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Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe- Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe- Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette

Master's Theses

The elasmobranch osmoregulatory strategy is predicated on the accumulation of nitrogenous compounds, primarily urea and trimethylamine n¬-oxide (TMAO). Despite the abundance of these plasma osmolytes, it is notable that elasmobranchs appear to lack urease and TMA oxidase (Tmase), enzymes that scavenge urea-nitrogen and synthesize TMAO, respectively. However, urease and Tmase are found in many species of bacteria. Therefore, I hypothesized that intestinal bacteria are responsible for urease and Tmase activity in elasmobranchs. Absent dietary nitrogen sources, I evaluated the effects of reduced intestinal microbiota on osmoregulation in Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) in vivo. D. sabina were given daily broad-spectrum ...


Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar

Dissertations

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and harbor several pathogens which transmit various diseases to humans and their domesticated animals. Host blood- digestion in a tick midgut (MG) generates several reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are extremely toxic to essential macromolecules (e.g. DNA, proteins, and lipids) within the cell, resulting in high oxidative stress. Thus, this dissertation focuses on the questions of how tick homeostasis responds to high oxidative stress, and how ticks and their harbored pathogens survive the high surge of oxidative stress during blood digestion. We are specifically interested in the tick-pathogen, Rickettsia parkeri (R. parkeri, Rp), harbored ...


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted 2016 East Tennessee State University

Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants that have bioactive properties including antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer. Two isomeric flavone were extracted from Gnaphalium elegans and Achyrocline bogotensis, plants used by the people from the Andean region of South America as remedies for cancer. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5, 7–dihydroxy- 3, 6, 8 trimethoxy flavone/ flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3, 5–dihydroxy-6, 7, 8–trimethoxy flavone/ flavone B) have shown antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cell lines dependent upon their differentiation status. Pharmacokinetic studies reported herein were used to determine dosing for antitumor assays, as ...


Structure And Bioactivity Of Neuropeptide F From The Human Parasites Schistosoma Mansoni And Schistosoma Japonicum, Judith E. Humphries, Michael J. Kimber, Yi-Wen Barton, Walter Hsu, Nikki J. Marks, Brett Greer, Pat Harriott, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day 2016 Iowa State University

Structure And Bioactivity Of Neuropeptide F From The Human Parasites Schistosoma Mansoni And Schistosoma Japonicum, Judith E. Humphries, Michael J. Kimber, Yi-Wen Barton, Walter Hsu, Nikki J. Marks, Brett Greer, Pat Harriott, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day

Michael J. Kimber

The blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicuminflict immense suffering as agents of human schistosomiasis. Previous investigations have found the nervous systems of these worms contain abundant immunoreactivity to antisera targeting invertebrate neuropeptide Fs (NPFs) as well as structurally similar neuropeptides of the mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) family. Here, cDNAs encoding NPF in these worms were identified, and the mature neuropeptides from the two species differed by only a single amino acid. Both neuropeptides feature the characteristics common among NPFs; they are 36 amino acids long with a carboxyl-terminal Gly-Arg-X-Arg-Phe-amide and Tyr residues at positions 10 and 17 from the ...


Molecular Characterization Of Viruses Infecting Greenhouse Vegetables In Ontario, Bin Chen 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Molecular Characterization Of Viruses Infecting Greenhouse Vegetables In Ontario, Bin Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Greenhouse vegetable production is a very important and successful agricultural sector in Ontario. However, newly emerging viral or virus-like diseases have become a major limiting factor in greenhouse vegetable production. To determine the identity of the viral pathogens in the three major greenhouse vegetables in Ontario, we conducted in-depth sequencing of small RNAs isolated from virally infected plants used next-generation sequencing technology. Subsequent bioinformatics analyses revealed six viral pathogens including Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV), Parietaria mottle virus (PMoV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Tobacco streak virus (TSV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). The full-length ...


Expression, Purification, And Crystallization Of An Endoxylanase From Bacteroides Vulgatus, Jesslyn Park, Jason Hurlbert 2016 Winthrop University

Expression, Purification, And Crystallization Of An Endoxylanase From Bacteroides Vulgatus, Jesslyn Park, Jason Hurlbert

The Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin

Sustainable sources of energy are growing in demand as fossil fuels are rapidly expended. One such energy source is fuel ethanol generated from the fermentation of plant biomass by engineered bacterial biocatalysts. The creation of a biocatalyst capable of converting nearly any plant matter to fuel ethanol requires the identification of novel enzymes capable of degrading specific carbohydrate polymers and cloning these enzymes into a bacterial host. This study seeks to structurally characterize a novel xylanase of glycosyl hydrolase family 30 (GH30) from Bacteroides vulgatus, a bacterium found in the human gut microbiome, via x-ray crystallography. The gene for B ...


