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A Pathway To Solving The Structure Of Cl-Par-4 Tumor Suppressor Protein: Challenges & Findings, Krishna Raut, Samjhana Pandey, Andrea M. Clark, Komala Ponniah, Steven M. Pascal 2022 Old Dominion University

A Pathway To Solving The Structure Of Cl-Par-4 Tumor Suppressor Protein: Challenges & Findings, Krishna Raut, Samjhana Pandey, Andrea M. Clark, Komala Ponniah, Steven M. Pascal

College of Sciences Posters

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor protein. Down-regulation of this protein has been reported in a myriad of cancers. Conversely, up-regulation of Par-4 is found to be associated with several neurodegenerative disorders. Par-4 is unique in the sense it can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. For this, caspase-dependent intracellular cleavage of Par-4 is essential to produce the functionally active fragment, cl-Par-4 (caspase-cleaved Par-4). The cl-Par-4 protein inhibits the NF-κB-mediated cell survival pathway and causes selective apoptosis in various tumor cells.

Our laboratory is interested in determining the structure of cl-Par-4 and understanding it’s interaction with various …


Effects Of Pore-Forming Peptides (Melittin And Magainin 2) On The Phospholipid Bilayer Interior, Elmukhtar Ehmed Alhatmi 2022 Portland State University

Effects Of Pore-Forming Peptides (Melittin And Magainin 2) On The Phospholipid Bilayer Interior, Elmukhtar Ehmed Alhatmi

Dissertations and Theses

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the most promising solutions to drug-resistant bacteria. Melittin and magainin 2 are two of the most representative and extensively studied AMPs. In this research, I investigated the interaction of these two AMPs with three models of cell membranes: 80% POPC 20% POPG, 40%POPC 40% POPE and 20% POPG, and 80%POPC 20%POPG plus 30% mole fraction of cholesterol. Time-resolved fluorescence emission and fluorescence anisotropy decays of the fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) were analyzed to determine the effects of AMPs on the bilayer headgroup packing and changes in the interior of the phospholipid bilayer during the …


Quantitative Imaging Of Tensile Forces At Cell-Cell Junction With Dna-Based Probes, Puspam Keshri 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Quantitative Imaging Of Tensile Forces At Cell-Cell Junction With Dna-Based Probes, Puspam Keshri

Doctoral Dissertations

Mechanical forces are an integral part in biology, they regulate several cellular properties, such as morphology, proliferation, migration. These forces are also involved in receptor signaling and the differentiation of different cell types. Different proteins and biomolecules such as cadherin, integrin, notch proteins are essential elements of these processes. Measuring these intercellular forces are challenging considering the minimal intensity (piconewton-level) of these molecular forces. In our lab, we have developed a membrane DNA tension probe (MDTP) that uses a DNA hairpin module to sense tensile forces and has a lipid anchor to modify onto live-cell membranes. The programmability of DNA …


Transcriptomes Of Electrophysiologically Recorded Dbx1-Derived Respiratory Neurons Of The Prebötzinger Complex In Neonatal Mice, Prajkta S. Kallurkar, Maria Cristina D. Picardo, Yae K. Sugimura, Margaret Saha, Gregory D. Conradi Smith, Christopher A. Del Negro 2022 William & Mary

Transcriptomes Of Electrophysiologically Recorded Dbx1-Derived Respiratory Neurons Of The Prebötzinger Complex In Neonatal Mice, Prajkta S. Kallurkar, Maria Cristina D. Picardo, Yae K. Sugimura, Margaret Saha, Gregory D. Conradi Smith, Christopher A. Del Negro

Arts & Sciences Articles

Breathing depends on interneurons in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC) derived from Dbx1-expressing precursors. Here we investigate whether rhythm- and pattern-generating functions reside in discrete classes of Dbx1 preBötC neurons. In a slice model of breathing with ~ 5 s cycle period, putatively rhythmogenic Type-1 Dbx1 preBötC neurons activate 100–300 ms prior to Type-2 neurons, putatively specialized for output pattern, and 300–500 ms prior to the inspiratory motor output. We sequenced Type-1 and Type-2 transcriptomes and identified differential expression of 123 genes including ionotropic receptors (Gria3, Gabra1) that may explain their preinspiratory activation profiles and Ca2+ signaling ( …


Structural And Biochemical Investigations Of The Initiation Of Dna Replication In Bacteriophage Lambda And Escherichia Coli, Jillian D. Chase 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Structural And Biochemical Investigations Of The Initiation Of Dna Replication In Bacteriophage Lambda And Escherichia Coli, Jillian D. Chase

