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Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak 2018 The University of Akron

Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak

Honors Research Projects

Eph receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are activated by membrane-bound ligands called ephrins. Eph RTKs are divided into two subclasses, each activated by a specific classes of the ligand ephrin. The overexpression of Eph receptors is correlated to cancer cell metastasis in several different types of cancers. Studies with the EphA2 extracellular domain (ECD) and ephrinA1 ligand have shown that upon binding of ephrin to the receptor, EphA2 undergoes increased oligomerization and activation. This indicates that oligomerization is intimately connected to kinase activity. High resolution crystal structures of the EphA2 ECD have revealed some details of these ligand bound oligomers, as ...


Protein Loop Dynamics Are Complex And Depend On The Motions Of The Whole Protein, Michael T. Zimmermann, Robert L. Jernigan 2017 Iowa State University

Protein Loop Dynamics Are Complex And Depend On The Motions Of The Whole Protein, Michael T. Zimmermann, Robert L. Jernigan

Robert Jernigan

We investigate the relationship between the motions of the same peptide loop segment incorporated within a protein structure and motions of free or end-constrained peptides. As a reference point we also compare against alanine chains having the same length as the loop. Both the analysis of atomic molecular dynamics trajectories and structure-based elastic network models, reveal no general dependence on loop length or on the number of solvent exposed residues. Rather, the whole structure affects the motions in complex ways that depend strongly and specifically on the tertiary structure of the whole protein. Both the Elastic Network Models and Molecular ...


Factors Correlating With Significant Differences Between X-Ray Structures Of Myoglobin, Alexander A. Rashin, Marcin J. Domagalski, Michael T. Zimmermann, Wladek Minor, Maksymilian Chruszcz, Robert L. Jernigan 2017 BioChemComp Inc

Factors Correlating With Significant Differences Between X-Ray Structures Of Myoglobin, Alexander A. Rashin, Marcin J. Domagalski, Michael T. Zimmermann, Wladek Minor, Maksymilian Chruszcz, Robert L. Jernigan

Robert Jernigan

Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are ...


Protein Flexibility: Coordinate Uncertainties And Interpretation Of Structural Differences, Alexander A. Rashin, Abraham H. L. Rashin, Robert L. Jernigan 2017 BioChemComp Inc

Protein Flexibility: Coordinate Uncertainties And Interpretation Of Structural Differences, Alexander A. Rashin, Abraham H. L. Rashin, Robert L. Jernigan

Robert Jernigan

Valid interpretations of conformational movements in protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography require that the movement magnitudes exceed their uncertainty threshold. Here, it is shown that such thresholds can be obtained from the distance difference matrices (DDMs) of 1014 pairs of independently determined structures of bovine ribonuclease A and sperm whale myoglobin, with no explanations provided for reportedly minor coordinate differences. The smallest magnitudes of reportedly functional motions are just above these thresholds. Uncertainty thresholds can provide objective criteria that distinguish between true conformational changes and apparent `noise', showing that some previous interpretations of protein coordinate changes attributed to external ...


Jennifer Maurer Phd Thesis.Pdf, Jennifer Maurer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Jennifer Maurer Phd Thesis.Pdf, Jennifer Maurer

Jennifer Maurer


Signaling cascades, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, play vital roles in early vertebrate development. Signals through these pathways are initiated by a growth factor or hormone, are transduced through a kinase cascade, and result in the expression of specific downstream genes that promote cellular proliferation, growth, or differentiation.Tight regulation of these signals is provided by positive or negative modulators at varying levels in the pathway, and is required for proper development and function. Two members of the dual-specificity phosphatase (Dusp) family, dusp6 and dusp2, are believed to be negative regulators of the ERK pathway and are ...


