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Circular Oligodeoxynucleotides (Coligos) As Chemically Synthesized, Promoter-Independent Small Rna Expression Vectors, Lodoe Lama 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Circular Oligodeoxynucleotides (Coligos) As Chemically Synthesized, Promoter-Independent Small Rna Expression Vectors, Lodoe Lama

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Small RNAs (sRNA) such as microRNA (miRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), and other types of RNA have been found to play many important biological roles in regulation of different cellular process leading to their possible use as therapeutics. However, one of the biggest hurdles in exploiting these sRNAs in therapeutics has been the difficulty in delivering them safely and stably into human tissues. Many delivery approaches have been undertaken to deliver these sRNA, albeit with many shortcomings in terms of cost, stability, and side effects, necessitating the need for alternative approaches. We are exploring an entirely different approach for conveying ...


Interaction Of Spliceosomal U2 Snrnp Protein P14 With Its Branch Site Rna Target, William Perea Vargas 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Interaction Of Spliceosomal U2 Snrnp Protein P14 With Its Branch Site Rna Target, William Perea Vargas

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Newly transcribed precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) molecules contain coding sequences (exons) interspersed with non-coding intervening sequences (introns). These introns must be removed in order to generate a continuous coding sequence prior to translation of the message into protein. The mechanism through which these introns are removed is known as pre-mRNA splicing, a two-step reaction catalyzed be a large macromolecular machine, the spliceosome, located in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The spliceosome is a protein-directed ribozyme composed of small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) and hundreds of proteins that assemble in a very dynamic process. One of these snRNAs, the U2 snRNA, is ...


Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 pandemic continues to thrive due to ineffective HIV-1 vaccines. Historically, the world’s most infectious diseases, such as polio and smallpox, have been eradicated or have come close to eradication due to the advent of effective vaccines. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is able to delay the onset of AIDS but can neither rid the body of HIV-1 proviral DNA nor prevent further transmission. A prophylactic vaccine that prevents the various mechanisms HIV-1 has to evade and attack our immune system is needed to end the HIV-1 pandemic. Recent advances in engineered nuclease systems, like the CRISPR/Cas9 ...


The Effects Of The Environmental Estrogens Cadmium And Arsenite On Phosphorylation Of Erk1/2 Via Gpr30 In Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells, Katarzyna Krauss 2016 Bellarmine University

The Effects Of The Environmental Estrogens Cadmium And Arsenite On Phosphorylation Of Erk1/2 Via Gpr30 In Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells, Katarzyna Krauss

Undergraduate Theses

Nanomolar concentrations of both cadmium and arsenite, two environmental estrogens present in cigarette smoke, have been documented in rapidly phosphorylating ERK1/2, a type of MAPK, in the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) line NHI-1793 in a manner similar to that of estrogen. Pretreatment of cells with a general, nonspecific estrogen receptor antagonist reduced the levels of phosphorylated MAPK, indicating that this phosphorylation event is achieved through use of an estrogen signaling pathway. The specific estrogen receptor involved in this process, however, is currently unknown. To determine whether GPR30, one of the three types of estrogen receptors, is necessary ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Biological Activity Of A Potential Immunomodulatory Zwitterionic Polysaccharide, Vikram Basava 2016 Seton Hall University

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Biological Activity Of A Potential Immunomodulatory Zwitterionic Polysaccharide, Vikram Basava

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis is an integral component of the normal gastrointestinal flora. The bacterium colonizes the intestinal tract of human beings as it has no reservoir other than mammals. An unprecedented proportion of the genomic DNA of B. fragilus is involved in the production of capsular polysaccharides. These capsular polysaccharides are important virulence factors in most extracellular bacterial pathogens. Eight of these polysaccharides have been identified thus far, out of which two were found to be zwitterionic polymers, PSA1 and PSA2. PSA1 was found to stimulate T-cell lineage of the immune system because of the dual charge ...


Sequencing And Analysis Of A Miraculin Homolog From Two Ragweed Species, Kyj R. Mandzy 2016 Bellarmine University

Sequencing And Analysis Of A Miraculin Homolog From Two Ragweed Species, Kyj R. Mandzy

Undergraduate Theses

Our lab has previously isolated the gene for miraculin, a taste-modifying protein, from the pollen of Ambrosia trifida. This weedy plant, commonly known as Giant Ragweed, is a major producer of pollen that causes hay fever. The cDNA sequence of this gene was used to design PCR primers for the amplification and sequencing of genomic DNA from this species, as well as a related species, common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). These genomic sequences were analyzed in terms of intron structure, phylogenetics, and protein structure and function. These gene sequences provide novel insights into the possible roles of proteases in plants.