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Faithful transmission of genetic information is requisite for the propagation of all life. DNA replication in each of the three domains of life requires the separation of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) into single stranded DNA (ssDNA) which then serves as a template for genomic duplication of each original DNA strand. Initiation of replication events occurs by tightly regulated processes during which specialized proteins are loaded at a specific locus within the genome, termed the origin of replication, in preparation of bidirectional replication events. A replicative helicase must be loaded or assembled on both strands of DNA at the origin to …


Paddling Along The Voltage Gated Sodium Channel Galaxy With Sea Anemone Toxins: Structural Studies Of The Interaction Between The Paddle Motif From Nav1.5div And Sea Anemone Toxin, Adel K. Hussein 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Paddling Along The Voltage Gated Sodium Channel Galaxy With Sea Anemone Toxins: Structural Studies Of The Interaction Between The Paddle Motif From Nav1.5div And Sea Anemone Toxin, Adel K. Hussein

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC) are membrane proteins that serve an important function in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), and cardiac muscles amongst others. The main function of VGSC is in the propagation of electrical signals by depolarizing excitable cells. Nine mammalian VGSC subtypes have been characterized, NaV1.1 – NaV1.9, that are expressed in a tissue specific manner, each with unique gating properties. Numerous diseases have been linked to defects in VGSC including epilepsy, mental retardation, long QT syndrome, and Brugada disease. Furthermore, these channels are one of the primary targets of …


Water-Based Lead Generation, Brian Olson 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Water-Based Lead Generation, Brian Olson

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Water-based Lead Generation. The opioid epidemic and the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are current serious challenges whose devastating effects could be assuaged through the development of new drugs. Opioids that are functional painkillers, that are less likely to cause overdose, and small molecule drugs that could inhibit the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 would be useful. The work herein investigated the use of water molecules for lead generation in drug development against opioid receptors and SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. In opioid receptor binding sites, purported bridging waters were obtained from crystal waters or from molecular dynamics simulations, as Hydration Site Analysis was used to …


Study Of Zyomogen Granule Movement Along Actin Filaments Using A Single Beam Optical Trap, Justin James Raupp 2022 Wayne State University

Study Of Zyomogen Granule Movement Along Actin Filaments Using A Single Beam Optical Trap, Justin James Raupp

Wayne State University Dissertations

Zymogen granules are enzymatic vesicles in the pancreas. The surface of these zymogen granules (ZGs) has several different kinds of myosin molecules, such as myosin 1c, 6, 5c, and 7b. These molecular motors may contribute to ZG transportation in cells. To understand the molecular motors involved in the vesicle trafficking, we observed the in vitro motility of purified ZGs from rat pancreas and examined the stepping behavior and force that is generated using a single beam optical trap. To be involved in trafficking, molecular motors have certain characteristics, a high duty ratio and the ability to move continuously along actin …


The Role Of Ehd2 In Endothelial Cells, Rachael Judson 2022 University of Denver

The Role Of Ehd2 In Endothelial Cells, Rachael Judson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The role of EHD2 in terms of Cav1 interaction had not been previously characterized and was the main goal of this research. Cav1 has been shown to lead to the ubiquitination of Rac1. Because of this, the role of EHD2 in Rac1 regulation was investigated. An increase in long-term migration in endothelial cells was observed and suggested that EHD2 impacts the RhoA pathway instead of the Rac1 pathway. This lead to the hypothesis that EHD2 controls a part of the RhoA pathway. This hypothesis is supported by the loss of filamentous actin and an increase in serrated junctions in cells …


Investigating The Main Protease (Mpro) Of Sars-Cov-2 As A Potential Drug Target, Valerie Giovina Pascetta 2022 University of New Hampshire

Investigating The Main Protease (Mpro) Of Sars-Cov-2 As A Potential Drug Target, Valerie Giovina Pascetta

Honors Theses and Capstones

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has claimed the lives of roughly 6.2 million people worldwide as of May 2022. The virus’s main protease (Mpro ) has been identified as an attractive drug target due to the critical role it plays in the viral life cycle. The roughly 34 kDa Mpro cleaves functional viral polypeptides out of two long polyproteins at conserved cut sites, allowing them to fulfill their role in processes like transcription and replication. Here, we have studied the enzymatic activity …


Multilevel Computational Investigation Into The Dynamics And Reaction Mechanisms Of Non-Heme Iron And 2-Oxoglutarate Dependent Enzymes, Shobhit Sanjeev Chaturvedi 2022 Michigan Technological University

