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Cytotoxic And Antimicrobial Effects Of Silver-Containing Surfaces, Sarah Goderecci 2017 Rowan University

Cytotoxic And Antimicrobial Effects Of Silver-Containing Surfaces, Sarah Goderecci

Theses and Dissertations

This study examines applications of sputtered silver coatings as alternatives to traditional antibiotic treatments. Given the increase in reports of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, new treatments and coatings for in-dwelling medical devices such as catheters and orthopedic implants are necessary. Silver oxide films were deposited onto Ti surfaces to examine the efficacy of such coatings against a variety of bacterial species both in vitro and in vivo. Bacterial growth studies showed that coatings exhibited antimicrobial activity against a range of bacterial species acting either in a bacteriostatic or bactericidal mechanism, depending on the target. Limited toxicity to in vitro mammalian cells was ...


Identification Of Preferred Dna-Binding Sites For The Thermus Thermophilus Transcriptional Regulator Sbtr By The Combinatorial Approach Repsa, Michael W. Van Dyke, Matthew D. Beyer, Emily Clay, Jonathan L. McMurry 2017 Kennesaw State University

Identification Of Preferred Dna-Binding Sites For The Thermus Thermophilus Transcriptional Regulator Sbtr By The Combinatorial Approach Repsa, Michael W. Van Dyke, Matthew D. Beyer, Emily Clay, Jonathan L. Mcmurry

Jonathan McMurry

One of the first steps towards elucidating the biological function of a putative transcriptional regulator is to ascertain its preferred DNA-binding sequences. This may be rapidly and effectively achieved through the application of a combinatorial approach, one involving very large numbers of randomized oligonucleotides and reiterative selection and amplification steps to enrich for high-affinity nucleic acid-binding sequences. Previously, we had developed the novel combinatorial approach Restriction Endonuclease Protection, Selection and Amplification (REPSA), which relies not on the physical separation of ligand-nucleic acid complexes but instead selects on the basis of ligand-dependent inhibition of enzymatic template inactivation, specifically cleavage by type ...


Flagellar Formation In C-Ring-Defective Mutants By Overproduction Of Flii, The Atpase Specific For Flagellar Type Iii Secretion, Manabu Konishi, Masaomi Kanbe, Jonathan L. McMurry, Shin-Ichi Aizawa 2017 Prefectural University of Hiroshima

Flagellar Formation In C-Ring-Defective Mutants By Overproduction Of Flii, The Atpase Specific For Flagellar Type Iii Secretion, Manabu Konishi, Masaomi Kanbe, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Shin-Ichi Aizawa

Jonathan McMurry

The flagellar cytoplasmic ring (C ring), which consists of three proteins, FliG, FliM, and FliN, is located on the cytoplasmic side of the flagellum. The C ring is a multifunctional structure necessary for flagellar protein secretion, torque generation, and switching of the rotational direction of the motor. The deletion of any one of the fliG, fliM, and fliN genes results in a Fla - phenotype. Here, we show that the overproduction of the flagellum-specific ATPase FliI overcomes the inability of basal bodies with partial C-ring structures to produce complete flagella. Flagella made upon FliI overproduction were paralyzed, indicating that an intact ...


Docking Studies Of Isoform-Selectivity Of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (Pi3k) Inhibitors, Kaitlin Goettsch 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Docking Studies Of Isoform-Selectivity Of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (Pi3k) Inhibitors, Kaitlin Goettsch

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) and their related pathways are reputed targets for drug-based anticancer therapies. Mutations in PI3K genes, expression, and pathways are frequent among multiple cancer types. Four isoforms of PI3Ks exist: α, β, γ, & δ and studies have identified several ligands for each isoform which are capable of serving as inhibitory therapeutic compounds. However, the biochemical efficacy of these molecules varies and the isoform selectivity is not well understood. In this study, we applied in silico docking methods and free energy calculation methods to estimate the binding of reported PI3K ligands against 5 PI3K structures: PI3Kα (PBD ID: 2RD0 ...


