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A Tissue Specific Transcriptomic, Proteomic And Phospho-Proteomic Atlas Of The Translational Machinery Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abdullah Salim 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Tissue Specific Transcriptomic, Proteomic And Phospho-Proteomic Atlas Of The Translational Machinery Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abdullah Salim

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Gene expression encompasses the flow of genetic information from DNA to mRNA (transcription) and from mRNA to protein (translation) along with the regulatory mechanisms underlying these processes. Omics technologies offer a powerful toolset with which to study gene expression at each of these stages. A recently published dataset integrating transcriptomic, proteomic and phospho-proteomic measurements from 30 Arabidopsis thaliana tissues provides a unique resource to explore gene expression.1 The translational machinery (the ribosome, and its initiation, elongation, and termination factors) are a core component in gene expression. Defects in translation can be lethal or lead to major developmental defects and ...


Project Alien, Rebecca McCallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer 2021 Duquesne University

Project Alien, Rebecca Mccallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Project ALIEN is a comprehensive plan to send humans to Mars to look for life on the Martian surface while exploring the viability and adaptability of terrestrial microbes in Martian atmospheric conditions. ALIEN will use a ballistic capture trajectory to get to Mars and stay in aerostationary orbit for a 30-day surface mission, during which two surface crewmembers will perform a variety of experiments to achieve the mission’s goals of Martian microbial discovery within brines of the Gale Crater and terrestrial microbe adaptability and viability to Martian conditions. Experimentation is based on the presumption that Martian microbes are metabolically ...


Designing A Reactive Warhead To Bind And Inhibit Pseudomonas Aeruginosa’S Periplasmic Protein, Inhibitor Of Vertebrate Lysozyme, Leah Greinke 2021 Kennesaw State University

Designing A Reactive Warhead To Bind And Inhibit Pseudomonas Aeruginosa’S Periplasmic Protein, Inhibitor Of Vertebrate Lysozyme, Leah Greinke

Master of Science in Chemical Sciences Theses

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium commonly found throughout the environment. It is a significant cause of disease and mortality in immunodeficient patients such as those suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Due to the emerging antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, it is becoming increasingly more challenging to treat an infection by traditional means. Further complicating treatment, P. aeruginosa secretes a protein known as Inhibitor of Vertebrate Lysozyme (PaIVY) that binds to and inhibits C-type lysozyme, thus preventing the degradation of the bacterium. A reactive chemical warhead was synthesized from a rhenium(I) tricarbonyl derivative inorder to bind to and irreversibly ...


Integrative Computational Approach Identifies Drug Targets In Cd4+ T-Cell-Mediated Immune Disorders, Bhanwar L. Puniya, Rada Amin, Bailee Lichter, Robert Moore, Alex Ciurej, Sydney J. Bennett, Ab Rauf Shah, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Integrative Computational Approach Identifies Drug Targets In Cd4+ T-Cell-Mediated Immune Disorders, Bhanwar L. Puniya, Rada Amin, Bailee Lichter, Robert Moore, Alex Ciurej, Sydney J. Bennett, Ab Rauf Shah, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

CD4+ T cells provide adaptive immunity against pathogens and abnormal cells, and they are also associated with various immunerelated diseases. CD4+ T cells’ metabolism is dysregulated in these pathologies and represents an opportunity for drug discovery and development. Genome-scale metabolic modeling offers an opportunity to accelerate drug discovery by providing high-quality information about possible target space in the context of a modeled disease. Here, we develop genome-scale models of naïve, Th1, Th2, and Th17 CD4+ T-cell subtypes to map metabolic perturbations in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and primary biliary cholangitis. We subjected these models to in silico simulations for drug ...


Effects Of Crowding Agents On I-Motif Dna, Hayden Brines 2021 University of Mississippi

Effects Of Crowding Agents On I-Motif Dna, Hayden Brines

Honors Theses

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a well-known double stranded, helical, biological molecule. In addition to its more commonly known structure, DNA can also form more complicated structures like G-quadruplexes and i-motifs (iM). The iMs are formed by cytosine rich DNA and are a four stranded structure that is typically looped around itself. The iM formation is typically pH-dependent and is favored in more acidic conditions; the pKa value is approximately 6.5. This pKa value allows for potential in vivo formation, since the cells have a pH of approximately 7.3. Due to this, iMs are thought to be powerful, innovative ...


