic benefits to offspring remains uncovered. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the differential impact of maternal FO during pregnancy versus lactation on BAT transcriptome and evaluate the role of bioactive lipid metabolites derived from maternal FO supplementation on the extended metabolic benefits of older pups in the context of type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Conclusions: Our results suggested ...


The Application Of Mathematical Optimization And Flavor-Detection Technologies For Modeling Aroma Of Hops, Yutong Liu 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Application Of Mathematical Optimization And Flavor-Detection Technologies For Modeling Aroma Of Hops, Yutong Liu

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

In recent years, proprietary hops (Citra, Simcoe, and Mosaic) become the most sought-after hops among brewers due to their excellent aroma. However, they are restricted to the owners unless other growers purchase the costly licensing agreements. Many public hops are available to the growers without any additional costs, but their aroma is difficult to match to the proprietary hops. Although proprietary and public hop varieties are unique in their aroma profiles, all hops varieties contain similar volatile compounds, merely differ in the quantity of different individual compounds. The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the feasibility of matching ...


Binding Affinity And Interaction Of Sars-Cov-2 Epitopes With Major Histocompatibility Complex, Sareena Kandavalli, James Stewart, Mohammed A. Halim 2021 Kennesaw State University

Binding Affinity And Interaction Of Sars-Cov-2 Epitopes With Major Histocompatibility Complex, Sareena Kandavalli, James Stewart, Mohammed A. Halim

Symposium of Student Scholars

SARS CoV-2 has been affecting the world since 2019. It caused 245 million cases of infection and around 5 million deaths worldwide. The most important strategies for the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are inactivated or weakened virus, replicating or non-replicating viral vector-based approaches, DNA, RNA, virus particle like approaches and epitope-based approaches. The epitope-based approach is rapid, accurate, cost-effective, and reliable against pathogens. By presenting epitopes (antigen peptides) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), also recognized as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system in humans, plays an essential role in triggering T-cell immune responses. The focus ...


Computational Simulation Of The Lung Doses Of Air-Borne Fine And Ultrafine Particles Inhaled By Humans At Industrial Workplaces, Mohammed Ali 2021 The University of Texas at Tyler

Computational Simulation Of The Lung Doses Of Air-Borne Fine And Ultrafine Particles Inhaled By Humans At Industrial Workplaces, Mohammed Ali

Technology Faculty Publications and Presentations

This study correlates computational predictions with in-vivo experimental results of inhaled fine and ultrafine particulate matters (PMs) transport, dissemination, and deposition in the human respiratory airways. Epidemiological studies suggest that workplace exposure of anthropogenic pollutant PMs as a risk factor for increased susceptibility to acute broncho-pulmonary infections. However, investigations on detailed human inhalation and PM transport processes are restrictive from time, cost, and ethical perspectives. To overcome this problem, computational simulation of particle deposition based on the Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model was employed. Here, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of PMs of carbon black and nanoparticles from ...


Purification And Initial Biochemical Characterization Of Atp:Cob(I)Alamin Adenosyltransferase (Eutt) Enzyme Of Salmonella Enterica, Nicole R. Buan, Jorge C. Escalante-Semerena 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Purification And Initial Biochemical Characterization Of Atp:Cob(I)Alamin Adenosyltransferase (Eutt) Enzyme Of Salmonella Enterica, Nicole R. Buan, Jorge C. Escalante-Semerena

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (EutT) of Salmonella enterica was overproduced and enriched to ~70% homogeneity, and its basic kinetic parameters were determined. Abundant amounts of EutT protein were produced, but all of it remained insoluble. Soluble active EutT protein (~70% homogeneous) was obtained after treatment with detergent. Under conditions in which cobalamin (Cbl) was saturating, Km(ATP) = 10 μM, kcat = 0.03 s1, and Vmax = 54.5 nM min1. Similarly, under conditions in which MgATPwas saturating,Km(Cbl)= 4.1μM, kcat = 0.06 s1, andVmax= 105 nM min1 ...