Investigating The Toxicity And Accumulation Of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) And Glyphosate In Eisenia Fetida, Caitlin Lazurick, Nicole Lidzbarski, Rachel Owings, Jeff Brotherton, Edna Steele 2017 Converse College

Investigating The Toxicity And Accumulation Of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) And Glyphosate In Eisenia Fetida, Caitlin Lazurick, Nicole Lidzbarski, Rachel Owings, Jeff Brotherton, Edna Steele

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Glyphosate, the main ingredient in Roundup®, is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It is also used in combination with another effective herbicide, 2,4-D, in the formulation called Enlist Duo®. The EPA approved the use of Enlist Duo® on certain crops including those genetically modified to be resistant to both herbicides. The predicted significant increase in the use of these herbicides raised concerns from the general public because both compounds have been classified as possibly or probably carcinogenic. Since herbicides are applied directly to vegetation, the safety of organisms that come in contact with the herbicides is ...


Functional Analysis Of Drosophila Integrator Complex In Snrna 3' End Processing, Jiandong Chen 2017 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Functional Analysis Of Drosophila Integrator Complex In Snrna 3' End Processing, Jiandong Chen

Jiandong Chen

Uridine-rich small nuclear RNAs (U snRNAs) play essential roles in eukaryotic gene expression by facilitating the removal of introns from mRNA precursors and the processing of the replication-dependent histone pre-mRNAs. Formation of the 3’ end of these snRNAs is carried out by a poorly characterized, twelve-membered protein complex named Integrator Complex.

In the effort to understand Integrator Complex function in the formation of the snRNA 3’ end, we performed a functional RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells to identify protein factors required for snRNA 3’ end formation. This screen was conducted by using a fluorescence-based reporter that elicits GFP expression ...


Prebiotic Rna Network Formation: A Taxonomy Of Molecular Cooperation, Cole Mathis, Sanjay N. Ramprasad, Sara Imari Walker, Niles Lehman 2017 Arizona State University

Prebiotic Rna Network Formation: A Taxonomy Of Molecular Cooperation, Cole Mathis, Sanjay N. Ramprasad, Sara Imari Walker, Niles Lehman

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Cooperation is essential for evolution of biological complexity. Recent work has shown game theoretic arguments, commonly used to model biological cooperation, can also illuminate the dynamics of chemical systems. Here we investigate the types of cooperation possible in a real RNA system based on the Azoarcusribozyme, by constructing a taxonomy of possible cooperative groups. We construct a computational model of this system to investigate the features of the real system promoting cooperation. We find triplet interactions among genotypes are intrinsically biased towards cooperation due to the particular distribution of catalytic rate constants measured empirically in the real system. For other ...


Purification From Human Milk Of Matriptase Complexes With Secreted Serpins: Mechanism For Inhibition Of Matriptase Other Than Hai-1, I-Chu Tseng, Feng-Pai Chou, Sheng-Feng Su, Michael Oberst, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Ming-Shyue Lee, Jehng-Kang Wang, David E. Sloane, Michael Johnson, Chen-Yong Lin 2017 University of Maryland at Baltimore

Purification From Human Milk Of Matriptase Complexes With Secreted Serpins: Mechanism For Inhibition Of Matriptase Other Than Hai-1, I-Chu Tseng, Feng-Pai Chou, Sheng-Feng Su, Michael Oberst, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Ming-Shyue Lee, Jehng-Kang Wang, David E. Sloane, Michael Johnson, Chen-Yong Lin

Michael C. Johnson

Matriptase, a type 2 transmembrane serine protease, is predominately expressed by epithelial and carcinoma cells in which hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 1 (HAI-1), a membrane-bound, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, is also expressed. HAI-1 plays dual roles in the regulation of matriptase, as a conventional protease inhibitor and as a factor required for zymogen activation of matriptase. As a consequence, activation of matriptase is immediately followed by HAI-1-mediated inhibition, with the activated matriptase being sequestered into HAI-1 complexes. Matriptase is also expressed by peripheral blood leukocytes, such as monocytes and macrophages; however, in contrast to epithelial cells, monocytes and macrophages ...


