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Inquiry Into Perilipin-5a Expression In Triacylglycerol Rich Vs Normal Fed Mouse Tissue, Kobi Agyepong 2017 Otterbein University

Inquiry Into Perilipin-5a Expression In Triacylglycerol Rich Vs Normal Fed Mouse Tissue, Kobi Agyepong

Honors Thesis Projects

The steep rise in both childhood and adult obesity over the past three decades has moved to the forefront of public consciousness in recent years. This development has generated a marked increase in general health awareness and lifestyle changes for a vast number of individuals, most notably in the form of increased physical activity and diet alterations. The latter point is especially salient in a biochemical context, because of the myriad factors that can result in “fat accumulation”. Chief among these factors is the Perilipin 5A gene, (known as PLIN5A) which encodes the protein Perilipin 5A of the Perilipin family ...


The Effects Of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr) On The Pulmonary Surfactant And Lung Injury, Reza Khazaee 2017 University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr) On The Pulmonary Surfactant And Lung Injury, Reza Khazaee

Western Research Forum

The Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) on the Pulmonary Surfactant and Lung Injury

Khazaee R1, McCaig LA2, Hardy D1, Yamashita CM2, Veldhuizen, RAW2

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology1, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Lawson Health Research Institute2, London, ON, Canada

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as severe lung dysfunction that occurs after an insult to the lung such as an infection. The lung dysfunction in ARDS is due to alterations to surfactant, a lipid-protein mixture coats the inside of the lung and maintains the lungs’ ability to expand easily ...


Toxoplasma Dj-1 Regulates Organelle Secretion By A Direct Interaction With Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1, Matthew A. Child, Megan Garland 2017 Stanford University

Toxoplasma Dj-1 Regulates Organelle Secretion By A Direct Interaction With Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1, Matthew A. Child, Megan Garland

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Human DJ-1 is a highly conserved and yet functionally enigmatic protein associated with a heritable form of Parkinson’s disease. It has been suggested to be a redox-dependent regulatory scaffold, binding to proteins to modulate their function. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of the Toxoplasma orthologue Toxoplasma gondii DJ-1 (TgDJ-1) at 2.1-A resolution and show that it directly associates with calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1). The TgDJ-1 structure identifies an orthologously conserved arginine dyad that acts as a phospho-gatekeeper motif to control complex formation. We determined that the binding of TgDJ-1 to CDPK1 is sensitive to oxidation ...


Significant Enhancement Of Fatty Acid Composition In Seeds Of The Allohexaploid, Camelina Sativa, Using Crispr/Cas9 Gene Editing, Wen Zhi Jhang, Isabelle M. Henry, Peter G. Lynagh, Lucia Comai, Edgar B. Cahoon, Donald P. Weeks 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Significant Enhancement Of Fatty Acid Composition In Seeds Of The Allohexaploid, Camelina Sativa, Using Crispr/Cas9 Gene Editing, Wen Zhi Jhang, Isabelle M. Henry, Peter G. Lynagh, Lucia Comai, Edgar B. Cahoon, Donald P. Weeks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful and flexible tool for genome editing, and novel applications of this system are being developed rapidly. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the FAD2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the closely related emerging oil seed plant, Camelina sativa, with the goal of improving seed oil composition. We successfully obtained Camelina seeds in which oleic acid content was increased from 16% to over 50% of the fatty acid composition. These increases were associated with significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i.e. a decrease from ~16 ...


