Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

4140 Full-Text Articles 8252 Authors 488070 Downloads 155 Institutions

All Articles in Biochemistry

Faceted Search

4140 full-text articles. Page 1 of 118.

Arsenite Resistance Of Euglena Mutabilis, Nicole Loumarinett Rosendo Mercado, Doug G. Cole (Mentor) 2017 University of Idaho

Arsenite Resistance Of Euglena Mutabilis, Nicole Loumarinett Rosendo Mercado, Doug G. Cole (Mentor)

Idaho Conference on Undergraduate Research

Euglena are photosynthetic unicellular protozoa. Commonly found in rivers, lakes and ponds, some Euglena are found in toxic environments, like areas of acid mine drainage where they can grow at low pH and in the presence of heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenite (e.g. Euglena mutabilis). The goal of this research is to determine if an Idaho Euglena isolate (SG6) belongs to the E. mutabilis species and to compare it’s level of arsenite resistance with other E. mutabilis strains. As part of the methodology, we have developed microtiter plate assays in which the cells are grown in ...


Effects Of Novel Fragment-Warhead Adducts In Situ And In Vitro With Glutaredoxin Orthologs., Andrew J. Caras 2017 The University of Akron

Effects Of Novel Fragment-Warhead Adducts In Situ And In Vitro With Glutaredoxin Orthologs., Andrew J. Caras

Honors Research Projects

Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is a method of pharmaceutical research involving characterization of small “fragment” molecule interactions with a target protein. These fragments are optimized with the addition of a nucleophilic “warhead” moiety. Several novel fragment-warhead adducts have been synthesized in house by group member Ram Khattri Ph.D. The experiment investigates reactivity of these adducts with glutaredoxin protein (Grx) orthologs from Homo sapiens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Brucella melitensis. Three novel fragment-warhead adducts have been identified to cause weakly bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal effects, most with minimum inhibitory concentration values near 1.28 mg/mL. Discussed herein are molecular effects of ...


Phage Display To Identify Functional Resistance Mutations To Rigosertib, Nedim Filipovic 2017 Claremont McKenna College

Phage Display To Identify Functional Resistance Mutations To Rigosertib, Nedim Filipovic

CMC Senior Theses

In vitro protein selection has had major impacts in the field of protein engineering. Traditional screens assay individual proteins for specific function. Selection, however, analyzes a pool of mutants and yields the best variants. Phage display, a successful selection technique, also provides a reliable link between variant phenotype and genotype. It can also be coupled with high throughput sequencing to map protein mutations; potentially highlighting vital mutations in variants. We propose to apply this technique to cancer therapy. RAF, a serine/threonine kinase, is critical for cell regulation in mammals. RAF can be activated by oncogenic RAS, found in over ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Arvin Iracheta-Vellve

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


Amyloidogenesis In Animals: Investigating The Correlation Between Iapp Aggregation And Type-Ii Diabetes Mellitus, Kate Menefee 2016 Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School

Amyloidogenesis In Animals: Investigating The Correlation Between Iapp Aggregation And Type-Ii Diabetes Mellitus, Kate Menefee

Research & Exhibition

No abstract provided.


Stability Of Peatland Carbon To Rising Temperatures, R. M. Wilson, A. M. Hopple, M. M. Tfaily, S. D. Sebestyen, C. W. Schadt, L. Pfeifer-Meister, Cassandra Medvedeff, K. J. McFarlane, J. E. Kostka, M. Kolton, R. K. Kolka, L. A. Kluber, Jason K. Keller, T. P. Guilderson, N. A. Griffiths, J. P. Chanton, S. D. Brigham, P. J. Hanson 2016 Florida State University

Stability Of Peatland Carbon To Rising Temperatures, R. M. Wilson, A. M. Hopple, M. M. Tfaily, S. D. Sebestyen, C. W. Schadt, L. Pfeifer-Meister, Cassandra Medvedeff, K. J. Mcfarlane, J. E. Kostka, M. Kolton, R. K. Kolka, L. A. Kluber, Jason K. Keller, T. P. Guilderson, N. A. Griffiths, J. P. Chanton, S. D. Brigham, P. J. Hanson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Peatlands contain one-third of soil carbon (C), mostly buried in deep, saturated anoxic zones (catotelm). The response of catotelm C to climate forcing is uncertain, because prior experiments have focused on surface warming. We show that deep peat heating of a 2 m-thick peat column results in an exponential increase in CH4 emissions. However, this response is due solely to surface processes and not degradation of catotelm peat. Incubations show that only the top 20–30 cm of peat from experimental plots have higher CH4 production rates at elevated temperatures. Radiocarbon analyses demonstrate that CH4 and CO2 are produced primarily ...


