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Rna World And The Development Of Rna Protocells, Benjamin C. Mayfield 2023 University of North Florida

Rna World And The Development Of Rna Protocells, Benjamin C. Mayfield

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Origins of life research, also known as pre-biotic chemistry or astrobiology, aims to unravel the mystery of the first cell’s origin on Earth. This interdisciplinary field encompasses biology, chemistry, and physics, with the primary goal of understanding the conditions necessary for life to emerge from abiotic environments. The RNA world hypothesis suggests that early life initially used RNA instead of DNA to store genomic information and for enzymatic functions. Protocells, membrane-bound entities with metabolic processes and self-replication capabilities, likely preceded the emergence of true cells. The challenges associated with RNA world is currently an active field of research. Advancements in …


Molecular Mechanisms Of Amyloid-Like Fibril Formation, Sharareh Jalali 2023 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Molecular Mechanisms Of Amyloid-Like Fibril Formation, Sharareh Jalali

Dissertations

Proteins play a critical role in living systems by performing most of the functions inside cells. The latter is determined by the protein's three-dimensional structure when it is folded in its native state. However, under pathological conditions, proteins can misfold and aggregate, accounting for the formation of highly ordered insoluble assemblies known as amyloid fibrils. These assemblies are associated with diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Strong evidence suggests that three mechanisms are critical for forming amyloid fibrils. These mechanisms are the nucleation of amyloid fibrils in solution (primary nucleation) as well as on the surface of existing fibrils (secondary nucleation) …


Exploring Topological Phonons In Different Length Scales: Microtubules And Acoustic Metamaterials, Ssu-Ying Chen 2023 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Exploring Topological Phonons In Different Length Scales: Microtubules And Acoustic Metamaterials, Ssu-Ying Chen

Dissertations

The topological concepts of electronic states have been extended to phononic systems, leading to the prediction of topological phonons in a variety of materials. These phonons play a crucial role in determining material properties such as thermal conductivity, thermoelectricity, superconductivity, and specific heat. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the role of topological phonons at different length scales.

Firstly, the acoustic resonator properties of tubulin proteins, which form microtubules, will be explored The microtubule has been proposed as an analog of a topological phononic insulator due to its unique properties. One key characteristic of topological materials is the …


A Quantitative Visualization Tool For The Assessment Of Mammographic Risky Dense Tissue Types, Margaret R. McCarthy 2023 University of Maine

A Quantitative Visualization Tool For The Assessment Of Mammographic Risky Dense Tissue Types, Margaret R. Mccarthy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second most occurring cancer type and is ranked fifth in terms of mortality. X-ray mammography is the most common methodology of breast imaging and can show radiographic signs of cancer, such as masses and calcifcations. From these mammograms, radiologists can also assess breast density, which is a known cancer risk factor. However, since not all dense tissue is cancer-prone, we hypothesize that dense tissue can be segregated into healthy vs. risky subtypes. We propose that risky dense tissue is associated with tissue microenvironment disorganization, which can be quantified via a computational characterization of the whole breast …


Towards Clinical Microscopic Fractional Anisotropy Imaging, Nico JJ Arezza 2023 Western University

Towards Clinical Microscopic Fractional Anisotropy Imaging, Nico Jj Arezza

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Microscopic fractional anisotropy (µFA) is a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metric that is sensitive to neuron microstructural features without being confounded by the orientation dispersion of axons and dendrites. µFA may potentially act as a surrogate biomarker for neurodegeneration, demyelination, and other pathological changes to neuron microstructure with greater specificity than other dMRI techniques that are sensitive to orientation dispersion, such as diffusion tensor imaging. As with many advanced imaging techniques, µFA is primarily used in research studies and has not seen use in clinical settings.

The primary goal of this Thesis was to assess the clinical viability of …


Elucidating The Biomechanics Of Mertk-Mediated Efferocytosis, Brandon Hayato Dickson 2023 Western University

Elucidating The Biomechanics Of Mertk-Mediated Efferocytosis, Brandon Hayato Dickson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Macrophages are key mediators of efferocytosis – the phagocytic engulfment and removal of apoptotic cells. During engulfment, the coordinated activity of efferocytic receptors induces the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, which facilitates the envelopment of the cell by the plasma membrane. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is a crucial efferocytic receptor, but its role during actin remodeling is not well understood. Previously, our lab showed that MERTK is an activator of β2 integrins – which are comprised of receptors known to induce the actin polymerization that is required for engulfment. We hypothesized that MERTK is an indirect stimulator of …


Control Of The Electroporation Efficiency Of Nanosecond Pulses By Swinging The Electric Field Vector Direction, Vitalii Kim, Iurii Semenov, Allen S. Kiester, Mark A. Keppler, Bennett L. Ibey, Joel N. Bixler, Ruben M. L. Colunga Biancatelli, Andrei G. Pakhomov 2023 Old Dominion University