Oxidative Stress, Metabolomics Profiling, And Mechanism Of Local Anesthetic Induced Cell Death In Yeast, Cory Honsinger Thomas Boone, Ryan A. Grove, Dana Adamcova, Javier Seravalli, Jiri Adamec 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Oxidative Stress, Metabolomics Profiling, And Mechanism Of Local Anesthetic Induced Cell Death In Yeast, Cory Honsinger Thomas Boone, Ryan A. Grove, Dana Adamcova, Javier Seravalli, Jiri Adamec

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The World Health Organization designates lidocaine as an essential medicine in healthcare, greatly increasing the probability of human exposure. Its use has been associated with ROS generation and neurotoxicity. Physiological and metabolomic alterations, and genetics leading to the clinically observed adverse effects have not been temporally characterized. To study alterations that may lead to these undesirable effects, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on aerobic carbon sources to stationary phase was assessed over 6 h. Exposure of an LC50 dose of lidocaine, increased mitochondrial depolarization and ROS/RNS generation assessed using JC-1, ROS/RNS specific probes, and FACS. Intracellular calcium also increased ...


Alpha-Synuclein: Insight Into The Hallmark Of Parkinson's Disease As A Target For Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics And Therapeutics, Baggio A. Evangelista 2017 University of Central Florida

Alpha-Synuclein: Insight Into The Hallmark Of Parkinson's Disease As A Target For Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics And Therapeutics, Baggio A. Evangelista

Honors in the Major Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second-most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease. With 500,000 individuals currently living with Parkinson’s and nearly 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, this disease causes significant financial burden on the healthcare system - amassing to annual expenditures totaling 200 billion dollars; predicted to increase through 2050. The disease phenotype is characterized by a combination of a resting tremor, bradykinesia, muscular rigidity, and depression due to dopaminergic neuronal death in the midbrain. The cause of the neurotoxicity has been largely discussed, with strong evidence suggesting that the protein, alpha-Synuclein, is a key ...


Stability Of Peatland Carbon To Rising Temperatures, R. M. Wilson, A. M. Hopple, M. M. Tfaily, S. D. Sebestyen, C. W. Schadt, L. Pfeifer-Meister, Cassandra Medvedeff, K. J. McFarlane, J. E. Kostka, M. Kolton, R. K. Kolka, L. A. Kluber, Jason K. Keller, T. P. Guilderson, N. A. Griffiths, J. P. Chanton, S. D. Brigham, P. J. Hanson 2016 Florida State University

Stability Of Peatland Carbon To Rising Temperatures, R. M. Wilson, A. M. Hopple, M. M. Tfaily, S. D. Sebestyen, C. W. Schadt, L. Pfeifer-Meister, Cassandra Medvedeff, K. J. Mcfarlane, J. E. Kostka, M. Kolton, R. K. Kolka, L. A. Kluber, Jason K. Keller, T. P. Guilderson, N. A. Griffiths, J. P. Chanton, S. D. Brigham, P. J. Hanson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Peatlands contain one-third of soil carbon (C), mostly buried in deep, saturated anoxic zones (catotelm). The response of catotelm C to climate forcing is uncertain, because prior experiments have focused on surface warming. We show that deep peat heating of a 2 m-thick peat column results in an exponential increase in CH4 emissions. However, this response is due solely to surface processes and not degradation of catotelm peat. Incubations show that only the top 20–30 cm of peat from experimental plots have higher CH4 production rates at elevated temperatures. Radiocarbon analyses demonstrate that CH4 and CO2 are produced primarily ...


Expression Of Glycine-Rich Proteins Found In Salivary Glands Of The Lone Star Tick (Amblyomma Americanum) Using A Mammalian Cell Line, Annabelle Clark 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Expression Of Glycine-Rich Proteins Found In Salivary Glands Of The Lone Star Tick (Amblyomma Americanum) Using A Mammalian Cell Line, Annabelle Clark

Honors Theses

Ticks play an important ecological role as well as a growing role in human health and veterinary care. Ticks are hosts to a plethora of microbial pathogens that can be transferred during feeding to cause tick-borne diseases in humans and many animals. Ticks may in large part owe the success of the transfer of these pathogens between hosts to their complex saliva. The saliva secreted upon a tick’s attachment to a host serves the following, among other, functions: anti-hemostasis of the blood pool, preventing an inflammatory response at the bite site, and serving as a natural anti-microbial substance. An ...