Connecting The Physiological And Behavioral Response To Heat Stress On A Warming Planet, Anastasia Kalyta 2016 Chapman University

Connecting The Physiological And Behavioral Response To Heat Stress On A Warming Planet, Anastasia Kalyta

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Intertidal communities are considered good models of the biological effects of climate change on ecosystems, as their resident organisms are subjected to heat spells during daytime low tides. The increasing heat exposure can elicit behavioral as well as physiological responses in intertidal organisms. We studied the relationship between these responses to heat stress in the blue-banded hermit crab, Pagurus samuelis, by inducing a “heat shock” with elevated water temperature of 29 °C for 2.5 h. The behavioral effect of heat-shock was quantified using a 30-minute feeding assay, measuring the mass of a standard squid pellet consumed by individual hermit ...


A Pilot Study Analyzing Solvents In Electronic Cigarette “E-Liquid” Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Austin Matranga, Olivia Sellers, Matthew Gartner 2016 Chapman University

A Pilot Study Analyzing Solvents In Electronic Cigarette “E-Liquid” Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Austin Matranga, Olivia Sellers, Matthew Gartner

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Introduction: Electronic cigarettes, also known as an e-cigarette, are battery-powered devices that use a heating element to convert a liquid (“e-liquid”) into an inhalable aerosol. Their advertised use is as a nicotine delivery system minus the harmful chemicals. Since “e-liquids” and the electronic cigarettes are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, it is not well known under what conditions, if any, carcinogenic compounds are produced. There has been little research on the toxicity of electronic cigarettes. The aim of this study was to determine if formaldehyde or acetaldehyde are formed from the e-liquid by the high heat of ...


Determining The Role Of Erbeta In The Activation Of Erk1/2 By The Environmental Estrogens, Cadmium Chloride And Sodium Arsenite, In Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells, Jeffrey Hyzer 2016 Bellarmine University

Determining The Role Of Erbeta In The Activation Of Erk1/2 By The Environmental Estrogens, Cadmium Chloride And Sodium Arsenite, In Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells, Jeffrey Hyzer

Undergraduate Theses

Estrogen is involved in the proliferation of adenocarcinoma lung cells. However, the proliferative role of two endocrine disrupters, cadmium chloride and sodium arsenite, in lung adenocarcinoma is less clear. Previous studies have shown that these two heavy metals can induce cellular proliferation and activate phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in a human lug adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI-H1793. Induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by these compounds is decreased in the presence of an estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI-182,780, suggesting that cadmium and arsenite stimulate these responses, in part, via a non-genomic estrogen signaling pathway. There are three known estrogen receptors, but it ...


Altered Expression Of Cell Cycle And Apoptotic Proteins In Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection., Saira Sarfraz, Saeed Hamid, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, Snawar Hussain, Shahid Pervez, Graeme Alexander 2016 Aga Khan University

Altered Expression Of Cell Cycle And Apoptotic Proteins In Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection., Saira Sarfraz, Saeed Hamid, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, Snawar Hussain, Shahid Pervez, Graeme Alexander

Anwar Ali Siddiqui

Background: A disrupted cell cycle progression of hepatocytes was reported in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, which can contribute significantly in the associated pathogenesis. The present study aimed to further elaborate these disruptions by evaluating the expression of key cell cycle and apoptotic proteins in chronic HCV infection with particular reference to genotype 3. Archival liver biopsy specimens of chronic HCV-infection (n = 46) and normal histology (n = 5) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against proliferation marker Mcm-2, G1 phase marker Cyclin D1, S phase marker Cyclin A, cell cycle regulators p21 (CDK inhibitor) and p53 (tumor suppressor protein ...


Mechanisms Of Regulation Of Tau Ires Mediated Translation, Niza Nemkul 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Mechanisms Of Regulation Of Tau Ires Mediated Translation, Niza Nemkul

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs occurs in a cap-dependent manner. However, a subset of mRNAs are capable of initiating translation in a cap-independent manner by utilizing sequences in their 5’ UTR called IRES. It was previously shown that the 5’ UTR of the tau mRNA contains an IRES. In this study I show that IRES dependent translation of tau IRES is regulated at multiple levels in order to regulate the expression of the tau protein.

Tau protein is ubiquitously expressed but is concentrated in the brain. In this study, I utilized neural and non-neural cell lines to show that ...


Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are family of proteins that belong to a group of growth factors that are found in mammals and play an important role in angiogenesis, differentiation, organogenesis, and tissue repair. In summary, their main functionality is involved in cell division and proliferation. Because FGFs plays such a vital role in cell proliferation, they are mainly involved in the process of wound healing and injuries. FGF binds to its ligand, heparin—a heavily sulfated glycosaminoglycan. The binding of heparin to FGF occurs through electrostatic interactions, specifically between the negatively charged sulfate groups on heparin and positively charged residues ...


Synthesis Of Microgel Polymers As Catalysts, Hannah N. Miller 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Synthesis Of Microgel Polymers As Catalysts, Hannah N. Miller

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

New developments in organic synthesis show promise in achieving the best catalytic properties for the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds through microgel polymers and transition metal complexes. A monomer mix of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, butyl acrylate, and styrene form miniemulsion polymers after sonication and exposure to UV light. Gravimetrical analysis is used to determine the most suitable polymerization conditions by performing experiments at varying pH values, temperatures, monomer amounts, initiator amounts, and lamp heights. The final data show that the best polymerization conditions are a pH of 10.50 at 0°C with a high monomer ratio, 20% initiator amount, and ...


Deciphering The Role Of Glycine134 In The Human Acidic Growth Factor-1’S Binding To Heparin, Adam W. Burroughs 2016 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Deciphering The Role Of Glycine134 In The Human Acidic Growth Factor-1’S Binding To Heparin, Adam W. Burroughs

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Human acidic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) is a potent modulator of cell survival and exhibits a universal role in various physiological processes. Though potent, FGF-1 unbound to heparin is known to show a poor thermal stability and a relatively short in vivo half-life. Much is known about the structure and relation of FGF-1 with heparin yet there is still unknown information regarding the exact role of heparin in stabilizing FGF-1. Thus, the aim of this study is to mutate glycine at position 134 to glutamic acid in wild type FGF1. G134 is located in the heparin binding pocket, thus ...


Influence Of Cholesterol On Single Arginine-Containing Transmembrane Helical Peptides, Jordana K. Thibado 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Influence Of Cholesterol On Single Arginine-Containing Transmembrane Helical Peptides, Jordana K. Thibado

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

An essential component of animal cells, cholesterol exerts significant influence on the physical properties of the cell membrane and in turn, its constituents. One such category of constituents, the membrane proteins, are responsible for diverse and essential biological functions and often contain polar amino acids. Although sparse within the hydrophobic interior of lipid-bilayer membranes, polar amino acid residues are highly conserved and may play pivotal roles in determining specific structural and functional properties of key proteins. To gain greater understanding of the lipid membrane environment, and more broadly, cellular function, a model peptide framework termed “GWALP23” (acetyl-GGALWLALALAL12AL14 ...


Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Endogenous and exogenous agents that can damage DNA are a constant threat to genome stability in all living cells. In response, cells have evolved an array of mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the cells damaged beyond repair. One of these mechanisms is nucleotide excision repair (NER) which is the major repair pathway responsible for removing a wide variety of bulky DNA lesions. Deficiency, or mutation, in one or several of the NER repair proteins is responsible for many diseases, including cancer. Prokaryotic NER involves only three proteins to recognize and incise a damaged site, while eukaryotic NER ...


Placental ‘€˜Omics’€™ Study To Understand The Pathogenesis Of Preeclampsia, Komal Kedia 2016 Brigham Young University - Provo

Placental ‘€˜Omics’€™ Study To Understand The Pathogenesis Of Preeclampsia, Komal Kedia

All Theses and Dissertations

Preeclampsia (PE) is a potentially fatal complication of pregnancy characterized by an increase in blood pressure (>140/90 mmHg) and proteinuria (>300 mg/24 hrs), often accompanied by edema. Symptoms of PE start after 20 weeks of gestation. If PE remains untreated, it can lead to eclampsia, grand-mal seizures responsible for most fatalities. PE is believed to affect 2-10% of pregnancies worldwide, and claims the lives of over 75,000 mothers and 500,000 newborns yearly. No therapeutic agents have been developed to prevent or cure PE. Part of the reason for this is the absence of a complete understanding ...


Modulating Neuronal Activity: Copper, Isoproterenol, And Beta-Blockers On The Brain, Veronica Go 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Modulating Neuronal Activity: Copper, Isoproterenol, And Beta-Blockers On The Brain, Veronica Go

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Schizophrenia: Understanding The Madness, Robert W. Slaven 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Schizophrenia: Understanding The Madness, Robert W. Slaven

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Targeting Cancer: The Ph-Responsive Binding And Insertion Of Roxy7, Kristen Rae Booth 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Targeting Cancer: The Ph-Responsive Binding And Insertion Of Roxy7, Kristen Rae Booth

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


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