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Examination Of The Time Delayed Induction Between Prior Encapsulation Of Catalytic Enzymes In P22 Virus-Like Particles, Andrea Hernandez Irias 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Examination Of The Time Delayed Induction Between Prior Encapsulation Of Catalytic Enzymes In P22 Virus-Like Particles, Andrea Hernandez Irias

Chemistry Theses

Protein cages found in nature have the ability to protect and develop new nanomaterials in order to enhance catalytic reactions. This is due to the ability of these organelle structures to mimic protein-based organelles such as Virus-Like Particles (VLPs). VLPs have the ability to not only resemble virus protein structures but to encapsulate enzymes while retaining their activity. This research examines the in vitro encapsulation withing the bacteriophage P22 derived VLP, and show that some enzymes may require a delay in encapsulation to allowed proper folding

and maturation before they can be encapsulated inside P22 as fully active enzymes. Exploring ...


Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) gene is often mutated in cancer, with missense mutations found in the central DNA binding domain, and less often in the oligomerization domain (OD) and C-terminal domain (CTD). The OD and CTD have been found to be critical for the tumor suppressor functionality of wild-type p53 (wtp53). Specific missense mutations in the DNA binding domain have been found to confer new gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Mutations that destabilize tetramer formation, or deletion of key lysine residues within the CTD, downregulate the ability of wtp53 to transactivate (increase the rate of transcription of) its target genes. We ...


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in ...


Perseverance Of Protein Homeostasis Despite Mistranslation, Farah Hasan 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Perseverance Of Protein Homeostasis Despite Mistranslation, Farah Hasan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are essential for protein synthesis and translation fidelity. Some human tRNA variants may cause amino acid misincorporation: tRNAGly variants (tRNAGlyCCC, tRNAGlyGCC) have mutations that generate an alanine tRNA identity element (G3:U70), likely causing mis-aminoacylation of glycine tRNAs with alanine, while the tRNAAlaAGC G35C (tRNAAlaACC) variant may function similarly to mis-incorporate Ala at Gly codons by generating a Gly anticodon. I propose that these mistranslating tRNAs will disrupt protein homeostasis in mammalian cells. Although the tRNAGly and tRNAAla variants did not affect protein synthesis in normal ...


Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand 2022 Western

Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A general description of why RNAi based pesticide technology is a breakthrough technology able to target only pests while not harming others. This presentation gives a summary of RNAi technology, the current drawbacks of conventional pesticides, and our research on how RNAi can be used against the two-spotted spidermite; a polyphagic pest that causes significant financial damage to Canadian and worldwide agriculture


Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib 2022 Western University

Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Translation, or the production of protein from an mRNA blueprint, is among the most fundamental processes to life as we know it. tRNAs are essential to accurate translation, as they decode the codons of mRNA and recruit corresponding amino acids. Variant tRNAs with anticodon mutations can decrease translational fidelity by recruiting the incorrect amino acid, an aberrant process known as mistranslation. When proteins are produced with incorrect amino acid sequences, they may misfold. The heat shock response functions to alleviate cellular stress caused by misfolded proteins, either by refolding or targeting misfolded proteins for degradation. Hsf1 acts as a transcriptional ...


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME ...


Location And Conformation Of Titin In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Gaberielle S. Prince 2022 University of South Alabama

Location And Conformation Of Titin In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Gaberielle S. Prince

Theses and Dissertations

Striated muscles consist of contractile myofibrils that generate force. The repeating units (sarcomeres) of striated myofibrils contain thin & thick filaments composed of actin and myosin. In vertebrates, titin connects thin & thick filaments during myofibril assembly and produces passive tension. Invertebrate homologs of vertebrate titin are similar in structure molecularly. However, invertebrate titin homologs are smaller than vertebrate titin, and likely function differently within invertebrate muscles. Here, I used Ce-TTN-1, a titin homolog in the invertebrate roundworm C elegans. To visualize Ce-TTN-1 in C. elegans, I used Nested CRISPR gene editing to generate translational fusions of a red fluorescent protein at ...


Visualizing Muscle Assembly And Function In C. Elegans, Michael B. Russell 2022 University of South Alabama

Visualizing Muscle Assembly And Function In C. Elegans, Michael B. Russell

Theses and Dissertations

Myofibrils produce the forces that shorten muscles during contraction and are composed of proteins arranged in repeating contractile units (sarcomeres). These are composed of various proteins that self-organize into precise, alternating groups. The process of myofibril assembly is robust, flexible, and medically relevant. Various protein isoforms have evolved to modify the assembly process and generate a variety of muscle types with distinct physiologies and dynamics. To study myofibril assembly, I used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) which is an ideal model organism for this because it is transparent and has a variety of different muscle types that are responsible ...