Maintenance Of The Ph Gradient In The Gastric Mucus Layer., Owen Lewis 2016 The University Of Utah

Maintenance Of The Ph Gradient In The Gastric Mucus Layer., Owen Lewis

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Microfluidic Cantilever Detects Bacteria And Measures Their Susceptibility To Antibiotics In Small Confined Volumes, Hashem Etayash, M. F. Khan, Kamaljit Kaur, Thomas Thundat 2016 University of Alberta

Microfluidic Cantilever Detects Bacteria And Measures Their Susceptibility To Antibiotics In Small Confined Volumes, Hashem Etayash, M. F. Khan, Kamaljit Kaur, Thomas Thundat

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

In the fight against drug-resistant bacteria, accurate and high-throughput detection is essential. Here, a bimaterial microcantilever with an embedded microfluidic channel with internal surfaces chemically or physically functionalized with receptors selectively captures the bacteria passing through the channel. Bacterial adsorption inside the cantilever results in changes in the resonance frequency (mass) and cantilever deflection (adsorption stress). The excitation of trapped bacteria using infrared radiation (IR) causes the cantilever to deflect in proportion to the infrared absorption of the bacteria, providing a nanomechanical infrared spectrum for selective identification. We demonstrate the in situ detection and discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes at a ...


Structural Determinants Allowing Transferase Activity In Sensitive To Freezing 2, Classified As A Family I Glycosyl Hydrolase, Rebecca Roston, Kun Wang, Leslie A. Kuhn, Christoph Benning 2016 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

Structural Determinants Allowing Transferase Activity In Sensitive To Freezing 2, Classified As A Family I Glycosyl Hydrolase, Rebecca Roston, Kun Wang, Leslie A. Kuhn, Christoph Benning

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2 (SFR2) is classified as a glycosyl hydrolase, and by using glycosyltransferase activity, it modifies membrane lipids to promote freeze tolerance.

Results: Although the active site of SFR2 is identical to hydrolases, adjacent loop regions contribute to its transferase activity.

Conclusion: Transferase activity evolved by modifications external to the core catalytic site.

Significance: Defined structure-function relationships will inform engineering of transferases and freeze tolerance.


Sending Out An Sos: Mitochondria As A Signaling Hub, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk 2016 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

Sending Out An Sos: Mitochondria As A Signaling Hub, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Normal cellular physiology is critically dependent on numerous mitochondrial activities including energy conversion, cofactor and precursor metabolite synthesis, and regulation of ion and redox homeostasis. Advances in mitochondrial research during the last two decades provide solid evidence that these organelles are deeply integrated with the rest of the cell and multiple mechanisms are in place to monitor and communicate functional states of mitochondria. In many cases, however, the exact molecular nature of various mitochondria-to-cell communication pathways is only beginning to emerge. Here, we review various signals emitted by distressed or dysfunctional mitochondria and the stress-responsive pathways activated in response to ...


In Vitro Monitoring Of Time And Dose Dependent Cytotoxicity Of Aminated Nanoparticles Using Raman Spectroscopy, Esen Efeoglu, Alan Casey, Hugh Byrne 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

In Vitro Monitoring Of Time And Dose Dependent Cytotoxicity Of Aminated Nanoparticles Using Raman Spectroscopy, Esen Efeoglu, Alan Casey, Hugh Byrne

Articles

No abstract provided.


Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies Of The Oligomeric State And Quaternary Structure Of The Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (Puta) Flavoprotein From Escherichia Coli, Ranjan K. Singh, John D. Larson, Weidong Zhu, Robert P. Rambo, Greg L. Hura, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner 2016 University of Missouri-Columbia

Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies Of The Oligomeric State And Quaternary Structure Of The Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (Puta) Flavoprotein From Escherichia Coli, Ranjan K. Singh, John D. Larson, Weidong Zhu, Robert P. Rambo, Greg L. Hura, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Trifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) proteins are multifunctional flavoproteins that catalyze two reactions and repress transcription of the put regulon.

