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Arginine-178 Is An Essential Residue For Itpa Function, Nicholas E. Burgis, Caitlin April, Kandise VanWormer 2023 Eastern Washington University

Arginine-178 Is An Essential Residue For Itpa Function, Nicholas E. Burgis, Caitlin April, Kandise Vanwormer

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) enzyme plays a critical cellular role by removing noncanonical nucleoside triphosphates from nucleotide pools. One of the first pathological ITPA mutants identified is R178C (rs746930990), which causes a fatal infantile encephalopathy, termed developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 35 (DEE 35). The accumulation of noncanonical nucleotides such as inosine triphosphate (ITP), is suspected to affect RNA and/or interfere with normal nucleotide function, leading to development of DEE 35. Molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the very rare R178C mutation does not significantly perturb the overall structure of the protein, but results in a high level of structural …


Raw Data Files For The Manuscript 'Elastin Recoil Is Driven By The Hydrophobic Effect', Nour M. Jamhawi, Ronald Koder, Richard J. Wittebort 2023 University of Louisville

Raw Data Files For The Manuscript 'Elastin Recoil Is Driven By The Hydrophobic Effect', Nour M. Jamhawi, Ronald Koder, Richard J. Wittebort

Publications and Research

These are the raw data files associated with the manuscript 'Elastin Recoil is Driven by the Hydrophobic Effect' by Nour M. Jamhawi, Ronald L. Koder, and Richard J. Wittebort


Exogenous Factors That Impact Huntingtin Aggregation, Adam Skeens 2023 West Virginia University

Exogenous Factors That Impact Huntingtin Aggregation, Adam Skeens

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

While expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) domain is the immediate cause of huntingtin (htt) aggregation associated with Huntington’s Disease (HD), other cellular factors modify aggregation. These include interactions with cellular membranes, protein biding partners, molecular crowding, and proteinaceous seeds. Here, two important factors are biophysically characterized: 1) the interaction of htt with endomembranes and 2) proteinaceous seeds obtained from a variety of htt-derived peptides. In the first project, the aggregation of htt at bilayer interfaces and in the presence of divalent cations was investigated. A major cellular factor implicated in altered htt aggregation is the binding of lipids. Furthermore, the …


Investigation Of Early Complex Formation Of Huntingtin Protein With And Without Lipids, Alyssa R. Stonebraker 2023 West Virginia University

Investigation Of Early Complex Formation Of Huntingtin Protein With And Without Lipids, Alyssa R. Stonebraker

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) domain of the huntingtin protein (htt). The expansion of the polyQ domain beyond a threshold of approximately 35 repeats triggers complex toxic aggregation mechanisms and results in altered interactions between htt and lipid membranes. Many factors modulate these processes. One such modulator includes sequences flanking the polyQ domain, most notably the first 17 amino acids at the N-terminus of the protein (Nt17), and environmental factors including the presence of membranous structures. Nt17 has the propensity to form an amphipathic a-helix in the presence of …


Detecting Linc Complex Mps3 And Nuclear Pore Complex Ndj1 Protein Interactions On Yeast Nuclear Membrane S Through Fluorescence Microscopy, Dean Boecher, Rebecca Adams 2023 Belmont University

Detecting Linc Complex Mps3 And Nuclear Pore Complex Ndj1 Protein Interactions On Yeast Nuclear Membrane S Through Fluorescence Microscopy, Dean Boecher, Rebecca Adams

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

Though cancer cells have been shown to have abnormal nuclear morphologies and responses to mechanical forces, the mechanisms of how mechanical stress is translated into cellular action and structural reorganization within the nuclear envelope are largely unexplored. The Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is a transmembrane protein complex that connects the actin cytoskeleton to the lamin nucleoskeleton, enabling mechanical forces to be translated between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In cells exposed to physical stress, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) –which control the exchange of biochemical signals and macromolecules in and out of the nucleus through mRNA export –have …