Oxidation Alters The Architecture Of The Phenylalanyl-Trna Synthetase Editing Domain To Confer Hyperaccuracy, Pooja Srinivas, Rebecca E. Steiner, Ian J. Pavelich, Ricardo Guerrera-Ferreira, Puneet Juneja, Michael Ibba, Christine M. Dunham 2021 Emory University

Oxidation Alters The Architecture Of The Phenylalanyl-Trna Synthetase Editing Domain To Confer Hyperaccuracy, Pooja Srinivas, Rebecca E. Steiner, Ian J. Pavelich, Ricardo Guerrera-Ferreira, Puneet Juneja, Michael Ibba, Christine M. Dunham

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

High fidelity during protein synthesis is accomplished by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). These enzymes ligate an amino acid to a cognate tRNA and have proofreading and editing capabilities that ensure high fidelity. Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) preferentially ligates a phenylalanine to a tRNAPhe over the chemically similar tyrosine, which differs from phenylalanine by a single hydroxyl group. In bacteria that undergo exposure to oxidative stress such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, tyrosine isomer levels increase due to phenylalanine oxidation. Several residues are oxidized in PheRS and contribute to hyperactive editing, including against mischarged Tyr-tRNAPhe, despite these oxidized residues not being ...


Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade

Protocols and Reports

Senescence, from the shortening of telomeres, accumulation of mutations, epigenetic hypomethylation, and other causes, begins an eventual cycle of decline in every patient. Stem cells disappear as a function of age, which in turn impairs cellular replication. Moreover, when fully differentiated cells are induced back into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they not only revert to a state of pre-differentiation, but also to a younger cellular age. Their aging clocks turn back: their telomeres become longer and DNA methylation reverts back to an earlier age. It should therefore be possible to use iPSCs to replace the missing stem cells from ...


Conformation Of The Protein-Free Spliceosomal U2-U6 Snrna Complex And Remodeling By Mg2+ And Proteins, Huong Chu 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Conformation Of The Protein-Free Spliceosomal U2-U6 Snrna Complex And Remodeling By Mg2+ And Proteins, Huong Chu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Splicing of precursor messenger RNA is an essential process in eukaryotes in which the non-coding regions (introns) are removed and coding regions (exons) ligated together to form a mature mRNA. This process is catalyzed by a multi-mega Dalton ribonucleoprotein complex called the spliceosome, which is assembled from five small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNP) in the form of RNA-protein complexes (U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6) and hundreds of proteins. U2 and U6 small nuclear (sn)RNAs are the only snRNAs directly implicated in catalyzing the splicing of pre-mRNA, but assembly and rearrangement steps prior to catalysis require numerous proteins. Previous studies ...


A Multi-Approach And Multi-Scale Platform To Model Cd4+ T Cells Responding To Infections, Kenneth Y. Wertheim, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Alyssa La Fleur, Ab Rauf Shah, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Multi-Approach And Multi-Scale Platform To Model Cd4+ T Cells Responding To Infections, Kenneth Y. Wertheim, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Alyssa La Fleur, Ab Rauf Shah, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Immune responses rely on a complex adaptive system in which the body and infections interact at multiple scales and in different compartments. We developed a modular model of CD4+ T cells, which uses four modeling approaches to integrate processes at three spatial scales in different tissues. In each cell, signal transduction and gene regulation are described by a logical model, metabolism by constraint-based models. Cell population dynamics are described by an agent-based model and systemic cytokine concentrations by ordinary differential equations. A Monte Carlo simulation algorithm allows information to flow efficiently between the four modules by separating the time scales ...


Toward Sustainable Production Of Value-Added Bioenergy And Industrial Oils In Oilseed And Biomass Feedstocks, Kiyoul Park, Sanju A. Sanjaya, Truyen Quach, Edgar B. Cahoon 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Toward Sustainable Production Of Value-Added Bioenergy And Industrial Oils In Oilseed And Biomass Feedstocks, Kiyoul Park, Sanju A. Sanjaya, Truyen Quach, Edgar B. Cahoon

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Plant fatty acids are used for food, feed, fuel, and industrial materials. Structurally and chemically diverse fatty acids, referred to as unusual or specialized fatty acids, are found in the seed oils of diverse plant species. Many unusual fatty acids have potential use as alternative and renewable sources of biofuels and bio-based industrial feedstocks due to their variant structures' physical or functional properties. Oils enriched in these fatty acids can increase the value of oilseed crops and provide co-products that can be readily extracted from lignocellulosic materials in biomass crops. Here, we describe recent progress on strategies for enhancement of ...


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