Multilevel Computational Investigation Into The Dynamics And Reaction Mechanisms Of Non-Heme Iron And 2-Oxoglutarate Dependent Enzymes, Shobhit Sanjeev Chaturvedi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Computational chemistry methods have been extensively applied to investigate biological systems. This dissertation utilizes a multilevel computational approach to explore the dynamics and reaction mechanisms of two groups of enzymes belonging to non-heme Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent superfamily – histone lysine demethylases from class 7 and ethylene forming enzyme (EFE). Chapter 2 uncovers the role of conformational dynamics in the substrate selectivity of histone lysine demethylases 7A and 7B. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the two enzymes revealed the importance of linker flexibility and dynamics in relative orientations of the reader (PHD) and the catalytic (JmjC) domains. Chapter …


Physical Characteristics And Classification Of The Large Amplitude Variable Star V1719 Cygni, Ashley Lieber, Logan Siems, Julia Kennefick, Michael Fitzgerald 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Physical Characteristics And Classification Of The Large Amplitude Variable Star V1719 Cygni, Ashley Lieber, Logan Siems, Julia Kennefick, Michael Fitzgerald

Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal

Pulsating stars are used as standard candles which are helpful in determining distances to stellar objects along with the relationship between their period and apparent luminosity. The focus of this study was the variable star, V1719 Cygni, which is often classified as a Delta (δ) Scuti star, but there exists debate that it should be classified as a RR Lyrae star due to its abnormal light curve and similar characteristics between the two variable star categories. Observational data was taken in 2019 using the Las Cumbres Observatory international telescope network. The resulting data were calibrated using comparison stars in the …


The Role Of Charge On Dna Packaging And Integrity Within Reconstituted Peptide-Dna Assemblies, Ehigbai Oikeh 2022 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Charge On Dna Packaging And Integrity Within Reconstituted Peptide-Dna Assemblies, Ehigbai Oikeh

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

In nature, DNA exists primarily in a highly compacted form. The compaction of DNA in vivo is mediated by cationic proteins; histone in somatic nuclei and arginine-rich peptides called protamines in sperm chromatin. The packaging in the sperm nucleus is significantly higher than somatic nuclei resulting in a final volume roughly 1/20th that of a somatic nucleus. This tight packaging results in a near crystalline packaging of the DNA helices. While the dense packaging of DNA in sperm nuclei is considered essential for both efficient genetic delivery as well as DNA protection against damage by mutagens and oxidative species, …


Development Of Fluorescence Based Approaches To Understand Astrocyte Biology In The Context Of Nicotine And Nicotinic Receptor Activity, Surya P. Aryal 2022 University of Kentucky

Development Of Fluorescence Based Approaches To Understand Astrocyte Biology In The Context Of Nicotine And Nicotinic Receptor Activity, Surya P. Aryal

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Smoking and tobacco use (STU) is a major global health problem and worldwide more than six million people die due to tobacco related diseases each year. Although majority of smokers try to quit smoking several times in their life, traditional therapeutic approaches, which focus only on neuronal cells, have a very low success rate. Understanding the effect of nicotine on glial cells, synaptic communication and blood vasculature in the brain can provide further insights on the neurobiology of substance abuse and can potentially help to design better therapeutic approaches. Glial cells are non-excitable cells in the brain which do not …


Growing Meat On Plants: Using Intermediate Cbd-Rgd Fusion Proteins To Improve Bovine Satellite Cell Attachment On Cellulose-Based Scaffolds, Julian Cohen 2022 Claremont Colleges

Growing Meat On Plants: Using Intermediate Cbd-Rgd Fusion Proteins To Improve Bovine Satellite Cell Attachment On Cellulose-Based Scaffolds, Julian Cohen

Pitzer Senior Theses

Cellular agriculture is an emerging technology aiming to replace existing methods for animal agriculture with tissue engineering and cell culture-based technologies. Cultured meat falls within this purview, using a biomimetic approach to recreate animal muscle tissue through tissue engineering. In the attempt to diminish the necessity of animal-derived materials within this process, plant-based scaffolds can be used as a substrate upon which stem cells are cultured. Due to the unfavorable environment of cellulose for mammalian cell-surface proteins, the approach was taken of coating cellulose nanofiber films with a fusion protein composed of a cellulose binding domain (CBD) protein and the …


Elucidating The Proteasomal Regulatory Mechanism Of Proteasome Activator Pa28Γ /Regγ, Taylor Ann Thomas 2022 West Virginia University

