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Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Flux Of Restored Vs. Unrestored Wetlands: A Case Study At Prairie Wolf Slough, Matthew Connors, Beth Lawrence 2016 DePaul University

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Flux Of Restored Vs. Unrestored Wetlands: A Case Study At Prairie Wolf Slough, Matthew Connors, Beth Lawrence

DePaul Discoveries

Wetlands provide ecological services such as cleansing the water supply, sequestering carbon, and providing habitat for wildlife, however wetland restoration often alters the greenhouse gas flux of the site. Our study aims to investigate the effects of wetland restoration on greenhouse gas flux at Prairie Wolf Slough. We did this by comparing greenhouse gas flux on matching hydric soil series from the restored wetland with an adjacent abandoned agricultural field. We measured known controls of greenhouse gas flux such as soil moisture and soil temperature. We found that there was no detectable methane and nitrous oxide flux at either site ...


Bauer Ketones 23 And 24 From Echinacea Paradoxa Var. Paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 And Cytokines In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Xiaozhu Zhang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Catherine C. Hauck, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Basil J. Nikolau, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt 2016 Iowa State University

Bauer Ketones 23 And 24 From Echinacea Paradoxa Var. Paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 And Cytokines In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Xiaozhu Zhang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Catherine C. Hauck, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Basil J. Nikolau, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt

Basil Nikolau

Among the nine Echinacea species, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida, have been widely used to treat the common cold, flu and other infections. In this study, ethanol extracts of these three Echinaceaspecies and E. paradoxa, including its typical variety, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, were screened in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells to assess potential anti-inflammatory activity. E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, rich in polyenes/polyacetylenes, was an especially efficient inhibitor of LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 46%, 32%, 53% and 26%, respectively, when tested at 20 μg ...


Enrichment Of Echinacea Angustifolia With Bauer Alkylamide 11 And Bauer Ketone 23 Increased Anti-Inflammatory Potential Through Interference With Cox-2 Enzyme Activity, Carlie A. LaLone, Nan Huang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Man-Yu Yum, Navrozedeep Singh, Cathy Hauck, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Marian L. Kohut, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt 2016 Iowa State University

Enrichment Of Echinacea Angustifolia With Bauer Alkylamide 11 And Bauer Ketone 23 Increased Anti-Inflammatory Potential Through Interference With Cox-2 Enzyme Activity, Carlie A. Lalone, Nan Huang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Man-Yu Yum, Navrozedeep Singh, Cathy Hauck, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Marian L. Kohut, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt

Basil Nikolau

Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 were previously found to be partially responsible forEchinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS-induced PGE2 production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with ...


Inhibition Of Lentivirus Replication By Aqueous Extracts Of Prunella Vulgaris, Melinda A. Brindley, Mark P. Widrlechner, Joe-Ann McCoy, Patricia A. Murphy, Catherine C. Hauck, Ludmila Rizshsky, Basil J. Nikolau, Wendy Maury 2016 University of Iowa

Inhibition Of Lentivirus Replication By Aqueous Extracts Of Prunella Vulgaris, Melinda A. Brindley, Mark P. Widrlechner, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Patricia A. Murphy, Catherine C. Hauck, Ludmila Rizshsky, Basil J. Nikolau, Wendy Maury

Basil Nikolau

Background
Various members of the mint family have been used historically in Chinese and Native American medicine. Many of these same family members, including Prunella vulgaris, have been reported to have anti-viral activities. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of P. vulgaris, water and ethanol extractions were tested for their ability to inhibit equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) replication.

Results
Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent anti-lentiviral activity against virus in cell lines as well as in primary cell cultures with little to no cellular cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that the extracts were effective ...