Analysis Of Biologically Effective Dose For Retroactive Yttrium-90 Trans-Arterial Radioembolization Treatment Optimization, MJ Lindsey 2023 Claremont McKenna College

Analysis Of Biologically Effective Dose For Retroactive Yttrium-90 Trans-Arterial Radioembolization Treatment Optimization, Mj Lindsey

CMC Senior Theses

Trans-arterial radioembolization (TARE) is a protracted modality of radiation therapy where radionuclides labeled with Yttrium-90 (90Y) are inserted inside a patient's hepatic artery to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While TARE has been shown to be a clinically effective and safe treatment, there is little understanding of the radiobiological relationship between absorbed dose and tissue response, and thus there is no dosimetric standard for treatment planning. The Biologically Effective Dose (BED) formalism, derived from the Linear-Quadratic model of radiobiology, is used to weigh the absorbed dose by the time pattern of delivery. BED is a virtual dose that can …


Multiscale Molecular Modeling Studies Of The Dynamics And Catalytic Mechanisms Of Iron(Ii)- And Zinc(Ii)-Dependent Metalloenzymes, Sodiq O. Waheed 2023 Michigan Technological University

Multiscale Molecular Modeling Studies Of The Dynamics And Catalytic Mechanisms Of Iron(Ii)- And Zinc(Ii)-Dependent Metalloenzymes, Sodiq O. Waheed

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Enzymes are biological systems that aid in specific biochemical reactions. They lower the reaction barrier, thus speeding up the reaction rate. A detailed knowledge of enzymes will not be achievable without computational modeling as it offers insight into atomistic details and catalytic species, which are crucial to designing enzyme-specific inhibitors and impossible to gain experimentally. This dissertation employs advanced multiscale computational approaches to study the dynamics and reaction mechanisms of non-heme Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases, including AlkB, AlkBH2, TET2, and KDM4E, involved in DNA and histone demethylation. It also focuses on Zn(II) dependent matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), which helps …


Biophysical Insights Into Peptide And Alcohol Perturbations On Biomimetic Membranes, Michael Hai Nguen 2023 University of Windsor

Biophysical Insights Into Peptide And Alcohol Perturbations On Biomimetic Membranes, Michael Hai Nguen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biological membranes exist in every domain of life. Life exists due to the presence of these special structures for which we take for granted. They are composed of fatty lipids and workhorse proteins and act as the premier interface of biological processes. Due to the sheer quantity and complexity within their thin boundary, studying their actions and properties pose challenges to researchers. As a result, simplified biomembrane mimics are employed regularly. We will use several types of biomembrane mimics to understand fundamental properties of membranes. In the present thesis, we also attempt to move beyond the canonical structure-based theories upon …


Application Of Computational Biophysics Techniques To Characterize Cell Membrane-Associated Events, Kyle Billings 2023 West Virginia University

Application Of Computational Biophysics Techniques To Characterize Cell Membrane-Associated Events, Kyle Billings

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Cell membranes are crowded environments which can modulate protein structure-function relationships through interaction with lipids, other proteins, carbohydrate structures and so on. This work focuses the impact of the membrane environment on two varieties of peptides: Microbial rhodopsin proteins, and cyclic peptides.

Life on Earth is dependent on the ability of plants and microbes to harness sunlight for energy production. Their ability to transform light into carbohydrates requires tailor-made machinery, and for a wealth of microorganisms, microbial rhodopsin proteins (MR) are critical for maintaining the concentration gradients used to produce the energy molecule Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The central retinal molecule …


Lipid Binding Properties Of Huntingtin As A Novel Therapeutic Target, Chathuranga Siriwardhana 2023 West Virginia University

Lipid Binding Properties Of Huntingtin As A Novel Therapeutic Target, Chathuranga Siriwardhana