Analyzing The Γδ T Cell Receptor Sequences Of Patients With Celiac Disease, Alanna P. Gary 2016 University of Chicago

Analyzing The Γδ T Cell Receptor Sequences Of Patients With Celiac Disease, Alanna P. Gary

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Ataluren Stimulates Ribosomal Selection Of Near-Cognate Trnas To Promote Nonsense Suppression, Bijoyita Roy, Westley J. Friesen, Yuki Tomizawa, John D. Leszyk, Jin Zhuo, Briana Johnson, Jumana Dakka, Christopher R. Trotta, Xiaojiao Xue, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Kim M. Keeling, James A. Mobley, Steven M. Rowe, David M. Bedwell, Ellen M. Welch, Allan Jacobson 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ataluren Stimulates Ribosomal Selection Of Near-Cognate Trnas To Promote Nonsense Suppression, Bijoyita Roy, Westley J. Friesen, Yuki Tomizawa, John D. Leszyk, Jin Zhuo, Briana Johnson, Jumana Dakka, Christopher R. Trotta, Xiaojiao Xue, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Kim M. Keeling, James A. Mobley, Steven M. Rowe, David M. Bedwell, Ellen M. Welch, Allan Jacobson

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

A premature termination codon (PTC) in the ORF of an mRNA generally leads to production of a truncated polypeptide, accelerated degradation of the mRNA, and depression of overall mRNA expression. Accordingly, nonsense mutations cause some of the most severe forms of inherited disorders. The small-molecule drug ataluren promotes therapeutic nonsense suppression and has been thought to mediate the insertion of near-cognate tRNAs at PTCs. However, direct evidence for this activity has been lacking. Here, we expressed multiple nonsense mutation reporters in human cells and yeast and identified the amino acids inserted when a PTC occupies the ribosomal A site in ...


Sweating The Small Stuff: Linking Plankton To Climate Change, Brian Kim '18 Makes Conncetions, Stephen Collins 2016 Colby College

Sweating The Small Stuff: Linking Plankton To Climate Change, Brian Kim '18 Makes Conncetions, Stephen Collins

Colby Magazine

It takes an expansive mind to connect microscopic marine copepods (certain crustacean plankton) unwittingly chomping on floating microplastics with a bigger picture: the planet’s carbon pump and global climate change. But that’s what Brian Kim ’18 decided to investigate during Jan Plan, working with Bigelow Lab Senior Research Scientist David Fields.


Activation-Triggered Subunit Exchange Between Camkii Holoenzymes Facilitates The Spread Of Kinase Activity, Margaret M. Stratton, I H. Lee, M Bhattacharyya, S M. Christensen, L H. Chao, H Schulman, J T. Groves, J Kuriyan 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Activation-Triggered Subunit Exchange Between Camkii Holoenzymes Facilitates The Spread Of Kinase Activity, Margaret M. Stratton, I H. Lee, M Bhattacharyya, S M. Christensen, L H. Chao, H Schulman, J T. Groves, J Kuriyan

Margaret Stratton

The activation of the dodecameric Ca2+/calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) holoenzyme is critical for memory formation. We now report that CaMKII has a remarkable property, which is that activation of the holoenzyme triggers the exchange of subunits between holoenzymes, including unactivated ones, enabling the calcium-independent phosphorylation of new subunits. We show, using a single-molecule TIRF microscopy technique, that the exchange process is triggered by the activation of CaMKII, and that exchange is modulated by phosphorylation of two residues in the calmodulin-binding segment, Thr 305 and Thr 306. Based on these results, and on the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations ...


Presence Of A Prophage Determines Temperature-Dependent Capsule Production In Streptococcus Pyogenes., Leslie Brown, Jeong-Ho Kim, Kyu Hong Cho 2016 George Washington University

Presence Of A Prophage Determines Temperature-Dependent Capsule Production In Streptococcus Pyogenes., Leslie Brown, Jeong-Ho Kim, Kyu Hong Cho

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

A hyaluronic acid capsule is a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes. It acts as an anti-phagocytic agent and adhesin to keratinocytes. The expression of the capsule is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level by the two-component regulatory system CovRS, in which CovR acts as a transcriptional repressor. The covRS genes are frequently mutated in many invasive strains, and a subset of the invasive CovRS mutants does not produce a detectable level of the capsule at 37 °C, but produces a significant amount of the capsule at sub-body temperatures. Here, we report that a prophage has a ...


Rna2dnalign: Nucleotide Resolution Allele Asymmetries Through Quantitative Assessment Of Rna And Dna Paired Sequencing Data., Mercedeh Movassagh, Nawaf Alomran, Prakriti Mudvari, Merve Dede, Cem Dede, Kamran Kowsari, Paula Restrepo, Edmund Cauley, Sonali Bahl, Muzi Li, Wesley Waterhouse, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath 2016 George Washington University

Rna2dnalign: Nucleotide Resolution Allele Asymmetries Through Quantitative Assessment Of Rna And Dna Paired Sequencing Data., Mercedeh Movassagh, Nawaf Alomran, Prakriti Mudvari, Merve Dede, Cem Dede, Kamran Kowsari, Paula Restrepo, Edmund Cauley, Sonali Bahl, Muzi Li, Wesley Waterhouse, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

We introduce RNA2DNAlign, a computational framework for quantitative assessment of allele counts across paired RNA and DNA sequencing datasets. RNA2DNAlign is based on quantitation of the relative abundance of variant and reference read counts, followed by binomial tests for genotype and allelic status at SNV positions between compatible sequences. RNA2DNAlign detects positions with differential allele distribution, suggesting asymmetries due to regulatory/structural events. Based on the type of asymmetry, RNA2DNAlign outlines positions likely to be implicated in RNA editing, allele-specific expression or loss, somatic mutagenesis or loss-of-heterozygosity (the first three also in a tumor-specific setting). We applied RNA2DNAlign on 360 ...


