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Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies Of The Oligomeric State And Quaternary Structure Of The Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (Puta) Flavoprotein From Escherichia Coli, Ranjan K. Singh, John D. Larson, Weidong Zhu, Robert P. Rambo, Greg L. Hura, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner 2016 University of Missouri-Columbia

Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies Of The Oligomeric State And Quaternary Structure Of The Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (Puta) Flavoprotein From Escherichia Coli, Ranjan K. Singh, John D. Larson, Weidong Zhu, Robert P. Rambo, Greg L. Hura, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Trifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) proteins are multifunctional flavoproteins that catalyze two reactions and repress transcription of the put regulon.

Results: PutA from Escherichia coli is a V-shaped dimer, with the DNA-binding domain mediating dimerization.

Conclusion: Oligomeric state and quaternary structures are not conserved by PutAs.

Significance: The first three-dimensional structural information for any trifunctional PutA is reported.


Assessment Of Calcein Dye Method To Observe Cell Volume Regulation, Danielle M. Precourt 2016 Buffalo State College

Assessment Of Calcein Dye Method To Observe Cell Volume Regulation, Danielle M. Precourt

Forensic Science Theses

Cell volume regulation (CVR) is a crucial mechanism for the maintenance of homeostasis of cells under significant osmotic challenges. When cells are swollen or shrunken in a non-isotonic medium they initiate a regulatory mechanism to restore to their initial volume. Swollen cells in a hypotonic solution show decreases in cell volume by releasing osmolytes and water, through a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) mechanism. On the contrary, shrunken cells in a hypertonic solution exhibit a regulatory volume increase (RVI) by up-taking osmolytes and water. The whole process of CVR is complicated and involves diverse cell sensory mechanisms of a volume change ...


Computational Investigations Into The Molecular Underpinnings Of Eyesight Signaling Pathways, Shaan Kamal 2016 University of Connecticut

Computational Investigations Into The Molecular Underpinnings Of Eyesight Signaling Pathways, Shaan Kamal

University Scholar Projects

Phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6) is a critical enzyme in the eyesight-signaling pathway. When activated, PDE6 hydrolyzes cGMP to GMP, which deactivates cGMP- gated ion channels, causing hyperpolarization of the cell and activating the sensory neurons responsible for vision. Within the PDE family, PDE6 is the only enzyme known to have an inhibitory subunit (PDE6-γ), which allows for the regulation of cGMP levels. When PDE6-γ is bound to PDE6, the enzyme is turned “off” and cannot catalyze cGMP. The α subunit of the G-protein transducin removes PDE6-γ and activates PDE6. PDE6 has proven problematic to isolate, making it difficult to study experimentally ...


Complex Non-Equilibrium Structural Dynamics In Globular Proteins, Xiaohu Hu 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Complex Non-Equilibrium Structural Dynamics In Globular Proteins, Xiaohu Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

Internal structural motions in proteins are essential to their functions. In this present dissertation, we present the results from an extensive set of molecular dynamics simulations of three very different globular proteins and demonstrate that the structural fluctuations observed are highly complex, manifesting in non-ergodic and self-similar subdiffusive dynamics with non-exponential relaxation behavior. The characteristic time of the motion observed at a given timescale is dependent on the length of the observation time, indicating an aging effect. By comparing the simulation results to the existing single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopic data on other globular proteins, we found the characteristic relaxation time for ...


Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are family of proteins that belong to a group of growth factors that are found in mammals and play an important role in angiogenesis, differentiation, organogenesis, and tissue repair. In summary, their main functionality is involved in cell division and proliferation. Because FGFs plays such a vital role in cell proliferation, they are mainly involved in the process of wound healing and injuries. FGF binds to its ligand, heparin—a heavily sulfated glycosaminoglycan. The binding of heparin to FGF occurs through electrostatic interactions, specifically between the negatively charged sulfate groups on heparin and positively charged residues ...


Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely 2016 University of Louisville

Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule that functions to facilitate bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 has also been reported to affect many aspects of human host cell physiology, including evoking cell death in various types of cells. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggerred cell death remains unclear. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in one or more caspases. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in cells, probably through the direct induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Previous ...


Effects Of Creatine, Leucine, And Ethanol On Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor In C2c12 Skeletal Muscle Cells, Daniel Waters 2016 Western Michigan University

Effects Of Creatine, Leucine, And Ethanol On Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor In C2c12 Skeletal Muscle Cells, Daniel Waters

Honors Theses

Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) is a protein expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system that serves several protective functions. Originally discovered in the brain, where it supports the survival of dopaminergic neurons, GDNF has since been shown to be expressed in skeletal muscle and is vital for the maintenance of motor neurons. The relationship between muscle hypertrophy, and GDNF is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hypertrophy and GDNF by inducing hypertrophy in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells using leucine and creatine, inhibiting hypertrophy using ethanol and measuring GDNF content. As measured ...


The Hmut Protein In The Heme Uptake Pathway Of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae, Cyrianne Sonia Keutcha 2016 Georgia State University

The Hmut Protein In The Heme Uptake Pathway Of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae, Cyrianne Sonia Keutcha

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Stabilin-1 And Stabilin-2 Are Specific Receptors For The Cellular Internalization Of Phosphorothioate-Modified Antisense Oligonucleotides (Asos) In The Liver, Colton M. Miller, Aaron J. Donnerr, Emma E. Blank, Andrew W. Egger, Brianna M. Kellar, Michael E. Østergaard, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris 2016 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

Stabilin-1 And Stabilin-2 Are Specific Receptors For The Cellular Internalization Of Phosphorothioate-Modified Antisense Oligonucleotides (Asos) In The Liver, Colton M. Miller, Aaron J. Donnerr, Emma E. Blank, Andrew W. Egger, Brianna M. Kellar, Michael E. Østergaard, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Phosphorothioate (PS)-modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) have been extensively investigated over the past three decades as pharmacological and therapeutic agents. One second generation ASO, KynamroTM, was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and over 35 second generation PS ASOs are at various stages of clinical development. In this report, we show that the Stabilin class of scavenger receptors, which were not previously thought to bind DNA, do bind and internalize PS ASOs. With the use of primary cells from mouse and rat livers and recombinant cell lines each expressing Stabilin-1 and each isoform ...


Important Interactions Promoting Recognition Of Peptide Ligands At The Binding Pocket Of The Pdz Signaling Domain Of Af6, Quy (Rita) L. Tat 2016 University of Colorado Boulder

Important Interactions Promoting Recognition Of Peptide Ligands At The Binding Pocket Of The Pdz Signaling Domain Of Af6, Quy (Rita) L. Tat

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Afadin (AF6) is a scaffolding protein involved in the formation of protein complexes at tight and adherens junctions. AF6 plays vital roles in many cellular processes, such as structural development, cellular organization, directional cell movement, and polarity. The PDZ domain participates in multiple signaling networks to initiate and maintain cellular polarity, to facilitate protein trafficking, and allow neuronal communications; thus, misregulated PDZ domain-dependent pathways can induce cells to become cancerous. AF6 interacts with many other proteins via its PDZ signaling domain and exhibits multimodal specificity.

The PDZ signaling domain of AF6 (AF6_PDZ) binds predominantly hydrophobic peptide ligands. A biological array ...


Contributions Of Sequence And Structure To Ligand Selectivity In Class Ii Cobalamin Riboswitches, Samantha M. Webster 2016 Student

Contributions Of Sequence And Structure To Ligand Selectivity In Class Ii Cobalamin Riboswitches, Samantha M. Webster

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Riboswitches are gene regulatory elements found in the 5’-untranslated region of many bacterial genes. The direct binding of small molecule ligands induces conformational changes in the RNA that influence downstream expression machinery and determine the transcription or translation of an attached gene. Cobalamin riboswitches, which bind coenzyme-B12 and other cobalamin variants, are divided into two distinct classes. Cbl-I riboswitches contain a large peripheral element that limits riboswitch binding to only coenzyme-B12 (adenosylcobalamin, or AdoCbl). Cbl-II riboswitches do not contain the same peripheral element, and were originally thought to only bind smaller species of cobalamin (including methylcobalamin, or ...


Alcoholic Vs Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver In Rats: Distinct Differences In Endocytosis And Vesicle Trafficking Despite Similar Pathology, Karuna Rasineni, Daniel D. Penrice, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Mark A. McNiven, Benita L. McVicker, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Carol A. Casey, Edward N. Harris 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Alcoholic Vs Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver In Rats: Distinct Differences In Endocytosis And Vesicle Trafficking Despite Similar Pathology, Karuna Rasineni, Daniel D. Penrice, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Mark A. Mcniven, Benita L. Mcvicker, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Carol A. Casey, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Non-alcoholic and alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and AFLD, respectively) are major health problems, as patients with either condition can progress to hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Although histologically similar, key differences likely exist in these two models. For example, altered content of several vesicle trafficking proteins have been identified in AFLD, but their content in NAFLD is unknown. In this study, we compared select parameters in NAFLD and AFLD in a rat model.