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

As protein aggregation is the defining hallmark of all amyloid diseases, a common therapeutic strategy is to develop molecules that inhibit aggregation. However, this approach has yielded limited success. Many amyloid proteins directly interact with lipid membranes. These interactions promote distinct aggregation pathways and often result in membrane damage leading to toxicity. As a result, directly targeting the ability of amyloids to bind lipid membranes represents a novel therapeutic strategy. As a proof of principle, the interaction between lipid membranes and mutant huntingtin protein (htt) aggregates was used to test this strategy. Mutant htt containing an expanded polygulatmine (polyQ) domain …


Exploring The Membrane Protein And Peptide Interactions Of Mitochondrial And Bacterial Lipid Systems, George Saudan 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

Exploring The Membrane Protein And Peptide Interactions Of Mitochondrial And Bacterial Lipid Systems, George Saudan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study aims to expand the understanding of interactions between membrane lipids and proteins, and relate it to their biological functions in two experimental systems. The first system focuses on the interaction and conformation of a membrane protein Uncoupling Protein 4 (UCP4) in mitochondrial inner membrane lipids, in the absence and presence of cardiolipin; a lipid specific to mitochondrial inner membranes. The second system considers the interaction and conformation of a cell penetrating peptide, Penetratin, which can interact with both mammalian and bacterial cells. A N- and C-termini protected form of this 16-meric peptide (Pen2) was used to explore its …


Impact Of Sample Conditions On Dna Phosphodiester Backbone Bi/Bii Conformational Equilibrium Dynamics, Autumn C. Pilarski 2023 Missouri State University

Impact Of Sample Conditions On Dna Phosphodiester Backbone Bi/Bii Conformational Equilibrium Dynamics, Autumn C. Pilarski

MSU Graduate Theses

DNA damage, such as single base lesions and mismatches, is highly prevalent within cells. If these DNA damage events are not repaired, they could lead to mutations and thus disease and cancer. Intricate repair mechanisms are in place to fix these damage events, one such being Base Excision Repair (BER) and associated enzyme: Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG). The first step of this repair process, recognition of the lesion by TDG, is not well understood. The following thesis presents results to better understand the fundamental biophysical question of how a DNA lesion within a mismatch context is recognized in a million …


A Biophysical Approach To Modeling Elevational Range Shifts In Colorado Mammal Communities, Ryan T. Mahar 2023 The University Of Montana

A Biophysical Approach To Modeling Elevational Range Shifts In Colorado Mammal Communities, Ryan T. Mahar

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Species geographic ranges are shifting in the face of contemporary climate warming, and documenting range shifts is crucial to our understanding of the underlying drivers mediating movement in geographic range limits. Studies on elevational range shifts with climate change are beginning to accrue within the literature, though observed shifts are idiosyncratic and difficult to predict. Some species may respond to warming temperatures by shifting their range limits upslope, where temperatures are cooler owing to the adiabatic lapse rate. However, species may also respond to warming temperatures in an elevation-dependent manner: if changes in snow depth expose overwintering organisms to colder …


Interactions Of Amyloid Peptides With Lipid Membranes, Yanxing Yang 2022 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Interactions Of Amyloid Peptides With Lipid Membranes, Yanxing Yang

Dissertations

The aggregation of amyloid proteins into fibrils is a hallmark of several diseases including Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s, and Type II diabetes. This aggregation process involves the formation of small size oligomers preceding the formation of insoluble fibrils. Recent studies have shown that these oligomers are more likely to be responsible for cell toxicity than fibrils. A possible mechanism of toxicity involves the interaction of oligomers with the cell membrane compromising its integrity. In particular, oligomers may form pore-like structures in the cell membrane affecting its permeability or they may induce lipid loss via a detergent-like effect. This dissertation aims to …


Quantum Computations And Molecular Dynamics Simulations: From The Fundamentals Of Antimicrobial Resistance To Neurological Diseases, Angel Tamez 2022 Duquesne University

Quantum Computations And Molecular Dynamics Simulations: From The Fundamentals Of Antimicrobial Resistance To Neurological Diseases, Angel Tamez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biophysical phenomena are modeled using a combination of quantum and classical methods to interpret and supplement three distinct and diverse problems in this dissertation. In the first project, decarboxylation reactions are ubiquitous across chemical and biological disciplines, yet the origin of non-catalytic solvent effects remains elusive. Specific solvent structure and energetics have not been well described for the monoanion of malonate, nor corrected from the gas-phase charge-assisted intramolecular hydrogen bond model known as “pseudochair”. In the aqueous phase, a low-lying energy conformer known as the “orthogonal conformation” is computed to be preferred by a three-water cluster of hydrogen bonding over …


Dynamics Of Nucleosome Assembly Characterized By Atomic Force Microscopy, Tommy Stormberg 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Dynamics Of Nucleosome Assembly Characterized By Atomic Force Microscopy, Tommy Stormberg

Theses & Dissertations

Nucleosomes are the basic repeating unit defining the assembly and function of chromatin. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of nucleosome structure and dynamics is critical to elucidating the chromatin assembly process. This dissertation describes my work in elucidating the role of different factors that drive the nucleosome dynamics.

In my first study, we characterized, for the first time, the effect of sequence on nucleosome assembly. We then characterized the role of internucleosomal interactions, discovering a critical role internucleosomal interactions in the assembly of higher order structures.

Based on the previous study and literature regarding histone tails, we hypothesized the histone H4 …


A Universal Mechanism Of G Protein Inhibition, Tyson Daniel Todd 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

A Universal Mechanism Of G Protein Inhibition, Tyson Daniel Todd

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

G protein coupled receptors transduce a truly staggering number of diverse extracellular signals including chemical messengers, physical force, and even photons into specific cellular responses through their coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins. G proteins amplify the originating signal through their binding to downstream effectors, activating a complex network of overlapping responses that allow the cell to respond perfectly to that specific stimulus. It is critical to the cell that this process is carried out faithfully in order to respond to the myriad environmental cues and avoid injury, exhaustion, and death for the individual cell or the development of pathology if …


Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore 2022 Kennesaw State University

Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore

Symposium of Student Scholars

Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a powerful tool for developing anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Within this, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative approach to screening and validating weak and robust binders with targeted proteins, making NMR among the most attractive strategies in FBDD. Inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme (Ivyp1) of P. aeruginosa serves as an excellent target because of its active cellular location and implications in clinical prognosis for cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. This study uses current NMR and biophysical techniques to develop a covalent, fragment-linked warhead inhibitor for Ivyp1 through synthetic methods, warhead linking, and …


Modulation Of Alpha-Crystallin-Membrane Association By Phospholipid Acyl Chain Length And Degree Of Unsaturation, Geraline Trossi-Torres 2022 Boise State University

Modulation Of Alpha-Crystallin-Membrane Association By Phospholipid Acyl Chain Length And Degree Of Unsaturation, Geraline Trossi-Torres

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. The only treatment for cataracts is the surgical removal of the cataractous lens and the replacement of an intraocular lens. With less availability of treatment and low income, the visual damage caused by cataracts can go untreated. The cataract may develop again after surgery, such as posterior capsule opacification. With age and cataracts, α-crystallin, a significant protein of the mammalian eye lens, is progressively associated with the eye lens membrane. The primary association sites of α-crystallin with the membranes are phospholipids. However, it is unclear if phospholipids’ acyl chain length and degree …


A Novel Transmembrane Ligand Inhibits T Cell Receptor Activation, Yujie Ye 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Novel Transmembrane Ligand Inhibits T Cell Receptor Activation, Yujie Ye

Doctoral Dissertations

T lymphocytes (T cells) play essential roles in the adaptive immune system. Each mature T cell expresses one type of functional T cell receptor (TCR). The TCR recognizes antigens bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in antigen presenting cells. The resulting stimulation signal crosses the transmembrane domain of TCR and initiates downstream signaling cascades. The human immune system relies on TCRs to recognize a variety of pathogens. Normally, TCR can distinguish the self-antigens from pathogenic antigens. However, dysfunction or aberrant expression of TCRs causes different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, which afflict millions of people annually (Chapter I). Current treatments …


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