Modeling Electrostatics In Molecular Biology And Its Relevance With Molecular Mechanisms Of Diseases, Mahesh Koirala 2022 Clemson University

Modeling Electrostatics In Molecular Biology And Its Relevance With Molecular Mechanisms Of Diseases, Mahesh Koirala

All Dissertations

Electrostatics plays an essential role in molecular biology. Modeling electrostatics in molecular biology is complicated due to the water phase, mobile ions, and irregularly shaped inhomogeneous biological macromolecules. This dissertation presents the popular DelPhi package that solves PBE and delivers the electrostatic potential distribution of biomolecules. We used the newly developed DelPhiForce steered Molecular Dynamics (DFMD) approach to model the binding of barstar to barnase and demonstrated that the first-principles method could also model the binding. This dissertation also reflects the use of existing computational approaches to model the effects of Single Amino Acid Variations (SAVs) to reveal molecular mechanisms ...


Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Known to cause gas gangrene, Hathewaya histolytica secretes two sister collagenases, collagenase G (Col G) and collagenase H (Col H), to degrade the triple helical structure of collagen to further infection in a host. Individual domains of Col H have been crystalized in previous studies, but methods in x-ray crystallization of full-length Col H have been unsuccessful. Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) data, atomistic modeling was used to generate multiple conformations of Col H while accounting for flexibility between domains. Full-length Col H was found to adopt a two-state conformational model exhibiting a majority compact and a minority elongated ...


Characterization Of The Wee1 Homologues And The Investigation Of Factors Promoting Cellular Enlargement In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Rodney J. Colón Reyes 2022 Clemson University

Characterization Of The Wee1 Homologues And The Investigation Of Factors Promoting Cellular Enlargement In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Rodney J. Colón Reyes

All Dissertations

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, infecting mainly immunocompromised individuals. As the main cause of cryptococcosis, it is responsible for over 180,000 deaths every year. As an environmental yeast, it has unique adaptations that allow it to proliferate in the human host. Among these adaptations its capacity to transition to an extreme phenotype known as Titan cells is of special interest to researchers. With sizes above 10 um and able to reach 70 um or more in cell size. This size is accompanied with a large vacuole, larger polysaccharide capsule, and an increased resistance to fluconazole (FLC). FLC ...


The Importance Of Co2 Recapture In The Co2 Concentrating Mechanism Of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Ashwani Rai 2022 Louisiana State University

The Importance Of Co2 Recapture In The Co2 Concentrating Mechanism Of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Ashwani Rai

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The aim of this thesis is to investigate the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and to develop a quick method for estimating the activity of carbonic anhydrases (CAs). The first project demonstrates that there are two almost identical mitochondrial CAs in C. reinhardtii, CAH4 and CAH5, that help to maintain photosynthesis and minimize the leak of CO2 generated by respiration and photorespiration. We used an RNAi approach to reduce the expression of CAH4 and CAH5 so that their physiological functions could be studied. RNAi mutants with low expression of CAH4 and CAH5 have impaired rates of ...


A Protein-Based Therapeutic Combination For The Treatment Of Hard-To-Heal Wounds, Graham L. Strauss 2022 University of South Florida

A Protein-Based Therapeutic Combination For The Treatment Of Hard-To-Heal Wounds, Graham L. Strauss

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Chronic wounds present many clinical challenges in relation to the successful treatment and closure of the damaged tissue. Most current treatment methods focused on one or two aspects to drive wound closure, while most chronic wounds are multifactorial environments with many of those dependencies relying on the termination of one another to effectively gain tissue construction, closure, and full skin thickness and composition. Natural wound healing processes allude to potential biologics that can impede the chronic breakdown of tissue, while restoring deposition of new tissue, and effectively leading to a healed wound. Proteases secreted by the body’s immune system ...


Regulation Of The Heat Shock Response Via Lysine Acetyltransferase Cbp-1 And In Neurodegenerative Disease In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Lindsey N. Barrett 2022 University of South Florida

Regulation Of The Heat Shock Response Via Lysine Acetyltransferase Cbp-1 And In Neurodegenerative Disease In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Lindsey N. Barrett

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The decline of proteostasis is a hallmark of aging that is, in part, affected by the dysregulation of the heat shock response (HSR), a highly conserved cellular response to proteotoxic stress in the cell. The heat shock transcription factor HSF-1 is well-studied as a key regulator of proteostasis, but mechanisms that could be used to modulate HSF-1 function to enhance proteostasis during aging are largely unknown. In this study, we examined lysine acetyltransferase regulation of the HSR and HSF-1 in C. elegans. We performed an RNA interference screen of lysine acetyltransferases and examined mRNA expression of the heat-shock inducible gene ...


Effect Of A Commonly Used Veterinary Antibiotic On Oxidative Stress And Root Transporters Of Edible Legumes And Leafy Crops, Safaa Nassar, Jamilah Borjac 2022 PhD Students, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University

Effect Of A Commonly Used Veterinary Antibiotic On Oxidative Stress And Root Transporters Of Edible Legumes And Leafy Crops, Safaa Nassar, Jamilah Borjac

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

Antibiotic accumulation in soil and plants is a rising problem in agriculture creating a serious threat to living organisms in the environment, hence needing huge attention. To this end, glasshouse pot experiments were conducted to simulate contamination by veterinary antibiotic at 150 mg kg-1 and 4800 mg kg-1 in a virgin soil in which lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), arugula (Eruca sativa Mill.) and cress (Lepidium sativum L.) were grown, aiming at evaluating the potential toxicity of antibiotic in plants roots during their growth period. Biomarkers of toxicity such as malondialdehyde and proline levels and ...


Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John MacMicking, Sheng Yang He 2022 Duke University

Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John Macmicking, Sheng Yang He

Biology Faculty Publications

Extreme weather conditions associated with climate change affect many aspects of plant and animal life, including the response to infectious diseases. Production of salicylic acid (SA), a central plant defence hormone, is particularly vulnerable to suppression by short periods of hot weather above the normal plant growth temperature range via an unknown mechanism. Here we show that suppression of SA production in Arabidopsis thaliana at 28 °C is independent of PHYTOCHROME B (phyB) and EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), which regulate thermo-responsive plant growth and development. Instead, we found that formation of GUANYLATE BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 3 (GBPL3) defence-activated biomolecular condensates (GDACs ...


Tracking And Modulating Circadian Rhythms In Cell Culture Models, Sujeewa Sampath Lellupitiyage Don 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Tracking And Modulating Circadian Rhythms In Cell Culture Models, Sujeewa Sampath Lellupitiyage Don

Doctoral Dissertations

Circadian rhythms are 24–hour activity cycles that exist for all organisms, from yeast and bacteria to mammals. Epidemiological data has shown that disruptions to circadian rhythms are associated with various diseases, including cancers. Circadian rhythms are regulated at the cellular level by a "molecular clock,” whose oscillations in protein transcription and translation control a range of downstream pathways. However, the connections between altered rhythms and diseases at the molecular level is unclear. Therefore, in this project, I tracked circadian rhythms in a high-resolution manner and thoroughly analyzed them to more completely reflect circadian behaviors and clock functioning at the ...


Analysis Of Soxs In S. Typhimurium By Transposon Mutagenesis, Joel Hanns, Brenda Pratte, Lon Chubiz PhD, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Analysis Of Soxs In S. Typhimurium By Transposon Mutagenesis, Joel Hanns, Brenda Pratte, Lon Chubiz Phd, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

The mar-sox-rob regulon has been implicated in transcriptional regulation of several stress responses, such efflux of antibiotics, enzymes that break down reactive oxygen species, repression of biofilm formation, or repression of motility through downregulation of flagellar expression. This system is conserved among enteric bacteria and has been studied in species, such as E. coli and S. typhimurium. Some of these mechanisms can be costly and slow cell growth while increasing the probability of survival through tolerance of toxic environments. SoxS works in coordination with SoxR to respond to redox stress encountered by the cell. Interestingly, the overexpression of SoxS in ...


Signature Peptide Identification For Body Fluids In Sexual Assault Cases By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Kelci Somers 2022 CUNY John Jay College

Signature Peptide Identification For Body Fluids In Sexual Assault Cases By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Kelci Somers

Student Theses

Body fluids contain proteins that perform functions specific to different types of body fluids. Therefore, the detection of signature peptides for these proteins can potentially identify a body fluid in a forensic investigation. This project aimed to validate a method to detect signature peptides in body fluids commonly found in sexual assault cases by LC-MS/MS. Signature peptides for semen and saliva fluids were combined with two signature peptides for vaginal fluids. Samples created using two donors each for saliva, semen, and vaginal fluids were extracted using a trypsin digest, with separation of the protein and DNA fractions. The LC-MS ...


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