Bioaccumulation Of Metallic Trace Elements And Antioxidant Enzyme Activities In Apfelbeckia Insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) (Diplopoda: Callipodida) From The Cave Hadži-Prodanova Pećina (Serbia), Jelena Vranković, Slavica Borković-Mitić, Bojan Ilić, Milanka Radulović, Slaviša Milošević, Slobodan Makarov, Bojan Mitić 2017 University of Belgrade

Bioaccumulation Of Metallic Trace Elements And Antioxidant Enzyme Activities In Apfelbeckia Insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) (Diplopoda: Callipodida) From The Cave Hadži-Prodanova Pećina (Serbia), Jelena Vranković, Slavica Borković-Mitić, Bojan Ilić, Milanka Radulović, Slaviša Milošević, Slobodan Makarov, Bojan Mitić

International Journal of Speleology

The concentration of 10 metallic trace elements or MTE (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr) was measured in specimens of the troglophilic millipede Apfelbeckia insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) and sediment of the cave Hadži-Prodanova Pećina in western Serbia. Some MTE, like Fe and Mn, displayed much higher concentrations compared to other elements, both in the sediment and in the body of A. insculpta. On the other hand, estimation of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in both males and females of A. insculpta showed values greater than 1 for xenobiotic elements compared to those that are essential ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Endocytosis Of Macrophage Growth Factor Receptor By Molecular Imaging, Victor Georgiev, Emily Toering, Christopher Callahan 2017 South Dakota State University

Quantitative Analysis Of Endocytosis Of Macrophage Growth Factor Receptor By Molecular Imaging, Victor Georgiev, Emily Toering, Christopher Callahan

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Endocytosis is a critical cellular process responsible for nutrient uptake, sampling the environment, and cellular signaling. Endocytosis of growth factor receptors is an important step in the regulation of receptor signaling functions. The macrophage growth factor receptor controls growth and differentiation of macrophages, however, the pathway by which the receptor is internalized is not well understood. The analysis showed that for the first time, knockout of endophilin A2 decreases the internalization of macrophage growth factor receptor in primary bone marrow macrophages. This shows that fast endophilin-mediated endocytosis plays a role in the control of the amount of growth factor receptors ...


Utilizing Microfluidics Devices To Monitor Endothelial Cell Migration., Tsz Ming Jeremy Tsang, Jacob Lefler, Charles Voyton, Kenneth Christensen 2017 Brigham Young University - Provo

Utilizing Microfluidics Devices To Monitor Endothelial Cell Migration., Tsz Ming Jeremy Tsang, Jacob Lefler, Charles Voyton, Kenneth Christensen

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Utilizing microfluidics devices to monitor endothelial cell migration.


Chloride And Proton Binding In The E. Coli 2cl¯:1h+ Clc Exchanger, Catherine Chenal 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Chloride And Proton Binding In The E. Coli 2cl¯:1h+ Clc Exchanger, Catherine Chenal

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The CLC family of membrane proteins is a ubiquitously expressed class of proton and usually voltage-activated chloride transporters involved in a myriad of physiological functions. Crystallographic structures identify up to three chloride binding sites: external, central and intracellular located in the inner half of the trans-membrane domain. The CLC proteins, except for the kidney isoforms, are gated by the extracellular side-facing gating Glutamate (Ex, E148 in CLC-ec1, the E. coli exchanger), which is thought to undergo a conformational change upon protonation.

To sort out how the thermodynamic paths to H+ coupled Cl¯ binding and conformational change in CLC-ec1 at the ...


Regulation Of The Drosophila Initiator Caspase Dronc Through Ubiquitylation, Hatem E. Kamber Kaya 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Regulation Of The Drosophila Initiator Caspase Dronc Through Ubiquitylation, Hatem E. Kamber Kaya

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Apoptosis is a programmed cell death mechanism that is evolutionary conserved from worms to humans. Apoptosis is mediated by initiator and effector caspases. The initiator caspases carry long pro-domains for their interaction with scaffolding proteins to form a cell-death platform, which is essential for their activation. Activated initiator caspases then cleave effector caspases that execute cell death through cleaving downstream targets. In addition to their apoptotic function, caspases also participate in events where caspase activity is not required for cell killing, but for regulating other functions, so-called non-apoptotic functions of caspases. The Drosophila initiator caspase Dronc, the ortholog of mammalian ...