Functional Characteristics And Genomic Sequencing Of Antarctic Environmental Isolates, Amanda Kemper, Christina Aigner, Michelle Tigges, Sara Anderson 2017 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Functional Characteristics And Genomic Sequencing Of Antarctic Environmental Isolates, Amanda Kemper, Christina Aigner, Michelle Tigges, Sara Anderson

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Ydj1 Governs Fungal Morphogenesis And Stress Response, And Facilitates Mitochondrial Protein Import Via Mas1 And Mas2, Jinglin L. Xie, Iryna Bohovych, Erin O.Y. Wong, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Anne-Claude Gingras, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Leah E. Cowen, Michelle D. Leach 2017 University of Aberdeen

Ydj1 Governs Fungal Morphogenesis And Stress Response, And Facilitates Mitochondrial Protein Import Via Mas1 And Mas2, Jinglin L. Xie, Iryna Bohovych, Erin O.Y. Wong, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Anne-Claude Gingras, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Leah E. Cowen, Michelle D. Leach

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mitochondria underpin metabolism, bioenergetics, signalling, development and cell death in eukaryotes. Most of the ~1,000 yeast mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and synthesised as precursors in the cytosol, with mitochondrial import facilitated by molecular chaperones. Here, we focus on the Hsp40 chaperone Ydj1 in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, finding that it is localised to both the cytosol and outer mitochondrial membrane, and is required for cellular stress responses and for filamentation, a key virulence trait. Mapping the Ydj1 protein interaction network highlighted connections with co-chaperones and regulators of filamentation. Furthermore, the mitochondrial processing peptidases Mas1 and ...


Photosensing And Thermosensing By Phytochrome B Require Both Proximal And Distal Allosteric Features Within The Dimeric Photoreceptor, E Sethe Burgie, Adam N. Bussell, Shu-Hui Lye, Tong Wang, Weiming Hu, Katrice E. McLoughlin, Erin L. Weber, Huilin Li, Richard D. Vierstra 2017 Washington University in St Louis

Photosensing And Thermosensing By Phytochrome B Require Both Proximal And Distal Allosteric Features Within The Dimeric Photoreceptor, E Sethe Burgie, Adam N. Bussell, Shu-Hui Lye, Tong Wang, Weiming Hu, Katrice E. Mcloughlin, Erin L. Weber, Huilin Li, Richard D. Vierstra

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Phytochromes (Phys) encompass a diverse collection of bilin-containing photoreceptors that help plants and microorganisms perceive light through photointerconversion between red light (Pr) and far-red light (Pfr)-absorbing states. In addition, Pfr reverts thermally back to Pr via a highly enthalpic process that enables temperature sensation in plants and possibly other organisms. Through domain analysis of the Arabidopsis PhyB isoform assembled recombinantly, coupled with measurements of solution size, photoconversion, and thermal reversion, we identified both proximal and distal features that influence all three metrics. Included are the downstream C-terminal histidine kinase-related domain known to promote dimerization and a conserved patch just ...


Tolerance Threshold And Phyto-Assessment Of Cadmium And Lead In Vetiver Grass, Vetiveria Zizanioides (Linn.) Nash, Chuck Chuan Ng Mr 2017 Universiti Malaya

Tolerance Threshold And Phyto-Assessment Of Cadmium And Lead In Vetiver Grass, Vetiveria Zizanioides (Linn.) Nash, Chuck Chuan Ng Mr

Chuck Chuan NG

Various types of plant species have been extensively used for heavy metals phyto-remediation without taking into consideration its tolerance threshold. In this study, Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash was evaluated under five different sets of contaminated spiked cadmium (5Cd, 10Cd, 50Cd, 100Cd and 150Cd mg/kg) and lead (50Pb, 100Pb, 200Pb, 400Pb and 800Pb mg/kg) concentration levels in soil. The growth performance, metal tolerance and phyto-assessment of Cd and Pb in the roots and tillers were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), biological transfer factor (BTF), biological accumulation coefficient (BAC) and ...


Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Inflammation plays a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Investigating how specific mediators of inflammation contribute to neurodegeneration in AD is crucial. Our studies focused on cyclooxygenases, which are key enzymes in inflammation and highly relevant to AD. Cyclooxygenases (COX -1, constitutive; COX-2, inducible) have emerged as important determinants of AD pathogenesis and progression. COX-2 is highly induced in AD, correlating with AD severity, and COX-1 is also involved in AD. Cyclooxygenases are the rate-limiting enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs), the principal mediators of CNS neuroinflammation.