Elucidating The Proteasomal Regulatory Mechanism Of Proteasome Activator Pa28Γ /Regγ, Taylor Ann Thomas

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Virtually all cellular processes are precisely regulated by the proteasome which is the primary enzyme responsible for the degradation of misfolded, damaged, or no longer necessary soluble proteins. To prevent any untimely degradation of these target protein substrates and protect the cell, the proteasome is tightly regulated via adaptor proteins, known as proteasomal regulators. There are many classes of proteasomal regulators each with their own unique structures, functions, and effects on protein degradation through the proteasome. One such class is the 11S family of proteasomal regulators which are also referred to as PA26/28, or REG. The 11S family are ATP-independent …


High-Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structure Of Photosystem Ii From The Mesophilic Cyanobacterium, Synechocystis Sp. Pcc 6803, Christopher J. Gisriel, Jimin Wang, Jinchan Liu, David A. Flesher, Krystle M. Reiss, Hao-Li Huang, Ke R. Yang, William H. Armstrong, M. R. Gunner, Victor S. Batista, Richard J. Debus, Gary W. Brudvig 2021 Yale University

High-Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structure Of Photosystem Ii From The Mesophilic Cyanobacterium, Synechocystis Sp. Pcc 6803, Christopher J. Gisriel, Jimin Wang, Jinchan Liu, David A. Flesher, Krystle M. Reiss, Hao-Li Huang, Ke R. Yang, William H. Armstrong, M. R. Gunner, Victor S. Batista, Richard J. Debus, Gary W. Brudvig

Publications and Research

Photosystem II (PSII) enables global-scale, light-driven water oxidation. Genetic manipulation of PSII from the mesophilic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has provided insights into the mechanism of water oxidation; however, the lack of a highresolution structure of oxygen-evolving PSII from this organism has limited the interpretation of biophysical data to models based on structures of thermophilic cyanobacterial PSII. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of PSII from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 at 1.93-Å resolution. A number of differences are observed relative to thermophilic PSII structures, including the following: the extrinsic subunit PsbQ is maintained, the C terminus of the …


The Phase Behavior Of Ubqln Proteins And Implications For Protein Quality Control, Yiran Yang 2021 Syracuse University

The Phase Behavior Of Ubqln Proteins And Implications For Protein Quality Control, Yiran Yang

Dissertations - ALL

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy are essential pathways for maintaining protein quality control (PQC) in cells. Misfolded proteins and large aggregates are cleared by UPS and autophagy signaled by ubiquitin (Ub) or polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains. Shuttle proteins facilitate cargo transporting by interacting with both ubiquitin and degradation machineries. Previously, our lab discovered that the shuttle protein Ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2) is recruited to stress granules in cells and undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in vitro. LLPS is a biophysical process by which proteins separate themselves from the surrounding aqueous solution by forming protein-rich droplets. The overarching goals of this work are …


Direct Single Molecule Imaging Of Enhanced Diffusion For Enzymes And Enzyme-Conjugated Dna Origami, Mengqi Xu 2021 Syracuse University

Direct Single Molecule Imaging Of Enhanced Diffusion For Enzymes And Enzyme-Conjugated Dna Origami, Mengqi Xu

Dissertations - ALL

Enzymes have been shown to diffuse faster in the presence of their substrates. Recently, we revealed new insights into this process of enhanced diffusion using single-particle tracking (SPT) with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We found that the mobility of individual enzymes was enhanced three-fold in the presence of the substrate, and the motion remained Brownian. We showed that the relative increase in diffusion is independent of the total enzyme concentrations; and the oligomerization state of enzymes did not change during the catalytic turnover. These experiments ruled out the possibility that the enhanced enzyme diffusion was caused by the …


Intrinsically Disordered Protein Regions In Human Evolution And As Therapeutic Targets, Karen Paco Mendivil 2021 Claremont Colleges

Intrinsically Disordered Protein Regions In Human Evolution And As Therapeutic Targets, Karen Paco Mendivil

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions (IDPRs) fail to form stable structures but have important biological functions via interacting with various molecular partners (proteins, DNA, RNA, glycosaminoglycans). We hypothesized that IDPRs are potential targets for therapeutics development because they are reservoirs of evolutionary innovation, and they play crucial roles in adaptation to pathogens.

We first studied the evolution of IDPRs in the human proteome and compared it with the proteome of non-human primates. We have found that evolutionary young protein-coding genes have included low conserved regions in the N-terminal part of proteins, and such regions are linked to high …


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