Validation Of Anti-Oxidative Stress Genes From Genome-Wide Screening Of Escherichia Coli, Carson Ercanbrack 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Validation Of Anti-Oxidative Stress Genes From Genome-Wide Screening Of Escherichia Coli, Carson Ercanbrack

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The primary purpose of this project is to evaluate the genes that play a role in the oxidative stress response in Escherichia coli. In doing so, the entire genome of E. coli was subject to throughput in which individual genes were determined to have a role in the bacteria’s oxidative stress response. Moreover, this project focused on the validation of the genes that were able to pass the initial throughput stage. The genes were subject to two forms of validation. In the first validation technique, candidate genes were overexpressed and minimum inhibitory concentrations of hypochlorous acid were taken. Following ...


The Effect Of The Apolipoprotein A1 (Apoa1): The Stability And Folding In Potassium Chloride Environment, Alexandra Paladian 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

The Effect Of The Apolipoprotein A1 (Apoa1): The Stability And Folding In Potassium Chloride Environment, Alexandra Paladian

Honors Theses

Healthy levels of potassium chloride (KCl) can significantly affect the workings of the cholesterol level of the human body and how they pertain to an individual person. The search for a better salt additive for the human diet can provide a better option for people who experience high cholesterol levels and heart disease. The study focuses on the experimental design of the Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) in the potassium ion solution environment to determine the stability and folding of the protein. The study also compares its data to the previous experimental design of chloride ions ...


Molecular Dynamic Simulation Of The Complex Folding Patterns Of Apolipoprotein A1 In Various Concentrations Of Potassium Chloride, Hannah Holmberg 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Molecular Dynamic Simulation Of The Complex Folding Patterns Of Apolipoprotein A1 In Various Concentrations Of Potassium Chloride, Hannah Holmberg

Honors Theses

Apopliprotein or ApoA-1 is a complex lipoprotein that functions in the removal of cholesterol from the blood, removing cholesterol from the area around white blood cells and promoting the excretion of lipids through the lymphatic system. Previous research has found that ApoA-1 shows both folded and unfolded conformations depending on the concentration of NaCl in solution in the water around it. The protein was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Once this state of equilibrium was reached, various structural properties of the protein were measured including the radius of gyration and the radial distribution function. The goal of the project was ...


Studies Of The Dutpase Of The Western Corn Rootworm, Carlos Riera-Ruiz 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Studies Of The Dutpase Of The Western Corn Rootworm, Carlos Riera-Ruiz

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a major corn pest in the United States and Europe. WCR has developed resistance to multiple management strategies, including Cry proteins. Even though the biology and ecology have been thoroughly studied in WCR, their genome and molecular mechanisms are understudied. This work focuses on the ubiquitous enzyme deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) encoded by the DUT gene. dUTPase hydrolyzes dUTP into dUMP and pyrophosphate. It contributes to genome stability by keeping the uracil-to-thymine ratio at a certain level. In WCR, two dUTPase isoforms were predicted using transcriptome analyses. These two potential isoforms shared ...


Investigations Of Substrate Reduction By Nitrogenase: Light Powered Substrate Reduction By A Cds:Femoco System And Understanding Dinitrogen Inhibition Of Electron Transfer, Hayden Kallas 2021 Utah State University

Investigations Of Substrate Reduction By Nitrogenase: Light Powered Substrate Reduction By A Cds:Femoco System And Understanding Dinitrogen Inhibition Of Electron Transfer, Hayden Kallas

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen fixation is a key step of the nitrogen cycle which makes biologically inert N2 gas available for organisms to use in the form of ammonia. Nitrogen fixing microorganisms all contain the same enzyme called nitrogenase which catalyzes the six electron transfers to N2 required for conversion into ammonia. Nitrogenase is a two-component enzyme that contains a cofactor composed of iron and sulfur as well as heavier metals whose identity can be molybdenum, vanadium, or an additional iron atom depending on the variant. The two components of nitrogenase are the MFe protein and the Fe protein. The Fe ...