The overall GOAL of these studies was to address the ...


Silver Oxide Coatings With High Silver-Ion Elution Rates And Characterization Of Bactericidal Activity., Sarah S Goderecci, Eric Kaiser, Michael Yanakas, Zachary Norris, Jeffrey Scaturro, Robert Oszust, Clarence D Medina, Fallon Waechter, Min Heon, Robert R Krchnavek, Lei Yu, Samuel E Lofland, Renee M Demarest, Gregory A Caputo, Jeffrey D Hettinger 2017 Rowan University

Silver Oxide Coatings With High Silver-Ion Elution Rates And Characterization Of Bactericidal Activity., Sarah S Goderecci, Eric Kaiser, Michael Yanakas, Zachary Norris, Jeffrey Scaturro, Robert Oszust, Clarence D Medina, Fallon Waechter, Min Heon, Robert R Krchnavek, Lei Yu, Samuel E Lofland, Renee M Demarest, Gregory A Caputo, Jeffrey D Hettinger

Gregory Caputo

This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of silver oxide films for use as bactericidal coatings. Synthesis parameters, dissolution/elution rate, and bactericidal efficacy are reported. Synthesis conditions were developed to create AgO, Ag₂O, or mixtures of AgO and Ag₂O on surfaces by reactive magnetron sputtering. The coatings demonstrate strong adhesion to many substrate materials and impede the growth of all bacterial strains tested. The coatings are effective in killing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating a clear zone-of-inhibition against bacteria growing on solid media and the ability to rapidly inhibit bacterial growth in planktonic culture. Additionally, the coatings exhibit ...


A Cationic Amphiphilic Random Copolymer With Ph-Responsive Activity Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus., Sungyoup Hong, Haruko Takahashi, Enrico T Nadres, Hamid Mortazavian, Gregory A. Caputo, John G Younger, Kenichi Kuroda 2017 Rowan University

A Cationic Amphiphilic Random Copolymer With Ph-Responsive Activity Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus., Sungyoup Hong, Haruko Takahashi, Enrico T Nadres, Hamid Mortazavian, Gregory A. Caputo, John G Younger, Kenichi Kuroda

Gregory Caputo

In this report, we demonstrate the pH-dependent, in vitro antimicrobial activity of a cationic, amphiphilic random copolymer against clinical isolates of drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The polymer was developed toward a long-term goal of potential utility in the treatment of skin infections. The proposed mechanism of action of the polymer is through selectively binding to bacterial membranes and subsequent disruption of the membrane structure/integrity, ultimately resulting in bacterial cell death. The polymer showed bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant or vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus. The polymer was effective in killing S. aureus at neutral pH, but inactive under acidic conditions ...


Silver Oxide Coatings With High Silver-Ion Elution Rates And Characterization Of Bactericidal Activity., Sarah S Goderecci, Eric Kaiser, Michael Yanakas, Zachary Norris, Jeffrey Scaturro, Robert Oszust, Clarence D Medina, Fallon Waechter, Min Heon, Robert R Krchnavek, Lei Yu, Samuel E Lofland, Renee M Demarest, Gregory A Caputo, Jeffrey D Hettinger 2017 Rowan University

Silver Oxide Coatings With High Silver-Ion Elution Rates And Characterization Of Bactericidal Activity., Sarah S Goderecci, Eric Kaiser, Michael Yanakas, Zachary Norris, Jeffrey Scaturro, Robert Oszust, Clarence D Medina, Fallon Waechter, Min Heon, Robert R Krchnavek, Lei Yu, Samuel E Lofland, Renee M Demarest, Gregory A Caputo, Jeffrey D Hettinger

Lei Yu

This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of silver oxide films for use as bactericidal coatings. Synthesis parameters, dissolution/elution rate, and bactericidal efficacy are reported. Synthesis conditions were developed to create AgO, Ag₂O, or mixtures of AgO and Ag₂O on surfaces by reactive magnetron sputtering. The coatings demonstrate strong adhesion to many substrate materials and impede the growth of all bacterial strains tested. The coatings are effective in killing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating a clear zone-of-inhibition against bacteria growing on solid media and the ability to rapidly inhibit bacterial growth in planktonic culture. Additionally, the coatings exhibit ...