Towards Understanding Osmolyte Effects On Folate(S) And Dihydrofolate Reductase Proteins, Purva Prashant Bhojane 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Towards Understanding Osmolyte Effects On Folate(S) And Dihydrofolate Reductase Proteins, Purva Prashant Bhojane

Doctoral Dissertations

Osmolytes are small molecules that alter water activity and probe role of water in biological processes. Osmotic stress approach explored the role of water in ligand binding to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR catalyzes NADPH dependent reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF), which is essential for the synthesis of DNA, amino acids and other metabolic intermediates. R67 DHFR is a plasmid-encoded DHFR that confers resistance against trimethoprim, which is a potent inhibitor of E.coli chromosomal DHFR.

Osmolytes addition decreases the affinity of the substrate towards both the DHFRs. Weak preferential interactions between the osmolytes and DHF impede substrate binding ...


Phytochrome B Integrates Light And Temperature Signals In Arabidopsis, Martina Legris, Cornelia Klose, E Sethe Burgie, Cecilia Costigliolo Rojas Rojas, Maximiliano Neme, Andreas Hiltbrunner, Philip A. Wigge, Eberhard Schäfer, Richard D. Vierstra, Jorge J. Casal 2016 Washington University in St Louis

Phytochrome B Integrates Light And Temperature Signals In Arabidopsis, Martina Legris, Cornelia Klose, E Sethe Burgie, Cecilia Costigliolo Rojas Rojas, Maximiliano Neme, Andreas Hiltbrunner, Philip A. Wigge, Eberhard Schäfer, Richard D. Vierstra, Jorge J. Casal

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Ambient temperature regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, but its sensors are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the phytochrome B (phyB) photoreceptor participates in temperature perception through its temperature-dependent reversion from the active Pfr state to the inactive Pr state. Increased rates of thermal reversion upon exposing Arabidopsis seedlings to warm environments reduce both the abundance of the biologically active Pfr-Pfr dimer pool of phyB and the size of the associated nuclear bodies, even in daylight. Mathematical analysis of stem growth for seedlings expressing wild-type phyB or thermally stable variants under various combinations of light and temperature revealed ...


Regulation Of Palmitoylation Enzymes And Substrates By Intrinsically Disordered Regions, Krishna D. Reddy 2016 University of South Florida

Regulation Of Palmitoylation Enzymes And Substrates By Intrinsically Disordered Regions, Krishna D. Reddy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Protein palmitoylation refers to the process of adding a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid to the cysteine of a substrate protein, and this can in turn affect the substrate’s localization, stability, folding, and several other processes. This process is catalyzed by a family of 23 mammalian protein acyltransferases (PATs), a family of transmembrane enzymes that modify an estimated 10% of the proteome. At this point in time, no structure of a protein in this family has been solved, and therefore there is poor understanding about the regulation of the enzymes and their substrates. Most proteins, including palmitoylation enzymes and substrates ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

GSBS Student Publications

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


Expression, Purification, And Crystallization Of An Endoxylanase From Bacteroides Vulgatus, Jesslyn Park, Jason Hurlbert 2016 Winthrop University

Expression, Purification, And Crystallization Of An Endoxylanase From Bacteroides Vulgatus, Jesslyn Park, Jason Hurlbert

The Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin

Sustainable sources of energy are growing in demand as fossil fuels are rapidly expended. One such energy source is fuel ethanol generated from the fermentation of plant biomass by engineered bacterial biocatalysts. The creation of a biocatalyst capable of converting nearly any plant matter to fuel ethanol requires the identification of novel enzymes capable of degrading specific carbohydrate polymers and cloning these enzymes into a bacterial host. This study seeks to structurally characterize a novel xylanase of glycosyl hydrolase family 30 (GH30) from Bacteroides vulgatus, a bacterium found in the human gut microbiome, via x-ray crystallography. The gene for B ...