The Discovery And Analysis Of Peroxidase Enzyme In Pueraria Montana, Kathryn Briley 2021 Liberty University

The Discovery And Analysis Of Peroxidase Enzyme In Pueraria Montana, Kathryn Briley

Senior Honors Theses

Peroxidase enzymes are used for a variety of industrial and biotechnological applications because of their ease of purification, broad range of chemical activities, and low cost of use. Identification of quality peroxidase sources that are convenient for enzymatic isolation and give way to high yields of product is a desirable pursuit in biochemical research. Kudzu is an excellent candidate for this pursuit as it displays high catalytic activity in screening assays and is found in abundance. This project seeks to determine the enzyme stability, optimal pH conditions, and possible novel chemical activities of peroxidase isolated from kudzu leaves. The methods ...


Histone H2b Repression (Hbr) Domain Regulates Cell Cycle Progression And Dna Damage Response In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kaitlyn Galliher, Michael Parra 2021 Susquehanna University

Histone H2b Repression (Hbr) Domain Regulates Cell Cycle Progression And Dna Damage Response In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kaitlyn Galliher, Michael Parra

Senior Scholars Day

In eukaryotic genomes, DNA is packaged with a group of proteins called histones to form chromatin. The basic repeating subunit of chromatin, the nucleosome core particle (NCP), is made up of two copies each of the canonical histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Though compaction allows large amounts of DNA to fit into the relatively small space of the nucleus, it establishes a physical barrier to the DNA template. Because of their close association with DNA, histones play integral roles in DNA-templated processes (e.g. transcription, DNA repair, and DNA replication). The N-terminal domain of histones H2B (amino acids 3-37 ...


Interrogating The Functions Of The Histone H2a Repression Domain In Relation To Cell-Cycle Progression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Taylor Nattress 2021 Susquehanna University

Interrogating The Functions Of The Histone H2a Repression Domain In Relation To Cell-Cycle Progression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Taylor Nattress

Senior Scholars Day

In eukaryotic cells, DNA is wrapped around histone proteins to form the basic repeating unit of chromatin, the nucleosome core particle. Most nucleosomes consist of two copies each of histones: H2A and H2B in a heterodimer and histones H3 and H4 in a heterotetramer. Because of their intimate association with DNA, histones regulate all DNA-templated processes such as transcription, DNA replication, and DNA damage response and repair. Several studies have illustrated the importance of a small portion of the histone H2A amino terminal domain which regulates global transcription. This domain is responsible for the repression of ~4% of the yeast ...


The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu 2021 Liberty University

The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu

Senior Honors Theses

A previous study that introduced dietary folate to mice in the form of folic acid to determine if gene activity would be altered based on this biological molecule demonstrated that mice without folic acid had cognition deficits, and this phenomenon was correlated with altered gene expression in their brains. The included bioinformatic analysis revealed two main transcription factors that bind to proteins in the nucleus, and one is known as the Zinc Finger Protein 410 (Zfp410). Due to the lack of literature explaining the function of this transcription factor, this project is intended to analyze Zfp410 in detail from scratch ...


216— Loss Of Function Mutation For Tp53 Does Not Rescue The Chaf1bNt2 Small-Eye Phenotype In Danio Rerio, Alex Parks 2021 SUNY Geneseo

216— Loss Of Function Mutation For Tp53 Does Not Rescue The Chaf1bNt2 Small-Eye Phenotype In Danio Rerio, Alex Parks

GREAT Day

In Zebrafish, the chromosome assembly factor 1b (chaf1b) gene is in part responsible for the development of the eye. In homozygous chaf1bt24412 mutants retinal cell death is promoted through cell-death promoting activity of the gene, tumor suppressor protein p53 (tp53), resulting in a small-eye phenotype. Another allele chaf1bnt2, was found to also result in the small-eye phenotype when in a homozygous state. We found that knockdown of Tp53 protein via morpholino antisense oligonucleotide injection of 1-2 cell stage embryos failed to rescue retinal cell death of chaf1bnt2 homozygous mutants as detected by TUNEL labeling. Because morpholinos may fail to fully ...