Results: PutA from Escherichia coli is a V-shaped dimer, with the DNA-binding domain mediating dimerization.

Conclusion: Oligomeric state and quaternary structures are not conserved by PutAs.

Significance: The first three-dimensional structural information for any trifunctional PutA is reported.


Computational Investigations Into The Molecular Underpinnings Of Eyesight Signaling Pathways, Shaan Kamal 2016 University of Connecticut

Computational Investigations Into The Molecular Underpinnings Of Eyesight Signaling Pathways, Shaan Kamal

University Scholar Projects

Phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6) is a critical enzyme in the eyesight-signaling pathway. When activated, PDE6 hydrolyzes cGMP to GMP, which deactivates cGMP- gated ion channels, causing hyperpolarization of the cell and activating the sensory neurons responsible for vision. Within the PDE family, PDE6 is the only enzyme known to have an inhibitory subunit (PDE6-γ), which allows for the regulation of cGMP levels. When PDE6-γ is bound to PDE6, the enzyme is turned “off” and cannot catalyze cGMP. The α subunit of the G-protein transducin removes PDE6-γ and activates PDE6. PDE6 has proven problematic to isolate, making it difficult to study experimentally ...


Complex Non-Equilibrium Structural Dynamics In Globular Proteins, Xiaohu Hu 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Complex Non-Equilibrium Structural Dynamics In Globular Proteins, Xiaohu Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

Internal structural motions in proteins are essential to their functions. In this present dissertation, we present the results from an extensive set of molecular dynamics simulations of three very different globular proteins and demonstrate that the structural fluctuations observed are highly complex, manifesting in non-ergodic and self-similar subdiffusive dynamics with non-exponential relaxation behavior. The characteristic time of the motion observed at a given timescale is dependent on the length of the observation time, indicating an aging effect. By comparing the simulation results to the existing single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopic data on other globular proteins, we found the characteristic relaxation time for ...


Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are family of proteins that belong to a group of growth factors that are found in mammals and play an important role in angiogenesis, differentiation, organogenesis, and tissue repair. In summary, their main functionality is involved in cell division and proliferation. Because FGFs plays such a vital role in cell proliferation, they are mainly involved in the process of wound healing and injuries. FGF binds to its ligand, heparin—a heavily sulfated glycosaminoglycan. The binding of heparin to FGF occurs through electrostatic interactions, specifically between the negatively charged sulfate groups on heparin and positively charged residues ...


Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely 2016 University of Louisville

Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule that functions to facilitate bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 has also been reported to affect many aspects of human host cell physiology, including evoking cell death in various types of cells. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggerred cell death remains unclear. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in one or more caspases. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in cells, probably through the direct induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Previous ...


Effects Of Creatine, Leucine, And Ethanol On Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor In C2c12 Skeletal Muscle Cells, Daniel Waters 2016 Western Michigan University

Effects Of Creatine, Leucine, And Ethanol On Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor In C2c12 Skeletal Muscle Cells, Daniel Waters

Honors Theses

Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) is a protein expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system that serves several protective functions. Originally discovered in the brain, where it supports the survival of dopaminergic neurons, GDNF has since been shown to be expressed in skeletal muscle and is vital for the maintenance of motor neurons. The relationship between muscle hypertrophy, and GDNF is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hypertrophy and GDNF by inducing hypertrophy in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells using leucine and creatine, inhibiting hypertrophy using ethanol and measuring GDNF content. As measured ...


The Hmut Protein In The Heme Uptake Pathway Of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae, Cyrianne Sonia Keutcha 2016 Georgia State University

The Hmut Protein In The Heme Uptake Pathway Of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae, Cyrianne Sonia Keutcha

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


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