Heterologous Expression Of A Rice Mir395 Gene In Nicotiana Tabacum Impairs Sulfate Homeostasis, Ning Yuan, Shuangrong Yuan, Zhigang Li, Dayong Li, Qian Hu, Hong Luo 2016 Clemson University

Heterologous Expression Of A Rice Mir395 Gene In Nicotiana Tabacum Impairs Sulfate Homeostasis, Ning Yuan, Shuangrong Yuan, Zhigang Li, Dayong Li, Qian Hu, Hong Luo

Hong Luo

Sulfur participates in many important mechanisms and pathways of plant development. The most common source of sulfur in soil –SO42−– is absorbed into root tissue and distributed into aerial part through vasculature system, where it is reduced into sulfite and finally sulfide within the subcellular organs such as chloroplasts and mitochondria and used for cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. MicroRNAs are involved in many regulation pathways by repressing the expression of their target genes. MiR395 family in Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported to be an important regulator involved in sulfate transport and assimilation, and a high-affinity sulphate transporter and three ATP ...


Ectopic Expression Of A Cyanobacterial Flavodoxin In Creeping Bentgrass Impacts Plant Development And Confers Broad Abiotic Stress Tolerance, Zhigang Li, Shuangrong Yuan, Haiyan Jia, Fangyuan Gao, Qian Hu, Dongfa Sun, Hong Luo 2016 Huazhong Agricultural University

Ectopic Expression Of A Cyanobacterial Flavodoxin In Creeping Bentgrass Impacts Plant Development And Confers Broad Abiotic Stress Tolerance, Zhigang Li, Shuangrong Yuan, Haiyan Jia, Fangyuan Gao, Qian Hu, Dongfa Sun, Hong Luo

Hong Luo

Flavodoxin (Fld) plays a pivotal role in photosynthetic microorganisms as an alternative electron carrier flavoprotein under adverse environmental conditions. Cyanobacterial Fld has been demonstrated to be able to substitute ferredoxin (Fd) of higher plants in most electron transfer processes under stressful conditions. We have explored the potential of Fld for use in improving plant stress response in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Overexpression of Fld altered plant growth and development. Most significantly, transgenic (TG) plants exhibited drastically enhanced performance under oxidative, drought and heat stress as well as nitrogen (N) starvation, which was associated with higher water retention and cell ...


Snp-Based High Density Genetic Map And Mapping Of Btwd1 Dwarfing Gene In Barley, Xifeng Ren, Jibin Wang, Lipan Liu, Genlou Sun, Chengdao Li, Hong Luo, Dongfa Sun 2016 Huazhong Agricultural University

Snp-Based High Density Genetic Map And Mapping Of Btwd1 Dwarfing Gene In Barley, Xifeng Ren, Jibin Wang, Lipan Liu, Genlou Sun, Chengdao Li, Hong Luo, Dongfa Sun

Hong Luo

A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for functional genomics and breeding. A newly developed sequence-based marker technology, restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, has been proven to be powerful for the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and for the high-density genetic map construction. The objective of this research was to construct a high-density genetic map of barley using RAD sequencing. 1894 high-quality SNP markers were developed and mapped onto all seven chromosomes together with 68 SSR markers. These 1962 markers constituted a total genetic length of 1375.8 cM and an average ...


Ataluren Stimulates Ribosomal Selection Of Near-Cognate Trnas To Promote Nonsense Suppression, Bijoyita Roy, Westley J. Friesen, Yuki Tomizawa, John D. Leszyk, Jin Zhuo, Briana Johnson, Jumana Dakka, Christopher R. Trotta, Xiaojiao Xue, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Kim M. Keeling, James A. Mobley, Steven M. Rowe, David M. Bedwell, Ellen M. Welch, Allan Jacobson 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ataluren Stimulates Ribosomal Selection Of Near-Cognate Trnas To Promote Nonsense Suppression, Bijoyita Roy, Westley J. Friesen, Yuki Tomizawa, John D. Leszyk, Jin Zhuo, Briana Johnson, Jumana Dakka, Christopher R. Trotta, Xiaojiao Xue, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Kim M. Keeling, James A. Mobley, Steven M. Rowe, David M. Bedwell, Ellen M. Welch, Allan Jacobson

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

A premature termination codon (PTC) in the ORF of an mRNA generally leads to production of a truncated polypeptide, accelerated degradation of the mRNA, and depression of overall mRNA expression. Accordingly, nonsense mutations cause some of the most severe forms of inherited disorders. The small-molecule drug ataluren promotes therapeutic nonsense suppression and has been thought to mediate the insertion of near-cognate tRNAs at PTCs. However, direct evidence for this activity has been lacking. Here, we expressed multiple nonsense mutation reporters in human cells and yeast and identified the amino acids inserted when a PTC occupies the ribosomal A site in ...