Identification Of Light-Independent Inhibition Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection Through Bioguided Fractionation Of Hypericum Perforatum, Wendy Maury, Jason P. Price, Melinda A. Brindley, ChoonSeok Oh, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, David F. Wiemer, Nickolas Wills, Susan L. Carpenter, Catherine C. Hauck, Patricia A. Murphy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kathleen Delate, Ganesh Kumar, George A. Kraus, Ludmila Rizshsky, Basil J. Nikolau 2016 University of Iowa

Identification Of Light-Independent Inhibition Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection Through Bioguided Fractionation Of Hypericum Perforatum, Wendy Maury, Jason P. Price, Melinda A. Brindley, Choonseok Oh, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, David F. Wiemer, Nickolas Wills, Susan L. Carpenter, Catherine C. Hauck, Patricia A. Murphy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kathleen Delate, Ganesh Kumar, George A. Kraus, Ludmila Rizshsky, Basil J. Nikolau

Basil Nikolau

Background
Light-dependent activities against enveloped viruses in St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts have been extensively studied. In contrast, light-independent antiviral activity from this species has not been investigated.

Results
Here, we identify the light-independent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) by highly purified fractions of chloroform extracts of H. perforatum. Both cytotoxicity and antiviral activity were evident in initial chloroform extracts, but bioassay-guided fractionation produced fractions that inhibited HIV-1 with little to no cytotoxicity. Separation of these two biological activities has not been reported for constituents responsible for the light-dependent antiviral activities. Antiviral activity was associated with more ...


The Role Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase And Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase In Fatty Acid Synthesis In Developing Arabidopsis Seeds, Jinshan Ke, Robert H. Behal, Stephanie L. Back, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, David J. Oliver 2016 Iowa State University

The Role Of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase And Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase In Fatty Acid Synthesis In Developing Arabidopsis Seeds, Jinshan Ke, Robert H. Behal, Stephanie L. Back, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, David J. Oliver

Basil Nikolau

Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) formed within the plastid is the precursor for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and, through them, a range of important biomolecules. The source of acetyl-CoA in the plastid is not known, but two enzymes are thought to be involved: acetyl-CoA synthetase and plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase. To determine the importance of these two enzymes in synthesizing acetyl-CoA during lipid accumulation in developing Arabidopsis seeds, we isolated cDNA clones for acetyl-CoA synthetase and for the ptE1α- and ptE1β-subunits of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported acetyl-CoA synthetase sequence from a plant source. The Arabidopsis ...


Heterologous Expression Of A Rice Mir395 Gene In Nicotiana Tabacum Impairs Sulfate Homeostasis, Ning Yuan, Shuangrong Yuan, Zhigang Li, Dayong Li, Qian Hu, Hong Luo 2016 Clemson University

Heterologous Expression Of A Rice Mir395 Gene In Nicotiana Tabacum Impairs Sulfate Homeostasis, Ning Yuan, Shuangrong Yuan, Zhigang Li, Dayong Li, Qian Hu, Hong Luo

Publications

Sulfur participates in many important mechanisms and pathways of plant development. The most common source of sulfur in soil –SO42−– is absorbed into root tissue and distributed into aerial part through vasculature system, where it is reduced into sulfite and finally sulfide within the subcellular organs such as chloroplasts and mitochondria and used for cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. MicroRNAs are involved in many regulation pathways by repressing the expression of their target genes. MiR395 family in Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported to be an important regulator involved in sulfate transport and assimilation, and a high-affinity sulphate transporter and ...


Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies Of The Oligomeric State And Quaternary Structure Of The Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (Puta) Flavoprotein From Escherichia Coli, Ranjan K. Singh, John D. Larson, Weidong Zhu, Robert P. Rambo, Greg L. Hura, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner 2016 University of Missouri-Columbia

Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies Of The Oligomeric State And Quaternary Structure Of The Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (Puta) Flavoprotein From Escherichia Coli, Ranjan K. Singh, John D. Larson, Weidong Zhu, Robert P. Rambo, Greg L. Hura, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Trifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) proteins are multifunctional flavoproteins that catalyze two reactions and repress transcription of the put regulon.

Results: PutA from Escherichia coli is a V-shaped dimer, with the DNA-binding domain mediating dimerization.

Conclusion: Oligomeric state and quaternary structures are not conserved by PutAs.

Significance: The first three-dimensional structural information for any trifunctional PutA is reported.