Epstein-Barr Viral Micrornas Target Caspase 3, Cecelia Harold, Diana Cox, Kasandra J. Riley 2016 Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Epstein-Barr Viral Micrornas Target Caspase 3, Cecelia Harold, Diana Cox, Kasandra J. Riley

Faculty Publications

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that transforms B cells and causes several malignancies including Burkitt’s lymphoma. EBV differentially expresses at least 49 mature microRNAs (miRNAs) during latency in various infected epithelial and B cells. Recent high-throughput studies and functional assays have begun to reveal the function of the EBV miRNAs suggesting roles in latency, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. In particular, the central executioner of apoptosis, Caspase 3 (CASP3), was proposed as a target of select EBV miRNAs. However, whether CASP3 is truly a target of EBV miRNAs, and if so, which specific miRNAs target CASP3 ...


Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke 2016 University of Maine

Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular camouflage is used by a diverse set of pathogens to disguise their identity and avoid recognition by protective host receptors. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a good example, as it masks the inflammatory component β-glucan in its cell wall to evade detection by the immune receptor Dectin-1. Interestingly, it has been seen that β-glucan becomes unmasked during infection in vivo, though the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Exposure levels of this epitope may be important, as Dectin-1 mediates protection from some strains of C. albicans and alterations in the organization and composition of the Candida cell wall can ...


Modeling And Analysis Of Germ Layer Formations Using Finite Dynamical Systems, Alexander Garza, Megan Eberle, Eric A. Eager 2016 University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Modeling And Analysis Of Germ Layer Formations Using Finite Dynamical Systems, Alexander Garza, Megan Eberle, Eric A. Eager

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

The development of an embryo from a fertilised egg to a multicellular organism proceeds through numerous steps, with the formation of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) being one of the first. In this paper we study the mesendoderm (the tissue that collectively gives rise to both mesoderm and endoderm) gene regulatory network for two species, \textit{Xenopus laevis} and the axolotl (\textit{Ambystoma mexicanum}) using Boolean networks. We find that previously-established bistability found in these networks can be reproduced using this Boolean framework, provided that some assumptions used in previously-published differential equations models are relaxed. We conclude by ...


Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PDZ (PSD95/Disc Large/Zona Occludens) domain-containing proteins are scaffolding proteins that play important roles in regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors. Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 (CRFR1) and Serotonin 2A Receptor (5-HT2AR) are two GPCRs that are commonly associated with mental disorders. Both receptors also contain a class I PDZ-binding motif at the carboxyl terminal tail. In the first chapter, we investigate the effects of CAL (CFTR-associated ligand) on regulating the trafficking and signaling of CRFR1. We demonstrate a role for CAL in inhibiting CRFR1 endocytosis, cell surface expression, and CRF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling via the ...


Suppression Of Ischemia In Arterial Occlusive Disease By Jnk-Promoted Native Collateral Artery Development, Kasmir Ramo, Koichi Sugamura, Siobhan M. Craige, John F. Keaney Jr., Roger J. Davis 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Suppression Of Ischemia In Arterial Occlusive Disease By Jnk-Promoted Native Collateral Artery Development, Kasmir Ramo, Koichi Sugamura, Siobhan M. Craige, John F. Keaney Jr., Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab

Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive ...


Design And Development Of A Plasmid Vector For Protein Expression And Purification, Mahima Grover, Craig Sweet, David H. Thompson 2016 Purdue University

Design And Development Of A Plasmid Vector For Protein Expression And Purification, Mahima Grover, Craig Sweet, David H. Thompson

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Production and isolation of proteins are difficult, costly and time-consuming processes. The aim of this project is for the development of plasmids, which allow for streamlined production and isolation of proteins. To allow for modular insertion of varying segments of DNA we are using ‘recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction’. This technique uses type II restriction endonucleases, which cut downstream from their recognition site allowing multiple insertions without losing a restriction site. Using this process, we can ligate multiple DNA sequences together and express them to be able to construct a scar less fusion protein. In order to accomplish this ...


P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A. Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A. Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Autocrine VEGF signaling is critical for sustaining prostate and other cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is a potential therapeutic target, but we observed that CSCs isolated from prostate tumors are resistant to anti-VEGF (bevacizumab) and anti-VEGFR (sunitinib) therapy. Intriguingly, resistance is mediated by VEGF/neuropilin signaling, which is not inhibited by bevacizumab and sunitinib, and it involves the induction of P-Rex1, a Rac GEF, and consequent Rac1-mediated ERK activation. This induction of P-Rex1 is dependent on Myc. CSCs isolated from the PTEN(pc-/-) transgenic model of prostate cancer exhibit Rac1-dependent resistance to bevacizumab. Rac1 inhibition or P-Rex1 downregulation increases ...


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