Control Of The Electroporation Efficiency Of Nanosecond Pulses By Swinging The Electric Field Vector Direction, Vitalii Kim, Iurii Semenov, Allen S. Kiester, Mark A. Keppler, Bennett L. Ibey, Joel N. Bixler, Ruben M. L. Colunga Biancatelli, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Reversing the pulse polarity, i.e., changing the electric field direction by 180°, inhibits electroporation and electrostimulation by nanosecond electric pulses (nsEPs). This feature, known as “bipolar cancellation,” enables selective remote targeting with nsEPs and reduces the neuromuscular side effects of ablation therapies. We analyzed the biophysical mechanisms and measured how cancellation weakens and is replaced by facilitation when nsEPs are applied from different directions at angles from 0 to 180°. Monolayers of endothelial cells were electroporated by a train of five pulses (600 ns) or five paired pulses (600 + 600 ns) applied at 1 Hz or 833 kHz. Reversing …


Exploring The Interaction Of Minor-Groove-Binder Netropsin With Dna Using Optical Tweezers, Irbazhusain Shaikh 2023 Bridgewater State University

Exploring The Interaction Of Minor-Groove-Binder Netropsin With Dna Using Optical Tweezers, Irbazhusain Shaikh

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Netropsin is an antibiotic that binds in the minor grooves of DNA, which also exhibits anticancer properties. There have been many previous studies that explored the binding of this drug to DNA using traditional methods where an ensemble averaging is used. In this study we explore the interaction of Netropsin with DNA at a single molecule level using dual beam optical tweezers. We trapped and stretched a single DNA molecule using optical tweezers to measure the force experienced by the DNA as a function of extension in the absence and presence of various concentrations of Netropsin. Our results show the …


Analysis Of The Electrostatic Characteristics Of The Zika Virus Capsid Using Computational Methods, Cassandra Guadalupe Del Rio De Avila 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Analysis Of The Electrostatic Characteristics Of The Zika Virus Capsid Using Computational Methods, Cassandra Guadalupe Del Rio De Avila

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is usually transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes. This virus can cause a variety of neurological disorders, the most common being Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Moreover, it is of great concern in pregnant women, since can cause deformities in the brain and other organs of newborns.Studying the structural characteristics of the virus during its mature and infectious phase can provide crucial information on the mechanisms by which it enters and replicates within host cells, as well as its evolution, transmission, and interaction with other living organisms. The symmetric pattern present in the …


Microscopic And Spectroscopic Analysis Of Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Effect On Astrocytes, Lizbeth Vanessa Martinez Lopez 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Microscopic And Spectroscopic Analysis Of Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Effect On Astrocytes, Lizbeth Vanessa Martinez Lopez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Astrocytes, one of the most abundant cell components in the central nervous system (CNS), have been a research target in the last few years. Several studies have found that astrocytes are not only mere supporters of neurons but also of essential processes developed in the CNS. Their malfunction could induce neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors. Thus, further understanding of astrocytes and their role is of high interest to develop possible new treatments and methods of disease diagnosis, especially in brain cancer. The plant Larrea tridentata (La Gobernadora in Mexico or Creosote bush in the United States) is known to have …


Developing And Applying Computational Methods On Biomolecules, Shengjie Sun 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Developing And Applying Computational Methods On Biomolecules, Shengjie Sun

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Computational biophysics is an interdisciplinary subject that uses numerical algorithms to study the physical principles underlying biological phenomena and processes. Electrostatic interactions play an important role in computational molecular biophysics and their potential impact on disease mechanisms. At distances larger than several Angstroms, electrostatic interactions dominate all other forces, while the alteration of short-range electrostatic pairwise interactions can also have significant effects. The dual nature of electrostatic interactions, being dominant at long-range and specific at short-range, underscores their profound implications for wild-type structure and function. Any disruption of the complex electrostatic network of interactions may abolish wild-type functionality and could …


Modeling Accuracy Matters: Aligning Molecular Dynamics With 2d Nmr Derived Noe Restraints, Milan Patel 2023 University of Connecticut

Modeling Accuracy Matters: Aligning Molecular Dynamics With 2d Nmr Derived Noe Restraints, Milan Patel

Honors Scholar Theses

Among structural biology techniques, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) provides a holistic view of structure that is close to protein structure in situ. Namely, NMR imaging allows for the solution state of the protein to be observed, derived from Nuclear Overhauser Effect restraints (NOEs). NOEs are a distance range in which hydrogen pairs are observed to stay within range of, and therefore experimental data which computational models can be compared against. To that end, we investigated the effects of adding the NOE restraints as distance restraints in Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations on the 24 residue HP24stab derived villin headpiece subdomain to …