Real-Time Kinetic Studies Of Bacillus Subtilis Oxalate Decarboxylase And Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Oxalate Oxidase Using Luminescent Oxygen Sensor, Laura Molina, Thomas Goodall, Umar Twahir, Ellen W. Moomaw 2016 University of Florida

Real-Time Kinetic Studies Of Bacillus Subtilis Oxalate Decarboxylase And Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora Oxalate Oxidase Using Luminescent Oxygen Sensor, Laura Molina, Thomas Goodall, Umar Twahir, Ellen W. Moomaw

Ellen Moomaw

Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC), an enzyme of the bicupin superfamily, catalyzes the decomposition of oxalate into carbon dioxide and formate at an optimal pH of 4.3 in the presence of oxygen. However, about 0.2% of all reactions occur through an oxidase mechanism that consumes oxygen while producing two equivalents of carbon dioxide and one equivalent of hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of oxidase activity were studied by measuring the consumption of dissolved oxygen over time using a luminescent oxygen sensor. We describe the implementation of and improvements to the oxygen consumption assay. The oxidase activity of wild type OxDC was ...


Kinetic And Spectroscopic Studies Of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase And Putative Active Site Mutants, Ellen W. Moomaw, Eric Hoffer, Patricia Moussatche, John C. Salerno 2016 Kennesaw State University

Kinetic And Spectroscopic Studies Of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase And Putative Active Site Mutants, Ellen W. Moomaw, Eric Hoffer, Patricia Moussatche, John C. Salerno

Ellen Moomaw

Ceriporiopsis subvermispora oxalate oxidase (CsOxOx) is the first bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes manganese-dependent oxidation of oxalate. In previous work, we have shown that the dominant contribution to catalysis comes from the monoprotonated form of oxalate binding to a form of the enzyme in which an active site carboxylic acid residue must be unprotonated. CsOxOx shares greatest sequence homology with bicupin microbial oxalate decarboxylases (OxDC) and the 241-244DASN region of the N-terminal Mn binding domain of CsOxOx is analogous to the lid region of OxDC that has been shown to determine reaction specificity. We have prepared a series of CsOxOx ...


Protein Similarity Networks Reveal Relationships Among Sequence, Structure, And Function Within The Cupin Superfamily, Richard Uberto, Ellen W. Moomaw 2016 Kennesaw State University

Protein Similarity Networks Reveal Relationships Among Sequence, Structure, And Function Within The Cupin Superfamily, Richard Uberto, Ellen W. Moomaw

Ellen Moomaw

The cupin superfamily is extremely diverse and includes catalytically inactive seed storage proteins, sugar-binding metal-independent epimerases, and metal-dependent enzymes possessing dioxygenase, decarboxylase, and other activities. Although numerous proteins of this superfamily have been structurally characterized, the functions of many of them have not been experimentally determined. We report the first use of protein similarity networks (PSNs) to visualize trends of sequence and structure in order to make functional inferences in this remarkably diverse superfamily. PSNs provide a way to visualize relatedness of structure and sequence among a given set of proteins. Structure- and sequence-based clustering of cupin members reflects functional ...


Kinetic And Spectroscopic Studies Of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase And Putative Active Site Mutants, Ellen W. Moomaw, Eric Hoffer, Patricia Moussatche, John C. Salerno 2016 Kennesaw State University

Kinetic And Spectroscopic Studies Of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase And Putative Active Site Mutants, Ellen W. Moomaw, Eric Hoffer, Patricia Moussatche, John C. Salerno

Ellen Moomaw

Ceriporiopsis subvermispora oxalate oxidase (CsOxOx) is the first bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes manganese-dependent oxidation of oxalate. In previous work, we have shown that the dominant contribution to catalysis comes from the monoprotonated form of oxalate binding to a form of the enzyme in which an active site carboxylic acid residue must be unprotonated. CsOxOx shares greatest sequence homology with bicupin microbial oxalate decarboxylases (OxDC) and the 241-244DASN region of the N-terminal Mn binding domain of CsOxOx is analogous to the lid region of OxDC that has been shown to determine reaction specificity. We have prepared a series of CsOxOx ...