Methods: We fed either Lieber- DeCarli liquid control or alcohol-containing (35 % as calories) diet (AFLD model) or lean or high-fat (12 or 60 % derived from fat ...


Activation Of Erk And Nf-Κb During Hare-Mediated Heparin Uptake Require Only One Of The Four Endocytic Motifs, Madhu S. Pandey, Colton M. Miller, Edward N. Harris, Paul H. Weigel 2016 University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

Activation Of Erk And Nf-Κb During Hare-Mediated Heparin Uptake Require Only One Of The Four Endocytic Motifs, Madhu S. Pandey, Colton M. Miller, Edward N. Harris, Paul H. Weigel

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Fifteen different ligands, including heparin (Hep), are cleared from lymph and blood by the Hyaluronan (HA) Receptor for Endocytosis (HARE; derived from Stabilin-2 by proteolysis), which contains four endocytic motifs (M1-M4). Endocytosis of HARE•Hep complexes is targeted to coated pits by M1, M2, and M3 (Pandey et al, Int. J. Cell Biol. 2015, article ID 524707), which activates ERK1/2 and NF-κB (Pandey et al J. Biol. Chem. 288, 14068–79, 2013). Here, we used a NF-κB promoter-driven luciferase gene assay and cell lines expressing different HARE cytoplasmic domain mutants to identify motifs needed for Hepmediated signaling. Deletion of ...


Systems Perturbation Analysis Of A Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates For Cancer Therapeutics, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Laura Allen, Colleen Hochfelde, Mahbubul Majumder, Tomáš Helikar 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Systems Perturbation Analysis Of A Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates For Cancer Therapeutics, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Laura Allen, Colleen Hochfelde, Mahbubul Majumder, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Dysregulation in signal transduction pathways can lead to a variety of complex disorders, including cancer. Computational approaches such as network analysis are important tools to understand system dynamics as well as to identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Here, we performed perturbation analysis of a large-scale signal transduction model in extracellular environments that stimulate cell death, growth, motility, and quiescence. Each of the model's components was perturbed under both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations. Using 1,300 simulations under both types of perturbations across various extracellular conditions, we identified the most and least influential components ...


Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: Targeting Fatp2 As A Gatekeeper Involved In The Transport Of Exogenous Fatty Acids, Paul N. Black, Constance Ahowesso, David Montefusco, Nipun Saini, Concetta C. DiRusso 2016 University of Nebraska Lincoln

Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: Targeting Fatp2 As A Gatekeeper Involved In The Transport Of Exogenous Fatty Acids, Paul N. Black, Constance Ahowesso, David Montefusco, Nipun Saini, Concetta C. Dirusso

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The fatty acid transport proteins (FATP) are classified as members of the solute carrier 27 (Slc27) family of proteins based on their ability to function in the transport of exogenous fatty acids. These proteins, when localized to the plasma membrane or at intracellular membrane junctions with the endoplasmic reticulum, function as a gate in the regulated transport of fatty acids and thus represent a therapeutic target to delimit the acquisition of fatty acids that contribute to disease as in the case of fatty acid overload. To date, FATP1, FATP2, and FATP4 have been used as targets in the selection of ...


Cadmium And Secondary Structure-Dependent Function Of A Degron In The Pca1p Cadmium Exporter, Nathan Smith, Wenzhong Wel, Miaoyun Zhao, Xiaojuan Quin, Javier Seravalli, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cadmium And Secondary Structure-Dependent Function Of A Degron In The Pca1p Cadmium Exporter, Nathan Smith, Wenzhong Wel, Miaoyun Zhao, Xiaojuan Quin, Javier Seravalli, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Protein turnover is a critical cellular process regulating biochemical pathways and destroying terminally misfolded or damaged proteins. Pca1p, a cadmium exporter in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is rapidly degraded by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) system via a cis-acting degron that exists at the 250–350 amino acid region of Pca1p and is transferable to other proteins to serve as a degradation signal. Cadmium stabilizes Pca1p in a manner dependent on the degron. This suggested that cadmium-mediated masking of the degron impedes its interaction with the molecular factors involved in the ERAD. The characteristics and mechanisms of action of the ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Of Pca1p, A Polytopic Protein, Via Interaction With The Proteasome At The Membrane, Nathan Smith, David J. Adle, Miaoyun Zhao, Xiaojuan Quin, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Of Pca1p, A Polytopic Protein, Via Interaction With The Proteasome At The Membrane, Nathan Smith, David J. Adle, Miaoyun Zhao, Xiaojuan Quin, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) plays a critical role for destruction of terminally misfolded proteins at the secretory pathway. The system also regulates expression levels of several proteins such as Pca1p, a cadmium exporter in yeast. To gain better insight into the mechanisms underlying ERAD of Pca1p and other polytopic proteins by the proteasome in the cytosol, our study determined the roles for the molecular factors of ERAD in dislodging Pca1p from the ER. Inactivation of the 20S proteasome leads to accumulation of ubiquitinylated Pca1p in the ER membrane, suggesting a role for the proteasome in extraction of Pca1p from the ...


Atomic Resolution Experimental Phase Information Reveals Extensive Disorder And Bound 2-Methyl-2,4-Pentanediol In Ca2+-Calmodulin, Jiusheng Lin, Henry van den Bedem, Axel T. Brunger, Mark A. Wilson 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Atomic Resolution Experimental Phase Information Reveals Extensive Disorder And Bound 2-Methyl-2,4-Pentanediol In Ca2+-Calmodulin, Jiusheng Lin, Henry Van Den Bedem, Axel T. Brunger, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Calmodulin (CaM) is the primary calcium signaling protein in eukaryotes and has been extensively studied using various biophysical techniques. Prior crystal structures have noted the presence of ambiguous electron density in both hydrophobic binding pockets of Ca2+-CaM, but no assignment of these features has been made. In addition, Ca2+-CaM samples many conformational substates in the crystal and accurately modeling the full range of this functionally important disorder is challenging. In order to characterize these features in a minimally biased manner, a 1.0 A resolution single-wavelength anomalous diffraction data set was measured for selenomethionine-substituted Ca2 ...


Potassium And The K+/H+ Exchanger Kha1p Promote Binding Of Copper To Apofet3p Multi-Copper Ferroxidase, Xiaobin Wu, Heejeong Kim, Javier Seravalli, Joseph J. Barycki, P. John Hart, David W. Gohara, Enrico Di Cera, Won Hee Jung, Daniel J. Kosman, Jaekwon Lee 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Potassium And The K+/H+ Exchanger Kha1p Promote Binding Of Copper To Apofet3p Multi-Copper Ferroxidase, Xiaobin Wu, Heejeong Kim, Javier Seravalli, Joseph J. Barycki, P. John Hart, David W. Gohara, Enrico Di Cera, Won Hee Jung, Daniel J. Kosman, Jaekwon Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Acquisition and distribution of metal ions support a number of biological processes. Here we show that respiratory growth of and iron acquisition by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on potassium (K+) compartmentalization to the trans-Golgi network via Kha1p, a K+/H+ exchanger. K+ in the trans-Golgi network facilitates binding of copper to the Fet3p multi-copper ferroxidase. The effect of K+ is not dependent on stable binding with Fet3p or alteration of the characteristics of the secretory pathway. The data suggest that K+ acts as a chemical factor in Fet3p maturation, a role similar to that of cations in ...


Chloroplast Membrane Remodeling During Freezing Stress Is Accompanied By Cytoplasmic Acidification Activating Sensitive To Freezing 2, Allison C. Barnes, Christoph Benning, Rebecca Roston 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chloroplast Membrane Remodeling During Freezing Stress Is Accompanied By Cytoplasmic Acidification Activating Sensitive To Freezing 2, Allison C. Barnes, Christoph Benning, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Low temperature is a seasonal abiotic stress which restricts native plant ranges and crop distributions. Two types of low temperature stress can be distinguished: chilling and freezing. Much work has been done on the mechanisms by which chilling is sensed, but relatively little is known about how plants sense freezing. Recently, SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2 (SFR2) was identified as a protein which responds in a non-transcriptional manner to freezing. Here, we investigate the cellular conditions which allow SFR2 activation. Using a combination of isolated organelle, whole tissue and whole plant assays, we provide evidence that SFR2 is activated by changes ...


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