Silver Oxide Coatings With High Silver-Ion Elution Rates And Characterization Of Bactericidal Activity., Sarah S Goderecci, Eric Kaiser, Michael Yanakas, Zachary Norris, Jeffrey Scaturro, Robert Oszust, Clarence D Medina, Fallon Waechter, Min Heon, Robert R Krchnavek, Lei Yu, Samuel E Lofland, Renee M Demarest, Gregory A Caputo, Jeffrey D Hettinger 2017 Rowan University

Silver Oxide Coatings With High Silver-Ion Elution Rates And Characterization Of Bactericidal Activity., Sarah S Goderecci, Eric Kaiser, Michael Yanakas, Zachary Norris, Jeffrey Scaturro, Robert Oszust, Clarence D Medina, Fallon Waechter, Min Heon, Robert R Krchnavek, Lei Yu, Samuel E Lofland, Renee M Demarest, Gregory A Caputo, Jeffrey D Hettinger

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of silver oxide films for use as bactericidal coatings. Synthesis parameters, dissolution/elution rate, and bactericidal efficacy are reported. Synthesis conditions were developed to create AgO, Ag₂O, or mixtures of AgO and Ag₂O on surfaces by reactive magnetron sputtering. The coatings demonstrate strong adhesion to many substrate materials and impede the growth of all bacterial strains tested. The coatings are effective in killing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating a clear zone-of-inhibition against bacteria growing on solid media and the ability to rapidly inhibit bacterial growth in planktonic culture. Additionally, the coatings exhibit ...


Heme Regulation Of Human Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity: Insights From Fluorescence And Raman Spectroscopy, Colin L. Weeks, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Ruma Banerjee, Thomas G. Spiro 2017 University of Washington

Heme Regulation Of Human Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity: Insights From Fluorescence And Raman Spectroscopy, Colin L. Weeks, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Ruma Banerjee, Thomas G. Spiro

Colin L. Weeks

Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) plays a central role in cysteine metabolism, and malfunction of the enzyme leads to homocystinuria, a devastating metabolic disease. CBS contains a pyridoxal 5′- phosphate (PLP) cofactor which catalyzes the synthesis of cystathionine from homocysteine and serine. Mammalian forms of the enzyme also contain a heme group, which is not involved in catalysis. It may, however, play a regulatory role, since the enzyme is inhibited when CO or NO are bound to the heme. We have investigated the mechanism of this inhibition using fluorescence and resonance Raman spectroscopies. CO binding is found to induce a tautomeric shift ...


Modulation Of The Heme Electronic Structure And Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity By Second Coordination Sphere Ligands: The Role Of Heme Ligand Switching In Redox Regulation, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Jay Stasser, Colin L. Weeks, Donald Becker, Thomas G. Spiro, James Penner-Hahn, Ruma Banerjee 2017 The University Of Michigan

Modulation Of The Heme Electronic Structure And Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity By Second Coordination Sphere Ligands: The Role Of Heme Ligand Switching In Redox Regulation, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Jay Stasser, Colin L. Weeks, Donald Becker, Thomas G. Spiro, James Penner-Hahn, Ruma Banerjee

Colin L. Weeks

In humans, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a hemeprotein, which catalyzes a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent condensation reaction. Changes in the heme environment are communicated to the active site, which is ~20 Å away. In this study, we have examined the role of H67 and R266, which are in the second coordination sphere of the heme ligands, H65 and C52 respectively, in modulating the heme's electronic properties and in transmitting information between the heme and active sites. While the H67A mutation is comparable to wild-type CBS, interesting differences are revealed by mutations at the R266 site. The pathogenic mutant, R266K ...


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