Protein Similarity Networks Reveal Relationships Among Sequence, Structure, And Function Within The Cupin Superfamily, Richard Uberto, Ellen W. Moomaw 2016 Kennesaw State University

Protein Similarity Networks Reveal Relationships Among Sequence, Structure, And Function Within The Cupin Superfamily, Richard Uberto, Ellen W. Moomaw

Ellen Moomaw

The cupin superfamily is extremely diverse and includes catalytically inactive seed storage proteins, sugar-binding metal-independent epimerases, and metal-dependent enzymes possessing dioxygenase, decarboxylase, and other activities. Although numerous proteins of this superfamily have been structurally characterized, the functions of many of them have not been experimentally determined. We report the first use of protein similarity networks (PSNs) to visualize trends of sequence and structure in order to make functional inferences in this remarkably diverse superfamily. PSNs provide a way to visualize relatedness of structure and sequence among a given set of proteins. Structure- and sequence-based clustering of cupin members reflects functional ...


Hepatic Lipase Treatment Of Chylomicron Remnants Increases Exposure Of Apolipoprotein E, Dawn L. Brasaemle, Kathleen Cornely-Moss, André Bensadoun 2016 Providence College

Hepatic Lipase Treatment Of Chylomicron Remnants Increases Exposure Of Apolipoprotein E, Dawn L. Brasaemle, Kathleen Cornely-Moss, André Bensadoun

Kathleen Cornely

The consequences of hepatic lipase treatment of chylomicron remnants were studied. Rats were fed corn oil to induce production and secretion of chylomicrons and were then injected with polyclonal antiserum raised against hepatic lipase to specifically and quantitatively inhibit hepatic lipase activity in vivo. A fraction enriched in chylomicron remnants was isolated from rat plasma by a brief centrifugation step that preferentially isolates triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein (apo) B-48-containing lipoproteins. The chylomicron remnants were then treated with hepatic lipase in vitro, or incubated under identical conditions in the absence of enzyme (control incubations). Hepatic lipase-treated and control chylomicron remnants were isolated by ...


Interaction Of Spliceosomal U2 Snrnp Protein P14 With Its Branch Site Rna Target, William Perea Vargas 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Interaction Of Spliceosomal U2 Snrnp Protein P14 With Its Branch Site Rna Target, William Perea Vargas

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Newly transcribed precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) molecules contain coding sequences (exons) interspersed with non-coding intervening sequences (introns). These introns must be removed in order to generate a continuous coding sequence prior to translation of the message into protein. The mechanism through which these introns are removed is known as pre-mRNA splicing, a two-step reaction catalyzed be a large macromolecular machine, the spliceosome, located in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The spliceosome is a protein-directed ribozyme composed of small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) and hundreds of proteins that assemble in a very dynamic process. One of these snRNAs, the U2 snRNA, is ...


Circular Oligodeoxynucleotides (Coligos) As Chemically Synthesized, Promoter-Independent Small Rna Expression Vectors, Lodoe Lama 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Circular Oligodeoxynucleotides (Coligos) As Chemically Synthesized, Promoter-Independent Small Rna Expression Vectors, Lodoe Lama

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Small RNAs (sRNA) such as microRNA (miRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), and other types of RNA have been found to play many important biological roles in regulation of different cellular process leading to their possible use as therapeutics. However, one of the biggest hurdles in exploiting these sRNAs in therapeutics has been the difficulty in delivering them safely and stably into human tissues. Many delivery approaches have been undertaken to deliver these sRNA, albeit with many shortcomings in terms of cost, stability, and side effects, necessitating the need for alternative approaches. We are exploring an entirely different approach for conveying ...


Actr/Aib1 Functions As An E2f1 Coactivator To Promote Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation And Antiestrogen Resistance, Maggie C. Louie, June X. Zou, Alina Rabinovich, Hong-Wu Chen 2016 Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, UCD Cancer Center/Basic Science, University of California at Davis

Actr/Aib1 Functions As An E2f1 Coactivator To Promote Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation And Antiestrogen Resistance, Maggie C. Louie, June X. Zou, Alina Rabinovich, Hong-Wu Chen

Maggie Louie

Overexpression or amplification of ACTR (also named AIB1, RAC3, p/CIP, TRAM-1, and SRC-3), a member of the p160 family of coactivators for nuclear hormone receptors, has been frequently detected in multiple types of human tumors, including breast cancer. However, its role in cancer cell proliferation and the underlying mechanism are unclear. Here, we show that overexpression of ACTR not only enhances estrogen-stimulated cell proliferation but also, more strikingly, completely negates the cell cycle arrest effect by tamoxifen and pure antiestrogens. Unexpectedly, we found that ACTR directly interacts, through its N-terminal domain, with E2F1 and is recruited to E2F target ...