Maysin And Its Flavonoid Derivative From Centipedegrass Attenuates Amyloid Plaques By Inducting Humoral Immune Response With Th2 Skewed Cytokine Response In The Tg (Appswe, Ps1de9) Alzheimer's Mouse Model, Yuno Song, Hong-Duck Kim, Min-Kwon Lee, Il-Hwa Hong, Chung-Kil Won, Seung Sik Lee, Jae-Hyeon Cho 2017 New York Medical College

Maysin And Its Flavonoid Derivative From Centipedegrass Attenuates Amyloid Plaques By Inducting Humoral Immune Response With Th2 Skewed Cytokine Response In The Tg (Appswe, Ps1de9) Alzheimer's Mouse Model, Yuno Song, Hong-Duck Kim, Min-Kwon Lee, Il-Hwa Hong, Chung-Kil Won, Seung Sik Lee, Jae-Hyeon Cho

NYMC Faculty Publications

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slow, progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia in the elderly. The etiology of AD and its underlying mechanism are still not clear. In a previous study, we found that an ethyl acetate extract of Centipedegrass (CG) (i.e., EA-CG) contained 4 types of Maysin derivatives, including Luteolin, Isoorientin, Rhamnosylisoorientin, and Derhamnosylmaysin, and showed protective effects against Amyloid beta (Aβ) by inhibiting oligomeric Aβ in cellular and in vitro models. Here, we examined the preventative effects of EA-CG treatment on the Aβ burden in the Tg (Mo/Hu APPswe PS1dE9) AD ...


Arsenite Resistance Of Euglena Mutabilis, Nicole Loumarinett Rosendo Mercado, Doug G. Cole (Mentor) 2017 University of Idaho

Arsenite Resistance Of Euglena Mutabilis, Nicole Loumarinett Rosendo Mercado, Doug G. Cole (Mentor)

Idaho Conference on Undergraduate Research

Euglena are photosynthetic unicellular protozoa. Commonly found in rivers, lakes and ponds, some Euglena are found in toxic environments, like areas of acid mine drainage where they can grow at low pH and in the presence of heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenite (e.g. Euglena mutabilis). The goal of this research is to determine if an Idaho Euglena isolate (SG6) belongs to the E. mutabilis species and to compare it’s level of arsenite resistance with other E. mutabilis strains. As part of the methodology, we have developed microtiter plate assays in which the cells are grown in ...


Metabolic Reprogramming Of Human Lung Cancer Cells And Ex Vivo Tissues Revealed By Uhr-Ftms Analysis Of Small Amino And Carboxyl Metabolites, Ye Yang 2017 University of Kentucky

Metabolic Reprogramming Of Human Lung Cancer Cells And Ex Vivo Tissues Revealed By Uhr-Ftms Analysis Of Small Amino And Carboxyl Metabolites, Ye Yang

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Studies were carried out to understand how human lung cancer cells and human ex vivo lung cancer tissues that are metabolically reprogramed compared with analogous non-cancer cells or non-cancer tissues. A Stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM) approach was used to fulfill this aim by employing 13C, 2H or 15N labeled metabolic precursors like 13C6-Glc, 13C2-Gly, 2H2-Gly, 2H3-Ser, 13C5, 15N2-Gln to trace the flow of the labeled atoms into the down stream metabolic network. NMR and mass spectrometry are two major ...


Significant Enhancement Of Fatty Acid Composition In Seeds Of The Allohexaploid, Camelina Sativa, Using Crispr/Cas9 Gene Editing, Wen Zhi Jhang, Isabelle M. Henry, Peter G. Lynagh, Lucia Comai, Edgar B. Cahoon, Donald P. Weeks 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Significant Enhancement Of Fatty Acid Composition In Seeds Of The Allohexaploid, Camelina Sativa, Using Crispr/Cas9 Gene Editing, Wen Zhi Jhang, Isabelle M. Henry, Peter G. Lynagh, Lucia Comai, Edgar B. Cahoon, Donald P. Weeks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful and flexible tool for genome editing, and novel applications of this system are being developed rapidly. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the FAD2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the closely related emerging oil seed plant, Camelina sativa, with the goal of improving seed oil composition. We successfully obtained Camelina seeds in which oleic acid content was increased from 16% to over 50% of the fatty acid composition. These increases were associated with significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i.e. a decrease from ~16 ...


Mrub_2642, Mrub_1054, And Mrub_1059 Genes Are Orthologs Of The Escherichia Coli Genes B2942, B0159, And B2687 Genes, Respectively, Which Code For Methionine Adenosyltransferase, Adenosylhomocysteine Nucleosidase, And S-Ribosylhomocysteine Lyase, Nicholas M. Orslini, Dr. Lori R. Scott 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Mrub_2642, Mrub_1054, And Mrub_1059 Genes Are Orthologs Of The Escherichia Coli Genes B2942, B0159, And B2687 Genes, Respectively, Which Code For Methionine Adenosyltransferase, Adenosylhomocysteine Nucleosidase, And S-Ribosylhomocysteine Lyase, Nicholas M. Orslini, Dr. Lori R. Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

This project is part of the Meiothermus ruber genome analysis project, which uses the bioinformatics tools associated with the Guiding Education through Novel Investigation –Annotation Collaboration Toolkit (GENI-ACT) to predict gene function. We investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_2642, Mrub_1054, and Mrub_1059.

We predict that Mrub_2642 encodes the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase (DNA coordinates [2677251…2678426] on the reverse strand), the first step of the methionine degradation pathway (KEGG map number 00270). Methionine adenosyltransferase catalyzes the conversion of the substrates, ATP, L-methionine, and water, to yield the products S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), inorganic phosphate, and diphosphate. Mrub_1054 encodes adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (DNA ...


Effects Of Novel Fragment-Warhead Adducts In Situ And In Vitro With Glutaredoxin Orthologs., Andrew J. Caras 2017 The University of Akron

Effects Of Novel Fragment-Warhead Adducts In Situ And In Vitro With Glutaredoxin Orthologs., Andrew J. Caras

Honors Research Projects

Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is a method of pharmaceutical research involving characterization of small “fragment” molecule interactions with a target protein. These fragments are optimized with the addition of a nucleophilic “warhead” moiety. Several novel fragment-warhead adducts have been synthesized in house by group member Ram Khattri Ph.D. The experiment investigates reactivity of these adducts with glutaredoxin protein (Grx) orthologs from Homo sapiens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Brucella melitensis. Three novel fragment-warhead adducts have been identified to cause weakly bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal effects, most with minimum inhibitory concentration values near 1.28 mg/mL. Discussed herein are molecular effects of ...


Phage Display To Identify Functional Resistance Mutations To Rigosertib, Nedim Filipovic 2017 Claremont McKenna College

Phage Display To Identify Functional Resistance Mutations To Rigosertib, Nedim Filipovic

CMC Senior Theses

In vitro protein selection has had major impacts in the field of protein engineering. Traditional screens assay individual proteins for specific function. Selection, however, analyzes a pool of mutants and yields the best variants. Phage display, a successful selection technique, also provides a reliable link between variant phenotype and genotype. It can also be coupled with high throughput sequencing to map protein mutations; potentially highlighting vital mutations in variants. We propose to apply this technique to cancer therapy. RAF, a serine/threonine kinase, is critical for cell regulation in mammals. RAF can be activated by oncogenic RAS, found in over ...


Mechanism Of Substrate Reduction By Nitrogenase, Nimesh Khadka 2017 Utah State University

Mechanism Of Substrate Reduction By Nitrogenase, Nimesh Khadka

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen (N) is a chemical constituent for almost all biological molecules including proteins, DNA, RNA, lipids and is therefore vital for life. The ultimate source of nitrogen is the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) but that only becomes bioavailable through a process of nitrogen fixation, the process that converts N2 to ammonia (NH3). The industrial Haber-Bosch process and biological nitrogen fixation account for the majority of nitrogen fixed every year. However, due to its high temperature, pressure and fossil fuel requirements, Haber-Bosch is an expensive process. Every year, approximately 3% of the global energy demand is used to manufacture ...


New Open Conformation Of Smyd3 Implicates Conformational Selection And Allostery, Nicholas Spellmon, Xiaonan Sun, Wen Xue, Joshua Holcomb, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Weifeng Shang, Brian FP Edwards, Nualpun Sirinupong, Chunying Li, Zhe Yang 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine

New Open Conformation Of Smyd3 Implicates Conformational Selection And Allostery, Nicholas Spellmon, Xiaonan Sun, Wen Xue, Joshua Holcomb, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Weifeng Shang, Brian Fp Edwards, Nualpun Sirinupong, Chunying Li, Zhe Yang

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

SMYD3 plays a key role in cancer cell viability, adhesion, migration and invasion. SMYD3 promotes formation of inducible regulatory T cells and is involved in reducing autoimmunity. However, the nearly “closed” substrate-binding site and poor in vitro H3K4 methyltransferase activity have obscured further understanding of this oncogenically related protein. Here we reveal that SMYD3 can adopt an “open” conformation using molecular dynamics simulation and small-angle X-ray scattering. This ligand-binding-capable open state is related to the crystal structure-like closed state by a striking clamshell-like inter-lobe dynamics. The two states are characterized by many distinct structural and dynamical differences and the conformational ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


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