Microorganisms In Extreme Environmental Conditions, Khanh Mai Nguyen 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Microorganisms In Extreme Environmental Conditions, Khanh Mai Nguyen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Organisms are known to be able to prosper under normal and extreme environmental conditions, which are classified as mesophile and extremophile, respectively. Extremophiles can thrive under a large array of conditions, from pressures, temperatures, salinity, and pH to a combination of them. For example, to survive on the ocean floor, marine biomass must have its biomolecular machinery adapted to the high pressures and high salinity environment. Moreover, around the hydrothermal vents, aside from pressure and salinity, the microbes that live there also need to adjust to the temperature as well as the pH level. Aside from high temperatures, researchers also …


Physics 422 Spring 2023 Syllabus - Medical Physics, Ronald Koder 2023 CUNY City College

Physics 422 Spring 2023 Syllabus - Medical Physics, Ronald Koder

Open Educational Resources

This is the Spring 2023 syllabus for Physics 315, Medical Physics, at CCNY


Physics 422 Spring 2023 Syllabus, Ronald Koder 2023 CUNY City College

Physics 422 Spring 2023 Syllabus, Ronald Koder

Open Educational Resources

Spring 2023 course syllabus for Physics 422, Biophysics, at the City College of New York


Novel 129xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Spectroscopy Measurements Of Pulmonary Gas-Exchange, Alexander M. Matheson 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Novel 129xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Spectroscopy Measurements Of Pulmonary Gas-Exchange, Alexander M. Matheson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Gas-exchange is the primary function of the lungs and involves removing carbon dioxide from the body and exchanging it within the alveoli for inhaled oxygen. Several different pulmonary, cardiac and cardiovascular abnormalities have negative effects on pulmonary gas-exchange. Unfortunately, clinical tests do not always pinpoint the problem; sensitive and specific measurements are needed to probe the individual components participating in gas-exchange for a better understanding of pathophysiology, disease progression and response to therapy.

In vivo Xenon-129 gas-exchange magnetic resonance imaging (129Xe gas-exchange MRI) has the potential to overcome these challenges. When participants inhale hyperpolarized 129Xe gas, it …


Small Gtpase Regulated Intracellular Protein Trafficking In Endothelium, Caitlin Francis 2023 University of Denver

Small Gtpase Regulated Intracellular Protein Trafficking In Endothelium, Caitlin Francis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Intracellular protein trafficking is the movement of membrane-bound organelles to and from requisite locations within the cell. Small GTPases are a critical component to the spatiotemporal accuracy of intracellular trafficking pathways as they determine the specificity and direction of organelle transport. There exists over 150 small GTPases categorized into 5 sub-families and are employed across all cell types. Despite their universal expression and relevance to cellular function, small GTPases remain incompletely understood across tissue types. In various instances, the trafficking pathway of a particular Rab in one cell type may belong to a completely disparate pathway in another cell type. …


Probing Amyloid-Beta Protein Structure And Dynamics With A Selective Antibody, Shikha Grover 2023 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Probing Amyloid-Beta Protein Structure And Dynamics With A Selective Antibody, Shikha Grover

Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The AD brain is characterized by significant neuronal loss and accumulation of insoluble fibrillar amyloid-β protein (Aβ) plaques and tau protein neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. However, over the last decade, many studies have shown that the neurodegenerative effect of Aβ may in fact be caused by various soluble oligomeric forms as opposed to the insoluble fibrils. Furthermore, the data suggest that a pre-fibrillar aggregated form, termed protofibrils, mediates direct neurotoxicity, and triggers a robust neuroinflammatory response.

Antibodies targeting the various conformation of Aβ are important therapeutic agents to prevent the progression …


Arginine-178 Is An Essential Residue For Itpa Function, Nicholas E. Burgis, Caitlin April, Kandise VanWormer 2023 Eastern Washington University

Arginine-178 Is An Essential Residue For Itpa Function, Nicholas E. Burgis, Caitlin April, Kandise Vanwormer

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) enzyme plays a critical cellular role by removing noncanonical nucleoside triphosphates from nucleotide pools. One of the first pathological ITPA mutants identified is R178C (rs746930990), which causes a fatal infantile encephalopathy, termed developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 35 (DEE 35). The accumulation of noncanonical nucleotides such as inosine triphosphate (ITP), is suspected to affect RNA and/or interfere with normal nucleotide function, leading to development of DEE 35. Molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the very rare R178C mutation does not significantly perturb the overall structure of the protein, but results in a high level of structural …


Raw Data Files For The Manuscript 'Elastin Recoil Is Driven By The Hydrophobic Effect', Nour M. Jamhawi, Ronald Koder, Richard J. Wittebort 2023 University of Louisville

Raw Data Files For The Manuscript 'Elastin Recoil Is Driven By The Hydrophobic Effect', Nour M. Jamhawi, Ronald Koder, Richard J. Wittebort

Publications and Research

These are the raw data files associated with the manuscript 'Elastin Recoil is Driven by the Hydrophobic Effect' by Nour M. Jamhawi, Ronald L. Koder, and Richard J. Wittebort


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