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Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak 2018 The University of Akron

Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak

Honors Research Projects

Eph receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are activated by membrane-bound ligands called ephrins. Eph RTKs are divided into two subclasses, each activated by a specific classes of the ligand ephrin. The overexpression of Eph receptors is correlated to cancer cell metastasis in several different types of cancers. Studies with the EphA2 extracellular domain (ECD) and ephrinA1 ligand have shown that upon binding of ephrin to the receptor, EphA2 undergoes increased oligomerization and activation. This indicates that oligomerization is intimately connected to kinase activity. High resolution crystal structures of the EphA2 ECD have revealed some details of these ligand bound oligomers, as ...


Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Inflammation plays a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Investigating how specific mediators of inflammation contribute to neurodegeneration in AD is crucial. Our studies focused on cyclooxygenases, which are key enzymes in inflammation and highly relevant to AD. Cyclooxygenases (COX -1, constitutive; COX-2, inducible) have emerged as important determinants of AD pathogenesis and progression. COX-2 is highly induced in AD, correlating with AD severity, and COX-1 is also involved in AD. Cyclooxygenases are the rate-limiting enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs), the principal mediators of CNS neuroinflammation.

The overall GOAL of these studies was to address the ...


Heme Regulation Of Human Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity: Insights From Fluorescence And Raman Spectroscopy, Colin L. Weeks, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Ruma Banerjee, Thomas G. Spiro 2017 University of Washington

Heme Regulation Of Human Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity: Insights From Fluorescence And Raman Spectroscopy, Colin L. Weeks, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Ruma Banerjee, Thomas G. Spiro

Colin L. Weeks

Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) plays a central role in cysteine metabolism, and malfunction of the enzyme leads to homocystinuria, a devastating metabolic disease. CBS contains a pyridoxal 5′- phosphate (PLP) cofactor which catalyzes the synthesis of cystathionine from homocysteine and serine. Mammalian forms of the enzyme also contain a heme group, which is not involved in catalysis. It may, however, play a regulatory role, since the enzyme is inhibited when CO or NO are bound to the heme. We have investigated the mechanism of this inhibition using fluorescence and resonance Raman spectroscopies. CO binding is found to induce a tautomeric shift ...


Modulation Of The Heme Electronic Structure And Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity By Second Coordination Sphere Ligands: The Role Of Heme Ligand Switching In Redox Regulation, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Jay Stasser, Colin L. Weeks, Donald Becker, Thomas G. Spiro, James Penner-Hahn, Ruma Banerjee 2017 The University Of Michigan

Modulation Of The Heme Electronic Structure And Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity By Second Coordination Sphere Ligands: The Role Of Heme Ligand Switching In Redox Regulation, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Jay Stasser, Colin L. Weeks, Donald Becker, Thomas G. Spiro, James Penner-Hahn, Ruma Banerjee

Colin L. Weeks

In humans, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a hemeprotein, which catalyzes a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent condensation reaction. Changes in the heme environment are communicated to the active site, which is ~20 Å away. In this study, we have examined the role of H67 and R266, which are in the second coordination sphere of the heme ligands, H65 and C52 respectively, in modulating the heme's electronic properties and in transmitting information between the heme and active sites. While the H67A mutation is comparable to wild-type CBS, interesting differences are revealed by mutations at the R266 site. The pathogenic mutant, R266K ...


Tracking The Sexual Assault Kit Backlog, Kallie Crawford, Lyndsie Ferrara 2017 Duquesne University

Tracking The Sexual Assault Kit Backlog, Kallie Crawford, Lyndsie Ferrara

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

The backlog of untested sexual assault kits is a national problem. Numerous federal funding opportunities offer the forensic science and law enforcement communities valuable resources needed to test the kits, but issues still remain. The majority of resources are focused on the collection and testing of sexual assault kits, but the tracking of the kits has not been a primary focus. This research highlights improvements that can be made to better understand the current backlog and improve the future processing and tracking of kits. Given the lack of a universal evidence tracking database among agencies, tracking sexual assault kits seems ...


Investigating The Significance Of Acetylation By Hopz3 In Pseudomonas Syringae, George Walters-Marrah 2017 University of Central Florida

Investigating The Significance Of Acetylation By Hopz3 In Pseudomonas Syringae, George Walters-Marrah

George Walters-Marrah

Pseudomonas syringae (Psy) is a bacterial plant pathogen and the causative agent of leaf spot. Psy’s success is largely due to its type III secretion system (T3SS) that enables it to inject a large repertoire of effector proteins into plant cells. The effector protein HopZ3 has been shown to suppress immune responses and promote bacterial growth. HopZ3 can bind to and acetylate the effector protein AvrPto and the tomato protein Pto, a member of the Prf immune complex found in tomato. Pto recognizes and interacts with AvrPto to activate the immune response during infection, but HopZ3-mediated acetylation reduces AvrPto-Pto ...


Dietary Phytochemicals As Inhibitors Of Primary Amine Oxidase, Padraig Shanahan, Jeffrey O'Sullivan, Keith F. Tipton, Gemma Kinsella, Barry J. Ryan, Gary T. Henehan 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology

Dietary Phytochemicals As Inhibitors Of Primary Amine Oxidase, Padraig Shanahan, Jeffrey O'Sullivan, Keith F. Tipton, Gemma Kinsella, Barry J. Ryan, Gary T. Henehan

Articles

Phytochemicals such as methylxanthines, catechins and polyphenols show health benefits in a range of diseases although their mechanism of action is not fully understood. Primary Amine Oxidase (PrAO) is widely recognised as a therapeutic drug target for the treatment of inflammatory, vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous work in our laboratories showed that caffeine inhibited bovine PrAO activity with a Ki of 1.0mM. In the present study we examined a range of methylxanthines and catechins as inhibitors of bovine PrAO. The methylxanthines tested were caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, theobromine and 7-methylxanthine. Of these, only theobromine was an inhibitor with an IC50 ...


Expression And Purification Of Dna Polymerase 1 (Klenow Fragment) For Single-Molecule Nanotube Dna Sequencing, Chanelle Hunter 2017 University of Central Florida

Expression And Purification Of Dna Polymerase 1 (Klenow Fragment) For Single-Molecule Nanotube Dna Sequencing, Chanelle Hunter

Chanelle Hunter

Errors during DNA synthesis can introduce genomic mutations, and can lead to cancer and other genetic diseases. DNA sequencing can identify these errors at the molecular level, but wide spread application of this technique requires breakthroughs in DNA sequencing. This research examines DNA synthesis using a single molecule of the Klenow Fragment (KF) of DNA Polymerase 1 wired to a single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistor (SWCNT-FET). If successful, this approach could revolutionize DNA sequencing. KF catalyzes incorporation of deoxynucleotidetriphosphates (dNTPs) into new strands of DNA. During this catalysis, conformational changes in the protein could generate signals specific to each ...


Changes In Zooplankton Community, And Seston And Zooplankton Fatty Acid Profiles At The Freshwater/Saltwater Interface Of The Chowan River, North Carolina, Deborah A. Lichti, Jacques Rinchard, David G. Kimmel 2017 East Carolina University

Changes In Zooplankton Community, And Seston And Zooplankton Fatty Acid Profiles At The Freshwater/Saltwater Interface Of The Chowan River, North Carolina, Deborah A. Lichti, Jacques Rinchard, David G. Kimmel

Environmental Science and Ecology Faculty Publications

The variability in zooplankton fatty acid composition may be an indicator of larval fish habitat quality as fatty acids are linked to fish larval growth and survival. We sampled an anadromous fish nursery, the Chowan River, during spring of 2013 in order to determine how the seston fatty acid composition varied in comparison with the zooplankton community composition and fatty acid composition during the period of anadromous larval fish residency. The seston fatty acid profiles showed no distinct pattern in relation to sampling time or location. The mesozooplankton community composition varied spatially and the fatty acid profiles were typical of ...


Metalloproteases Of The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Roman M. Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Metalloproteases Of The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Roman M. Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The inner mitochondrial membrane (IM) is among most protein-rich cellular compartments. The metastable IM sub-proteome where the concentration of proteins is approaching oversaturation creates a challenging protein folding environment with high probability for protein malfunction or aggregation. Failure to maintain protein homeostasis in such a setting can impair functional integrity of the mitochondria and drive clinical manifestations. The IM is equipped with a series of highly conserved, proteolytic complexes dedicated to the maintenance of normal protein homeostasis within this mitochondrial sub-compartment. Particularly important is a group of membrane-anchored metallopeptidases commonly known as m-AAA and i-AAA proteases, and the ATP-independent Oma1 ...


The Role Of Interactions Of Long Non-Coding Rnas And Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins In Regulating Cellular Functions, Xinghui Sun, Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen Haider Ali, Matthew Moran 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Role Of Interactions Of Long Non-Coding Rnas And Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins In Regulating Cellular Functions, Xinghui Sun, Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen Haider Ali, Matthew Moran

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of various biological processes and human diseases. The mechanisms of action involve their interactions with proteins, RNA and genomic DNA. Most lncRNAs display strong nuclear localization. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a large family of RNA-binding proteins that are important for multiple aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. hnRNPs are also predominantly expressed in the nucleus. This review discusses the interactions of lncRNAs and hnRNPs in regulating gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels or by changing genomic structure, highlighting their involvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, immune response, DNA damage response ...


Accurate Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Through Automated Dicentric Chromosome Curation And Metaphase Cell Selection, Jin Liu, Yanxin Li, Ruth Wilkins, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Joan H. Knoll, Peter Rogan 2017 Western University

Accurate Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Through Automated Dicentric Chromosome Curation And Metaphase Cell Selection, Jin Liu, Yanxin Li, Ruth Wilkins, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Joan H. Knoll, Peter Rogan

Biochemistry Publications

Accurate digital image analysis of abnormal microscopic structures relies on high quality images and on minimizing the rates of false positive (FP) and negative objects in images. Cytogenetic biodosimetry detects dicentric chromosomes (DCs) that arise from exposure to ionizing radiation, and determines radiation dose received based on DC frequency. Improvements in automated DC recognition increase the accuracy of dose estimates by reclassifying FP DCs as monocentric chromosomes or chromosome fragments. We also present image segmentation methods to rank high quality digital metaphase images and eliminate suboptimal metaphase cells. A set of chromosome morphology segmentation methods selectively filtered out FP DCs ...


Tumor Formation In Response To Loss Of Chromatin Remodeler Chd5 In Zebrafish, Taylor R. Sabato, Erin L. Sorlien, Dr. Joseph P. Ogas 2017 Purdue University

Tumor Formation In Response To Loss Of Chromatin Remodeler Chd5 In Zebrafish, Taylor R. Sabato, Erin L. Sorlien, Dr. Joseph P. Ogas

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in humans. Deletion or mutation of CHD5 has been observed in numerous cancers, including neuroblastoma and melanoma. We hypothesize that chd5 is also a tumor suppressor in zebrafish, a powerful model system to study tumorigenesis. Many genes involved in tumorigenesis are conserved in zebrafish, and they develop fully penetrant tumor phenotypes. We have created chd5 knock-out zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas9 and are monitoring them for tumor development. In addition to the chd5 knock-outs, we are undertaking a double-mutant approach by coupling loss of ...


Determination Of Amino Acids Involved In Specificity And Activity Of Chladub2, Trent S. Arbough, John M. Hausman, Chittaranjan Das 2017 Purdue University

Determination Of Amino Acids Involved In Specificity And Activity Of Chladub2, Trent S. Arbough, John M. Hausman, Chittaranjan Das

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Chlamydia trachomatis is a pathogen which infects humans as a sexually transmitted disease or through ocular infection, causing ocular trachoma. Ocular trachoma is the leading cause of non-congenital blindness in developing countries. The bacteria employs the deubiquitinating enzyme ChlaDUB2 to remove ubiquitin from its inclusion membrane in order to avoid lysosomal degradation. Key amino acids involved in ubiquitin recognition and cleavage were mutated in order to probe substrate specificity and catalytic activity of ChlaDUB2. Mutants were used in fluorometry assays in order to determine how the mutations affect the ability of ChlaDUB2 to release the amino methyl coumarin (AMC) group ...


Fluorescent Protein Biosensor For Use In Parkinson's Research, Piper R. Miller, Keelan Trull, Mathew Tantama 2017 Purdue University

Fluorescent Protein Biosensor For Use In Parkinson's Research, Piper R. Miller, Keelan Trull, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Purinergic signaling is a type of extracellular communication that occurs between cells, mediated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine. In Parkinson’s Disease, purinergic signaling is disrupted, which contributes to neurodegeneration. In order to monitor this change in cell-to-cell signaling, there is a need for the development of a fluorescent protein (FP) biosensor to study the changes in the concentration of the signaling molecule ATP and its decomposition bioproduct ADP. This summer a genetically encoded ADP sensor that measures changes in ADP concentration was developed. This sensor utilizes Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) which is a sensing ...


Another Route For Amino Acid Production?: Reverse Genetic Probing For A Functional Cytosolic Shikimate Pathway In Plants, Gabrielle C. Buck, Joseph Lynch, Natalia Dudareva 2017 Purdue University

Another Route For Amino Acid Production?: Reverse Genetic Probing For A Functional Cytosolic Shikimate Pathway In Plants, Gabrielle C. Buck, Joseph Lynch, Natalia Dudareva

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The shikimate pathway is a metabolic pathway that produces the three aromatic amino acids—phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine—which are essential to human diets and necessary for many plant functions. Consequently, the shikimate pathway is commonly targeted for antibiotic and herbicide strategies as well as genetic engineering in several fields. This pathway is known to be localized in the plastids, or double membrane-bound organelles, of plant cells; however, there is enzymatic evidence of another shikimate pathway in the cell fluid, or cytosol. To determine whether a complete cytosolic shikimate pathway exists, we used a modified gene for the first enzyme ...


Performing A Genetic Screen To Identify Factors That Promote Lncrna-Dependent Gene Repression, Chrishan Fernando, Cecilia Yiu, Sara Cloutier, Siwen Wang, Elizabeth Tran 2017 Purdue University

Performing A Genetic Screen To Identify Factors That Promote Lncrna-Dependent Gene Repression, Chrishan Fernando, Cecilia Yiu, Sara Cloutier, Siwen Wang, Elizabeth Tran

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were once thought not to have useful functions in organisms but rather to be products of aberrant transcription. However, roles are being found for lncRNAs in beneficial processes such as controlling gene expression. In some of these cases, lncRNAs form R-loops in vivo. R-loops are nucleic acid structures consisting of hybridized strands of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) as well as the displaced strand of ssDNA. Formation of these R-loops is important for gene regulation by the lncRNAs. However, factors that promote formation of lncRNA R-loops are not known. The gene PHO84 is being ...


Fret Biosensors: Engineering Fluorescent Proteins As Biological Tools For Studying Parkinson’S Disease, Nathan J. LeRoy, Jacob R. Norley, Saranya Radhakrishnan, Mathew Tantama 2017 Purdue University

Fret Biosensors: Engineering Fluorescent Proteins As Biological Tools For Studying Parkinson’S Disease, Nathan J. Leroy, Jacob R. Norley, Saranya Radhakrishnan, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease with over 200,000 new cases each year. In general, the cause of the disease is unknown, but oxidative stress inside of neurons has been associated with the disease’s pathology for some time. Currently, techniques to study the onset of PD inside of neurons are limited. This makes treatments and causes difficult to discover. One solution to this has been fluorescent protein biosensors. In short, these proteins can be engineered to glow when a certain state is achieved inside a cell. The present research discusses the engineering of a genetically-encoded ...


Determining The Role Of Epigenetic Factors In Antifungal Drug Resistance, Abigail R. Gress, Scott D. Briggs, Nina Serratore 2017 Purdue University

Determining The Role Of Epigenetic Factors In Antifungal Drug Resistance, Abigail R. Gress, Scott D. Briggs, Nina Serratore

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Epigenetic factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by altering transcriptional machinery access to nucleosomes, DNA wrapped around histone proteins. Two classes of epigenetic factors are ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers and histone modifiers such as histone methyltransferases (HMTs), proteins that add methyl groups to histone tails. This study focuses on AIF4 (Antifungal-Induced Factor 4), a possible HMT induced upon neutral lipid depletion that we hypothesize is regulating antifungal drug resistance genes. Overexpression of AIF4 results in hypersensitivity to antifungal drugs. Studying epigenetic factors in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including AIF4, can lead to better understanding of cell adaptation to their environments ...


Immunological Strategies To Study Grp170 In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Raven P. Baxter-Christian 2017 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Immunological Strategies To Study Grp170 In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Raven P. Baxter-Christian

Biology Theses

Characterization of the ER protein folding chaperone GRP170 of Caenorhabditis elegans could be greatly facilitated by an antibody which recognized the chaperone. Antibodies have not been raised against nematode GRP170. Groups have prepared polyclonal antibodies against vertebrate forms of GRP170. My thesis goal was to investigate whether anti-vertebrate GRP170 antibodies can recognize the nematode homologue on a standard Western Blot assay. Sequences of antigens that groups used to generate anti-vertebrate GRP170 antibodies were analyzed. Peptides used by Ruan et al. (2013), which correspond to regions of human GRP170, shared greatest sequence similarity with nematode GRP170. I investigated whether the Ruan ...


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