Effects Of Herbicides On Industrial Hemp (Cannabis Sativa) Phytotoxicity, Biomass, And Seed Yield, Brett A. Maxwell 2016 Western Kentucky University

Effects Of Herbicides On Industrial Hemp (Cannabis Sativa) Phytotoxicity, Biomass, And Seed Yield, Brett A. Maxwell

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Field studies were established in 2015 at Bowling Green and Lexington, KY to evaluate industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) tolerance to various herbicides. Hemp was planted into conventionally tilled soils in mid to late June at a seeding rate of 39 kg/ha in Bowling Green and 22 kg/ha in Lexington. Five herbicide active ingredients were applied preemergence (PRE) the day of planting and six postemergence (POST) treatments were applied to 30 cm hemp with a CO2-backpack sprayer delivering 140 L/ha. Plots were 3.1 m wide by 6.1 m long and were sprayed with a 2.1 ...


Therapeutic Targets For Alzheimer's Disease: Insights From In Vitro And In Vivo Models Of Inflammation, Magdalena J. Kiprowska 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Therapeutic Targets For Alzheimer's Disease: Insights From In Vitro And In Vivo Models Of Inflammation, Magdalena J. Kiprowska

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal loss that over the years spreads from the hippocampus to the neural cortex and impairs memory and cognitive functions. At the cellular level AD is linked to the presence of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles but despite decades of research little is known about their contribution to neurodegeneration and whether they are a cause or rather a result of the disease. It is well established that proteasome activity is impaired in AD brains and some studies suggest that this could be one of the initial factors leading to ...


Role Of Hnrnp A1 In The Regulation Of Hdm2 Gene Expression, Heriberto Moran 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Role Of Hnrnp A1 In The Regulation Of Hdm2 Gene Expression, Heriberto Moran

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

hnRNP A1 is one of the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed member of hnRNPs (Heterogenous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins) family of proteins that play multiple roles in gene expression by participating in major steps in the processing of nascent RNA transcripts 1. It is involved in mRNA biogenesis mechanisms such as the transcription, splicing, stability, export and translation of cellular and viral transcripts. The functions of hnRNP A1 extend to the processing of microRNAs, telomere maintenance and DNA repair 1. Our previous studies have shown that hnRNPA1 had reduced protein level and increased cytoplasmic accumulation in senescent human diploid fibroblasts 2,10 ...


An Alternative Splicing Program Promotes Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis, Santiago Vernia, Yvonne J. K. Edwards, Myoung Souk Han, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Jason K. Kim, Roger J. Davis 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Alternative Splicing Program Promotes Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis, Santiago Vernia, Yvonne J. K. Edwards, Myoung Souk Han, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Jason K. Kim, Roger J. Davis

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing expands the complexity of the transcriptome and controls isoform-specific gene expression. Whether alternative splicing contributes to metabolic regulation is largely unknown. Here we investigated the contribution of alternative splicing to the development of diet-induced obesity. We found that obesity-induced changes in adipocyte gene expression include alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Bioinformatics analysis associated part of this alternative splicing program with sequence specific NOVA splicing factors. This conclusion was confirmed by studies of mice with NOVA deficiency in adipocytes. Phenotypic analysis of the NOVA-deficient mice demonstrated increased adipose tissue thermogenesis and improved glycemia. We show that NOVA proteins mediate a ...


Using Mututal Information To Reprogram Dna Specificity Of Laglidadg Endonucleases, Marcon Laforet 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Using Mututal Information To Reprogram Dna Specificity Of Laglidadg Endonucleases, Marcon Laforet

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A systematic approach to reprogram protein-DNA interactions has yet to be discovered. This study investigates the ability of co-variation analyses to identify potential protein-DNA contacts that regulate specificity. Here, 27 LAGLIDADG Homing Endonucleases (LHEs) and their 22-basepair DNA targets were collated into a Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) that was subjected to pairwise co-variation calculations. Using the LHE I-OnuI as a reference, an amino acid-DNA pair, lysine (K) 231 and adenine +3, generated the highest score. To test if the K231/A3 score was biologically relevant we tested protein mutants for altered nuclease specificity at +3 DNA point mutants. Randomizing the ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress