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Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Inflammasomes In Asbestos-Induced Mesothelial To Fibroblastic Transition, Joyce K. Thompson 2017 University of Vermont

The Role Of Inflammasomes In Asbestos-Induced Mesothelial To Fibroblastic Transition, Joyce K. Thompson

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is a fatal disease with a low median survival between 8 to 12 months after diagnosis. MM has a long latency period (10-60 years), is causally related to asbestos exposure, and is refractory to all available modes of therapy. Despite the causal association between asbestos exposure and MM however, the mechanisms by which asbestos induces this deadly disease remain unclear. Chronic inflammation due to the presence of asbestos fibers is believed to play an important role in all aspects of MM pathogenesis, from development to progression and resistance. Chronic inflammation has been shown to promote dysregulated wound ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Arvin Iracheta-Vellve

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


The Association Between Oxidative Stress, Cellular Differentiation And Galectins In Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60), James R. Vinnai 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Association Between Oxidative Stress, Cellular Differentiation And Galectins In Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60), James R. Vinnai

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Galectins are a group of β-galactoside-binding proteins involved in different cellular processes including stress responses and differentiation. The role and expression of galectins under oxidative stress and during neutrophilic differentiation was examined in HL-60 cells. Galectin gene (LGALS), and galectin protein expression were determined using RT-qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Neutrophilic differentiation was measured via a spectrofluorometric assay. DNA methylation and JNK signaling were investigated as galectin regulatory mechanisms. Menadione-induced oxidative stress, DMSO-induced differentiation, DNA hypomethylation and JNK signaling all promoted similar galectin expression profiles. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuated the menadione-induced galectin expression but only partially attenuated DMSO-induced galectin expression. Galectin inhibitory ...


Id4 And Fkbp52 Interaction Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity: Mechanistic Insight, Jugal Bharat Joshi 2016 Clark Atlanta University

Id4 And Fkbp52 Interaction Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity: Mechanistic Insight, Jugal Bharat Joshi

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The inhibitor of DNA binding protein 4 (ID4) is a dominant negative regulator of basic helix loop helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors.1 Recently, Patel et al., demonstrated that inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) acts as a tumor suppressor and its loss, frequently observed in prostate cancer, promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through constitutive androgen receptor (AR) activation.2 However, the mechanism by which loss of ID4 promotes constitutively active AR signaling in the CRPC conditions is unknown. The rationale of the present study was to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms through which loss of ID4 potentiates AR signaling ...


Riboregulation Of Bacterial Transposons, Michael J. Ellis 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Riboregulation Of Bacterial Transposons, Michael J. Ellis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bacterial transposons typically exist in a mutually beneficial relationship with the host cell. Limited transposition can benefit the host while also ensuring the survival of the element. An important component of this relationship is that transposition must be tightly regulated. In this thesis I explore ways that the host and transposon each control transposition in E. coli and provide evidence that a transposon can also control host gene expression in S. enterica Typhimurium. Post-transcriptional regulation with small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) has emerged as a key way that bacteria respond to stress and regulate many cellular processes. The RNA-binding protein Hfq ...


The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe- Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe- Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette

Master's Theses

The elasmobranch osmoregulatory strategy is predicated on the accumulation of nitrogenous compounds, primarily urea and trimethylamine n¬-oxide (TMAO). Despite the abundance of these plasma osmolytes, it is notable that elasmobranchs appear to lack urease and TMA oxidase (Tmase), enzymes that scavenge urea-nitrogen and synthesize TMAO, respectively. However, urease and Tmase are found in many species of bacteria. Therefore, I hypothesized that intestinal bacteria are responsible for urease and Tmase activity in elasmobranchs. Absent dietary nitrogen sources, I evaluated the effects of reduced intestinal microbiota on osmoregulation in Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) in vivo. D. sabina were given daily broad-spectrum ...


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted 2016 East Tennessee State University

Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants that have bioactive properties including antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer. Two isomeric flavone were extracted from Gnaphalium elegans and Achyrocline bogotensis, plants used by the people from the Andean region of South America as remedies for cancer. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5, 7–dihydroxy- 3, 6, 8 trimethoxy flavone/ flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3, 5–dihydroxy-6, 7, 8–trimethoxy flavone/ flavone B) have shown antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cell lines dependent upon their differentiation status. Pharmacokinetic studies reported herein were used to determine dosing for antitumor assays, as ...


Spatial Crowding And Confinement Effects On Bursty Gene Expression, Charles Wei-Shing Chin 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Spatial Crowding And Confinement Effects On Bursty Gene Expression, Charles Wei-Shing Chin

Doctoral Dissertations

Synthetic biology and genetic engineering are valuable tools in the development of new, sustainable energy generation technologies. The characterization of stochastic gene expression is vital to the efficient application of genetic engineering techniques. Transcriptional bursting, in which periods of high expression are punctuated by periods of no expression, is extensively observed in gene expression. While various molecular mechanisms have been hypothesized to be responsible for transcriptional bursting, spatial considerations have largely been neglected. This work uses computational modeling to examine in detail the influence of spatial factors such as macromolecular crowding and confinement on gene expression.

In the first part ...


Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar

Dissertations

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and harbor several pathogens which transmit various diseases to humans and their domesticated animals. Host blood- digestion in a tick midgut (MG) generates several reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are extremely toxic to essential macromolecules (e.g. DNA, proteins, and lipids) within the cell, resulting in high oxidative stress. Thus, this dissertation focuses on the questions of how tick homeostasis responds to high oxidative stress, and how ticks and their harbored pathogens survive the high surge of oxidative stress during blood digestion. We are specifically interested in the tick-pathogen, Rickettsia parkeri (R. parkeri, Rp), harbored ...


Gene Expression Profiling And The Role Of Hsf1 In Ovarian Cancer 3d Spheroid Models, Trillitye Paullin 2016 University of South Florida

Gene Expression Profiling And The Role Of Hsf1 In Ovarian Cancer 3d Spheroid Models, Trillitye Paullin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, with over 200,000 women diagnosed each year and over half of those cases leading to death. These poor statistics are related to a lack of early symptoms and inadequate screening techniques. This results in the cancer going undetected until later stages when the tumor has metastasized through a process that requires the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In lieu of traditional monolayer cell culture, EMT and cancer progression in general is best characterized through the use of 3D spheroid models. In this study, we examine gene expression changes through microarray analysis ...


Altered Interleukin-10 Signaling In Skeletal Muscle Regulates Obesity-Mediated Inflammation And Insulin Resistance, Sezin Dagdeviren, Dae Young Jung, Eunjung Lee, Randall H. Friedline, Hye Lim Noh, Jong Hun. Kim, Payal R. Patel, Nicholas Tsitsilianos, Andrew V. Tsitsilianos, Duy A. Tran, George H. Tsougranis, Caitlyn C. Kearns, Cecilia P. Uong, Jung Yeon. Kwon, Werner Muller, Ki Won. Lee, Jason K. Kim 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Altered Interleukin-10 Signaling In Skeletal Muscle Regulates Obesity-Mediated Inflammation And Insulin Resistance, Sezin Dagdeviren, Dae Young Jung, Eunjung Lee, Randall H. Friedline, Hye Lim Noh, Jong Hun. Kim, Payal R. Patel, Nicholas Tsitsilianos, Andrew V. Tsitsilianos, Duy A. Tran, George H. Tsougranis, Caitlyn C. Kearns, Cecilia P. Uong, Jung Yeon. Kwon, Werner Muller, Ki Won. Lee, Jason K. Kim

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a major characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although obesity-mediated inflammation is causally associated with insulin resistance, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we examined the effects of chronic obesity in mice with muscle-specific overexpression of interleukin-10 (MIL10). After 16 weeks of a high-fat diet (HFD), MIL10 mice became markedly obese but showed improved insulin action compared to that of wild-type mice, which was largely due to increased glucose metabolism and reduced inflammation in skeletal muscle. Since leptin regulates inflammation, the beneficial effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10) were further examined in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

GSBS Student Publications

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


Assessing The Risk Of Resistance Evolution, Adult And Larval Susceptibility, And Sublethal Effects After Exposure Of Corn Rootworms To Vacuolar Atpase-A And Snf7 Dsrnas, Adriano Elias Pereira 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Assessing The Risk Of Resistance Evolution, Adult And Larval Susceptibility, And Sublethal Effects After Exposure Of Corn Rootworms To Vacuolar Atpase-A And Snf7 Dsrnas, Adriano Elias Pereira

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Corn rootworms are Diabroticite beetles from the genus Diabrotica and include the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, as the most important pests in the U.S. Corn Belt. The southern corn rootworm (SCR), D. undecimpunctata howardi Barber, is considered a polyphagous plant pest and feeds in a wide variety of plants including peanuts, cucurbits, soybeans, and especially corn. Resistance to control methods including behavioral resistance to crop rotation and to corn hybrids expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner toxins in WCR has frequently been reported. SCR has been considered a ...


Structure And Bioactivity Of Neuropeptide F From The Human Parasites Schistosoma Mansoni And Schistosoma Japonicum, Judith E. Humphries, Michael J. Kimber, Yi-Wen Barton, Walter Hsu, Nikki J. Marks, Brett Greer, Pat Harriott, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day 2016 Iowa State University

Structure And Bioactivity Of Neuropeptide F From The Human Parasites Schistosoma Mansoni And Schistosoma Japonicum, Judith E. Humphries, Michael J. Kimber, Yi-Wen Barton, Walter Hsu, Nikki J. Marks, Brett Greer, Pat Harriott, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day

Michael J. Kimber

The blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicuminflict immense suffering as agents of human schistosomiasis. Previous investigations have found the nervous systems of these worms contain abundant immunoreactivity to antisera targeting invertebrate neuropeptide Fs (NPFs) as well as structurally similar neuropeptides of the mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) family. Here, cDNAs encoding NPF in these worms were identified, and the mature neuropeptides from the two species differed by only a single amino acid. Both neuropeptides feature the characteristics common among NPFs; they are 36 amino acids long with a carboxyl-terminal Gly-Arg-X-Arg-Phe-amide and Tyr residues at positions 10 and 17 from the ...


Molecular Characterization Of Viruses Infecting Greenhouse Vegetables In Ontario, Bin Chen 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Molecular Characterization Of Viruses Infecting Greenhouse Vegetables In Ontario, Bin Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Greenhouse vegetable production is a very important and successful agricultural sector in Ontario. However, newly emerging viral or virus-like diseases have become a major limiting factor in greenhouse vegetable production. To determine the identity of the viral pathogens in the three major greenhouse vegetables in Ontario, we conducted in-depth sequencing of small RNAs isolated from virally infected plants used next-generation sequencing technology. Subsequent bioinformatics analyses revealed six viral pathogens including Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV), Parietaria mottle virus (PMoV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Tobacco streak virus (TSV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). The full-length ...


Expression, Purification, And Crystallization Of An Endoxylanase From Bacteroides Vulgatus, Jesslyn Park, Jason Hurlbert 2016 Winthrop University

Expression, Purification, And Crystallization Of An Endoxylanase From Bacteroides Vulgatus, Jesslyn Park, Jason Hurlbert

The Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin

Sustainable sources of energy are growing in demand as fossil fuels are rapidly expended. One such energy source is fuel ethanol generated from the fermentation of plant biomass by engineered bacterial biocatalysts. The creation of a biocatalyst capable of converting nearly any plant matter to fuel ethanol requires the identification of novel enzymes capable of degrading specific carbohydrate polymers and cloning these enzymes into a bacterial host. This study seeks to structurally characterize a novel xylanase of glycosyl hydrolase family 30 (GH30) from Bacteroides vulgatus, a bacterium found in the human gut microbiome, via x-ray crystallography. The gene for B ...


Analyzing The Γδ T Cell Receptor Sequences Of Patients With Celiac Disease, Alanna P. Gary 2016 University of Chicago

Analyzing The Γδ T Cell Receptor Sequences Of Patients With Celiac Disease, Alanna P. Gary

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Ataluren Stimulates Ribosomal Selection Of Near-Cognate Trnas To Promote Nonsense Suppression, Bijoyita Roy, Westley J. Friesen, Yuki Tomizawa, John D. Leszyk, Jin Zhuo, Briana Johnson, Jumana Dakka, Christopher R. Trotta, Xiaojiao Xue, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Kim M. Keeling, James A. Mobley, Steven M. Rowe, David M. Bedwell, Ellen M. Welch, Allan Jacobson 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ataluren Stimulates Ribosomal Selection Of Near-Cognate Trnas To Promote Nonsense Suppression, Bijoyita Roy, Westley J. Friesen, Yuki Tomizawa, John D. Leszyk, Jin Zhuo, Briana Johnson, Jumana Dakka, Christopher R. Trotta, Xiaojiao Xue, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Kim M. Keeling, James A. Mobley, Steven M. Rowe, David M. Bedwell, Ellen M. Welch, Allan Jacobson

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

A premature termination codon (PTC) in the ORF of an mRNA generally leads to production of a truncated polypeptide, accelerated degradation of the mRNA, and depression of overall mRNA expression. Accordingly, nonsense mutations cause some of the most severe forms of inherited disorders. The small-molecule drug ataluren promotes therapeutic nonsense suppression and has been thought to mediate the insertion of near-cognate tRNAs at PTCs. However, direct evidence for this activity has been lacking. Here, we expressed multiple nonsense mutation reporters in human cells and yeast and identified the amino acids inserted when a PTC occupies the ribosomal A site in ...


Sweating The Small Stuff: Linking Plankton To Climate Change, Brian Kim '18 Makes Conncetions, Stephen Collins 2016 Colby College

Sweating The Small Stuff: Linking Plankton To Climate Change, Brian Kim '18 Makes Conncetions, Stephen Collins

Colby Magazine

It takes an expansive mind to connect microscopic marine copepods (certain crustacean plankton) unwittingly chomping on floating microplastics with a bigger picture: the planet’s carbon pump and global climate change. But that’s what Brian Kim ’18 decided to investigate during Jan Plan, working with Bigelow Lab Senior Research Scientist David Fields.


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