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Effect Of Turmeric On The Promoter Activity Of The Cyp6a8 Gene Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Alexa Stroh 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effect Of Turmeric On The Promoter Activity Of The Cyp6a8 Gene Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Alexa Stroh

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey 2018 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus able to colonize a wide variety of environments. In the human host, P. aeruginosa can establish an acute infection or persist and create a chronic infection. P. aeruginosa is able to establish a niche and persist in human hosts by using a wide array of virulence factors used for: movement, killing host cells, and evading immune cells and antibiotics. Understanding virulence factors and their regulation has proved to be an important means of combating the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa as well as the ever-increasing threat of drug resistance. By targeting virulence factors ...


Phenotypic Screening Identifies Brefeldin A/Ascotoxin As An Inducer Of Lipid Storage In The Algae Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Nishikant Wase, Boqiang Tu, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. DiRusso 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Phenotypic Screening Identifies Brefeldin A/Ascotoxin As An Inducer Of Lipid Storage In The Algae Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Nishikant Wase, Boqiang Tu, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso

Nishikant Wase

The use of microalgae as a biofuel feedstock is highly desired, but current methods to induce lipid accumulation cause severe stress responses that limit biomass and, thus oil yield. To address these issues, a high throughput screening (HTS) method was devised to identify chemical inducers of growth and lipid accumulation. Optimization was performed to determine the most effective cell density, DMSO and Nile Red (NR) concentrations to monitor growth and lipid accumulation. The method was tested using 1717 compounds from National Cancer Institute (NCI) Diversity Set III and Natural Products Set II in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cells were inoculated at low ...


Building On Nature: Spectroscopic Studies Of Photosynthesis-Inspired Pigments, Fused Light Harvesting Proteins, And Bacterial Reaction Center Mutants, Kaitlyn Faries 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Building On Nature: Spectroscopic Studies Of Photosynthesis-Inspired Pigments, Fused Light Harvesting Proteins, And Bacterial Reaction Center Mutants, Kaitlyn Faries

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photosynthesis is the dominant form of solar energy conversion on the planet, making it critical to understand the fundamentals of the process in order to effectively mimic and improve upon it for human energy needs. The initial stages of photosynthesis include light harvesting and chemical conversion of that harvested energy via electron transport, with both of these stages relying on pigments (or chromophores) such as chlorophyll and specific protein architectures for the processes. In this work, the fundamental underpinnings of photosynthetic light harvesting and electron transport are explored via spectroscopy of various photosynthetic systems with altered natural pigments and proteins ...


Gq Noncanonical Roles In Translational Regulation, Brett DeMarco 2018 Duquesne University

Gq Noncanonical Roles In Translational Regulation, Brett Demarco

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates protein nucleic acid interactions, focusing on G-quadruplex (GQ) forming DNA/RNA in human disease. GQ structures are formed in DNA/RNA, when four guanine residues form planar tetrads stabilized by Hoogsteen base pairing, that stack forming a GQ structure stabilized by potassium ions. These GQ structures are targeted by the arginine glycine-glycine (RGG) RNA-binding domain. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a translation regulator protein implicated in the fragile X syndrome, has an RGG domain and has been previously shown to interact with neuronal GQ forming messenger RNA (mRNA). We have investigated three neuronal FMRP mRNA targets ...


Synthetic Approaches Towards Novel Isoform Selective Pi3k Inhibitors And Their Biological Activities Against Prostate Cancer Cells, Idris Wazeerud-Din 2018 Atlanta University Center

Synthetic Approaches Towards Novel Isoform Selective Pi3k Inhibitors And Their Biological Activities Against Prostate Cancer Cells, Idris Wazeerud-Din

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The development of novel imidazopyridines, which includes both tetrahydroimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine (rIMP) and imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine (IMP) was investigated using conventional and microwave induced procedures that afforded compounds at high yield of 88-96%. rIMP was synthesized using a two-step procedure that involved the microwave synthesis of IMP, then the reduction of the pyridine moiety of the fused imidazopyridine rings using 10% Pd/C and hydrazine monohydrate. The microwave synthesis of imidazopyridines involved the one pot reaction of 2-benzoylpyridine, substituted benzaldehyde and ammonium formate in acetic acid under open vessel microwave conditions, which resulted in products within 40 minutes ...


Water Temperature And Harmful Algal Bloom Rate, Geoff Bright, Greg Michalski, Benjamin P. Wilkins 2018 Purdue University

Water Temperature And Harmful Algal Bloom Rate, Geoff Bright, Greg Michalski, Benjamin P. Wilkins

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Harmful algal blooms, made up of cyanobacteria, is an increasing problem in Midwestern lakes. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers used in crops such as corn and soybeans run off into streams and eventually lakes. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the form of nitrate and phosphate respectively is then used by cyanobacteria as a food source, allowing them to bloom at an alarming rate. Massive bloom events can be hazardous to both human health and the natural environment because of the release of neurotoxins, hepatotoxins and others into the air and drinking water. We set out to find if different water temperature can ...


Engineering Dub-Deficient Viral Proteases From Fipv And Pedv Coronaviruses, Daniel T. Wesenberg, Jozlyn R. Clasman, Andrew D. Mesecar 2018 Purdue University

Engineering Dub-Deficient Viral Proteases From Fipv And Pedv Coronaviruses, Daniel T. Wesenberg, Jozlyn R. Clasman, Andrew D. Mesecar

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Coronaviruses form a class of viral pathogens lethal to humans and livestock. This issue is compounded by a lack of commercially available treatments or vaccines. In 2014, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) emerged in the United States and accounted for an estimated 7 million porcine deaths. Deaths of humans, companion animals, and livestock caused by coronaviruses highlight the need for therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. One strategy involves engineering papain-like protease 2 (PLP2), an enzyme conserved among coronavirus species that is critical for virus replication and pathogenesis. PLP2’s de-ubiquitinating (DUB) activity aids in the suppression of the ...


Cost-Effective Paper-Based Diagnostic Using Split Proteins To Detect Yeast Infections, Zachary R. Berglund, Kevin V. Solomon, Mohit S. Verma, Moiz Rasheed, Zachary Hartley, Kevin Fitzgerald, Kok Zhi Lee, Janice Chan, Julianne Dejoie, Makayla Schacht, Alex Zavala 2018 Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University

Cost-Effective Paper-Based Diagnostic Using Split Proteins To Detect Yeast Infections, Zachary R. Berglund, Kevin V. Solomon, Mohit S. Verma, Moiz Rasheed, Zachary Hartley, Kevin Fitzgerald, Kok Zhi Lee, Janice Chan, Julianne Dejoie, Makayla Schacht, Alex Zavala

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The common yeast infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, affects three out of four women throughout their lifetime and can be spread to their child in the form of oral candidiasis (thrush). This disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is also a major cause of systemic candidiasis, a rarer but deadly disease with up to a 49% lethality rate. Current widely-used diagnostic methods include cell cultures, pH tests, and antibody detection, to assist effective treatment. Despite availability of various diagnostic methods, there is no inexpensive, rapid, and accurate way to detect C. albicans infection. This project aims to develop ...


Engineering Bioluminescent Sensors Of Cyclic Amp To Study Opioid Signaling, Alexander L. Tesmer, Alexander R. French, Mathew Tantama 2018 Purdue University

Engineering Bioluminescent Sensors Of Cyclic Amp To Study Opioid Signaling, Alexander L. Tesmer, Alexander R. French, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Opioids are small signaling molecules which bind to opioid receptors on the surface of cells. The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is one of three major types of opioid receptors found in human neurons. When an opioid binds to a KOR, a variety of biochemical signaling pathways are activated inside the cell. Each of these pathways are associated with different physiological effects of KOR activation. The production of a small signaling molecule, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), is known to be inhibited during KOR activation of the analgesic (pain-killing) signaling pathway. The ability to interrogate the individual responses of KOR signaling pathways ...