Using The Lambert Function To Map Enzyme Kinetics, Melissa Gouge 2021 Ohio Northern University

Using The Lambert Function To Map Enzyme Kinetics, Melissa Gouge

ONU Student Research Colloquium

In an academic setting, enzyme kinetics are introduced by analysis of the initial rates using the Michalis-Menten model. To better understand enzyme kinetics, a complete time course analysis will provide a larger set of information. The use of the integrated form of the rate equation allows for a beginning glance at the mechanism of reaction. With this, the Lambert Ω function can be used to analyze the integrated rate equations. There are two different branches of the Lambert Ω function, a negative branch and a positive branch. For each branch there is a unique expanded series approximation used for analysis ...


The Effect Of Cadmium On Ovarian Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines: An Investigation Of The Possible Mechanism Of Action, Haley Todd 2021 Bellarmine University

The Effect Of Cadmium On Ovarian Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines: An Investigation Of The Possible Mechanism Of Action, Haley Todd

Undergraduate Theses

Cadmium, a heavy metal and carcinogen, is an environmental and workplace contaminate. As a known endocrine disruptor, it can mimic the proliferative effects of estrogen and is classified as a metalloestrogen. While the proliferative effect of estrogen on cancerous cell growth has been well established, the effects of cadmium have not been fully examined. To determine if cadmium stimulates growth in two human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines, OVCAR3 and SKOV3, cells were treated for 48 hours with varying concentrations of cadmium, 0.001 µM – 10 µM, and growth was measured using a cell proliferation assay. Both cell lines showed a ...


Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Warming House, Olivet Nazarene University

Abstract

The eNOS pathway, found in the endothelium of blood vessels, is a key regulator of nitric oxide levels in the circulatory system. The pathway is controlled through several positive and negative feedback loops [2]. The cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a major control point in this pathway and under conditions of stress can be reduced into the dihydrobiopterin (BH2) [2,6,7,8,9]. When the reduced form is predominant, the pathway produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than nitric oxide, causing stress and damage to the vessels [6,7,8,9]. In ...


Bacteria, Guano And Soot: Source Assessment Of Organic Matter Preserved In Black Laminae In Stalagmites From Caves Of The Sierra De Atapuerca (N Spain), Joeri Kaal, Virginia Martínez-Pillado, Antonio Martínez Cortizas, Jorge Sanjurjo Sánchez, Arantza Aranburu, Juan-Luis Arsuaga, Eneko Iriarte 2021 Pyrolyscience, Madrid, Spain

Bacteria, Guano And Soot: Source Assessment Of Organic Matter Preserved In Black Laminae In Stalagmites From Caves Of The Sierra De Atapuerca (N Spain), Joeri Kaal, Virginia Martínez-Pillado, Antonio Martínez Cortizas, Jorge Sanjurjo Sánchez, Arantza Aranburu, Juan-Luis Arsuaga, Eneko Iriarte

International Journal of Speleology

Speleothems are a recognized source of paleoclimatic information, but their value as a source of signals from human activities in caves with an archaeological record has rarely been explored. Previous studies of speleothems in the Sierra de Atapuerca karst system (Burgos, northern Spain) revealed an important human fossil record, provided information about human activities in and around these caves, and the impacts on their natural environment. The present study reports the results of molecular characterization of dark-colored laminae from the stalagmites Ilargi (Galería de las Estatuas) and GS1, GS2, and GS3 (Galería del Silo), by pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) and thermally assisted ...


Coilin Expression During Nucleolar Stress In The Drosophila Brain, Kathryn Rose DeLeo 2021 Louisiana State University

Coilin Expression During Nucleolar Stress In The Drosophila Brain, Kathryn Rose Deleo

LSU Master's Theses

Impairment of ribosome biogenesis disrupts cellular homeostasis and, in the process, causes a state of nucleolar stress in a cell. This triggers human syndromes collectively known as ribosomopathies. One such ribosomopathy is the Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) which causes congenital craniofacial birth defects and hearing loss in patients. In TCS migration of neural crest cells during development is hindered by the loss of the ribosome assembly factor, treacle, and consequent apoptosis of these progenitor cells. Modeling this disorder in Drosophila was previously accomplished by disruption of Nopp140, treacle’s closest equivalent in Drosophila. During nucleolar stress, the Mushroom Body neuroblast ...


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