Androgen-Induced Recruitment Of Rna Polymerase Ii To A Nuclear Receptor–P160 Coactivator Complex, Maggie Louie, Hong Qiong Yang, Ai-Hong Ma, Wei Xu, June X. Zou, Hsing-Jien Kung, Hong-Wu Chen 2016 *Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California at Davis Cancer CenterBasic Science, University of California at Davis

Androgen-Induced Recruitment Of Rna Polymerase Ii To A Nuclear Receptor–P160 Coactivator Complex, Maggie Louie, Hong Qiong Yang, Ai-Hong Ma, Wei Xu, June X. Zou, Hsing-Jien Kung, Hong-Wu Chen

Maggie Louie

The androgen receptor, like other nuclear receptors, activates target genes by binding to hormone-responsive enhancers. Here we demonstrate that androgen induces robust recruitment of androgen receptor, members of the p160 coactivator family, and CREB-binding protein/p300 specifically at the distant enhancer of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene. Unexpectedly, we found that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is directly recruited to the enhancer in a hormone-dependent manner, independent of the proximal promoter, and that the isolated PSA enhancer can mediate efficient androgen induction of transcription. Inhibition of the Pol II carboxyl-terminal domain kinase activity with low concentrations of flavopiridol blocks Pol II ...


Direct Control Of Cell Cycle Gene Expression By Proto-Oncogene Product Actr, And Its Autoregulation Underlies Its Transforming Activity, Maggie Louie, Alexey S. Revenko, June X. Zou, Jennifer Yao, Hong-Wu Chen 2016 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, UCD Cancer Center/Basic Science, University of California at Davis

Direct Control Of Cell Cycle Gene Expression By Proto-Oncogene Product Actr, And Its Autoregulation Underlies Its Transforming Activity, Maggie Louie, Alexey S. Revenko, June X. Zou, Jennifer Yao, Hong-Wu Chen

Maggie Louie

ACTR (also called AIB1 and SRC-3) was identified as a coactivator for nuclear receptors and is linked to multiple types of human cancer due to its frequent overexpression. However, the molecular mechanism of ACTR oncogenicity and its function independent of nuclear receptors remain to be defined. We demonstrate here that ACTR is required for both normal and malignant human cells to effectively enter S phase. RNA interference-mediated depletion and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that endogenous ACTR directly controls the expression of genes important for initiation of DNA replication, which include cdc6, cdc25A, MCM7, cyclin E, and Cdk2. Moreover, consistent with ...


Androgen-Induced Recruitment Of Rna Polymerase Ii To A Nuclear Receptor–P160 Coactivator Complex, Maggie Louie, Hong Qiong Yang, Ai-Hong Ma, Wei Xu, June X. Zou, Hsing-Jien Kung, Hong-Wu Chen 2016 *Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California at Davis Cancer CenterBasic Science, University of California at Davis

Androgen-Induced Recruitment Of Rna Polymerase Ii To A Nuclear Receptor–P160 Coactivator Complex, Maggie Louie, Hong Qiong Yang, Ai-Hong Ma, Wei Xu, June X. Zou, Hsing-Jien Kung, Hong-Wu Chen

Maggie Louie

The androgen receptor, like other nuclear receptors, activates target genes by binding to hormone-responsive enhancers. Here we demonstrate that androgen induces robust recruitment of androgen receptor, members of the p160 coactivator family, and CREB-binding protein/p300 specifically at the distant enhancer of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene. Unexpectedly, we found that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is directly recruited to the enhancer in a hormone-dependent manner, independent of the proximal promoter, and that the isolated PSA enhancer can mediate efficient androgen induction of transcription. Inhibition of the Pol II carboxyl-terminal domain kinase activity with low concentrations of flavopiridol blocks Pol II ...


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