Ultrafast Laser Filament-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy Of Uranyl Fluoride, P. J. Skrodzki, M. Burger, L. A. Finney, F. Poineau, S. M. Balasekaran, J. Nees, K. R. Czerwinski, I. Jovanovic 2018 University of Michigan

Ultrafast Laser Filament-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy Of Uranyl Fluoride, P. J. Skrodzki, M. Burger, L. A. Finney, F. Poineau, S. M. Balasekaran, J. Nees, K. R. Czerwinski, I. Jovanovic

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) is a compound which forms in the reaction between water and uranium hexafluoride, a uranium containing gas widely used for uranium enrichment. Uranyl fluoride exhibits negligible natural background in atmosphere; as a result, its observation implies the presence and active operation of nearby enrichment facilities and could be used as a tracer for treaty verification technologies. Additionally, detection of UO2F2 has a potential application in guiding remediation efforts around enrichment facilities. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been proposed in the past as a viable technique for the detection and tracking of UO2F2. We demonstrate that ultrafast laser filamentation ...


Metabolic Plasticity In The Cellular Stress Response, Ying Li 2018 East Tennessee State University

Metabolic Plasticity In The Cellular Stress Response, Ying Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Changes to the metabolism of the cardiomyocyte are driven by complex signaling pathways in order to adjust to stress. For instance, HIF-1α is classically known to upregulate glycolytic metabolism to compensate for oxygen deficiency. Other important effects upon glucose metabolism, which we investigate here more extensively, were also observed. Hearts derived from mice with the cardiac-restricted expression of a stabilized form of HIF-1α are remarkably ischemia stress-tolerant. Here, stable isotope-resolved metabolomic analyses were utilized to investigate glucose cardiometabolism remodeling by HIF-1αduring ischemia. We found that 13C-lactate accumulation was significantly elevated in HIF-1α expressing hearts while paradoxically glycogen was maintained ...


Manganese Oxide/Hemin-Functionalized Graphene As A Platform For Peroxynitrite Sensing, Haitham F. Kalil, Shaimaa Maher, Tiyash Bose, Mekki Bayachou 2018 Cleveland State University

Manganese Oxide/Hemin-Functionalized Graphene As A Platform For Peroxynitrite Sensing, Haitham F. Kalil, Shaimaa Maher, Tiyash Bose, Mekki Bayachou

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Peroxynitrite (ONOO−, PON) is a powerful oxidizing agent generated in vivo by the diffusion-limited reaction of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2˙) radicals. Under oxidative stress, cumulated peroxynitrite levels are associated with chronic inflammatory disorders and other pathophysiological conditions. The accurate detection of peroxynitrite in biological systems is important, not only to understand the genesis and development of diseases, but also to explore and design potential therapeutics. Herein, a manganese oxide/hemin-modified graphene interface is explored as a platform for peroxynitrite amperometric detection. Hemin-functionalized reduced graphene oxide was further modified with manganese oxide nanoparticles to provide a composite material ...


The Rational Design, Synthesis, Characterization, And Biological Evaluation Of Cancer-Targeting Immunostimulatory Peptide-Protein Conjugates And Tripeptides, Keith Smith 2018 Seton Hall University

The Rational Design, Synthesis, Characterization, And Biological Evaluation Of Cancer-Targeting Immunostimulatory Peptide-Protein Conjugates And Tripeptides, Keith Smith

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

With the advent of cancer immunotherapy and the rise in applications of synthetic biologics, there has been a steady decline in the incidence of cancer. Despite this trend, there is an anticipated 1.7 million new cancer cases with an estimated 610,000 deaths expected by the end of 2018.2 Therefore, the call for continued efforts in creating more effective treatment options are still in high demand. In this thesis, the rational design of a semi-synthetic cancer-targeting immunostimulatory peptide-protein bioconjugate—using N-succinimidyl carbamate chemistry is described. This bio-orthogonal chemistry approach was used to conjugate the synthetic Pep42, cancer-targeting peptide ...


Sodium Pyruvate Alters The Immune Response To Influenza A Virus Infection In Macrophages, Hazzar Abysalamah 2018 Missouri State University

Sodium Pyruvate Alters The Immune Response To Influenza A Virus Infection In Macrophages, Hazzar Abysalamah

MSU Graduate Theses

ABSTRACT

Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis. It can either be transported into the mitochondria for use in the TCA cycle or be used to regenerate NAD+ during fermentation or aerobic glycolysis (also called the Warburg Effect). I recently discovered that addition of sodium pyruvate to the culture medium during infection of macrophages with influenza A virus affects the production of cytokines involved in immune signaling. While infection of macrophages with influenza A virus resulted in high levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) in the absence of sodium pyruvate, the addition of sodium pyruvate significantly impaired cytokine production ...


Electron Flow And Management In Living Systems: Advancing Understanding Of Electron Transfer To Nitrogenase, Rhesa N. Ledbetter 2018 Utah State University

Electron Flow And Management In Living Systems: Advancing Understanding Of Electron Transfer To Nitrogenase, Rhesa N. Ledbetter

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen is a critical nutrient for growth and reproduction in living organisms. Although the Earth’s atmosphere is composed of ~80% nitrogen gas (N2), it is inaccessible to most living organisms in that form. Biological nitrogen fixation, however, can be performed by microbes that harbor the enzyme nitrogenase. This enzyme converts N2 into bioavailable ammonia (NH3) and accounts for at least half of the “fixed”nitrogen on the planet. The other major contributor to ammonia production is the industrial Haber-Bosch process. While the Haber-Bosch process has made significant advances in sustaining the global food supply through the generation of fertilizer ...


Characterization Of A Variant Of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 And Its Interaction With Rheb, Sowmya Sivakumar 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of A Variant Of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 And Its Interaction With Rheb, Sowmya Sivakumar

Theses and Dissertations

Protein-protein interactions are vital in maintaining proper function and homeostasis in cells. Some signaling pathways are regulated by G-proteins that work like switches to activate and deactivate pathways. Mutations in these proteins, their effectors or the interaction between proteins may cause dysregulation of signals that can lead to many diseases.

Rheb, Ras homology enriched in brain, is a Ras family GTPase that is vital in regulation of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway that signals cell proliferation and growth. Due to the low intrinsic GTPase activity of Rheb, a GTPase activating protein (GAP), Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2) down ...


Activities And Classroom Demonstrations In Biological Physics: A Resource Document, Philip C. Nelson, William Berner 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Activities And Classroom Demonstrations In Biological Physics: A Resource Document, Philip C. Nelson, William Berner

Department of Physics Papers

We give detailed recipes for a number of classroom demonstrations relevant to biological physics instruction. We developed them mainly for use in 2nd-3rd year undergraduate Physics courses. But you can (and we do) use them for primary school, through high school, up to PhD candidates. You adapt the words for each audience, but a phenomenon is a phenomenon.

We also outline a 1-hour introduction to Python for undergraduate scientific computing.

Finally we document some outcomes from courses taught at U Pennsylvania using these resources and others cited here. This material was presented at a workshop at the AAPT meeting in ...


Effect Of Egta On Sit1 Scramblase Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Emma Esposito, Theda Knauth, Amelia Ohnstad, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effect Of Egta On Sit1 Scramblase Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Emma Esposito, Theda Knauth, Amelia Ohnstad, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

Scramblase is an enzyme that facilitates the movement of newly synthesized phospholipids from the cytosolic side to the extracellular side of the lipid bilayer. This process is vital for cell membrane repair and growth. In Tetrahymena thermophila, the gene SIT1 encodes for the Scramblase protein, whose functionality is Ca2+-dependent. In this experiment, the concentration of accessible Ca2+ ions was decreased in order to observe whether the change had an aect on the expression of SIT1 and cell growth. It was hypothesized that expression of the SIT1 gene would increase, while cell growth would decrease. To carry out the experiment ...


Lipid Transport Required To Make Lipids Of Photosynthetic Membranes, Evan LaBrant, Allison C. Barnes, Rebecca Roston 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Lipid Transport Required To Make Lipids Of Photosynthetic Membranes, Evan Labrant, Allison C. Barnes, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Photosynthetic membranes provide much of the usable energy for life on earth. To produce photosynthetic membrane lipids, multiple transport steps are required, including fatty acid export from the chloroplast stroma to the endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the chloroplast envelope membranes. Transport of hydrophobic molecules through aqueous space is energetically unfavorable and must be catalyzed by dedicated enzymes, frequently on specialized membrane structures. Here, we review photosynthetic membrane lipid transport to the chloroplast in the context of photosynthetic membrane lipid synthesis. We independently consider the identity of transported lipids, the proteinaceous transport components, and membrane ...


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