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Insights Into The Non-Osmoregulatory Function Of A Pollen-Specific Mechanosensitive Ion Channel, Kari Miller 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Insights Into The Non-Osmoregulatory Function Of A Pollen-Specific Mechanosensitive Ion Channel, Kari Miller

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollen, the male gametophyte of flowering plants, delivers the sperm cells to the ovule to carry out sexual reproduction. During this process, the pollen grain undergoes dramatic physical changes. Survival requires careful control of cell mechanics, particularly the balance between protoplast expansion and cell wall resistance. One control mechanism is the use of a mechanosensitive (MS) ion channel, MscS-Like (MSL)8. This pollen-specific protein was previously shown to be essential for pollen survival during hydration and was proposed to function as a tension-gated osmoregulator. However, direct proof of osmoregulation during initial hydration has not yet been found. In fact, studies ...


Chromatin Regulation By Rb-Interacting Proteins In Cellular Immune Functions, Seung June Kim 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Chromatin Regulation By Rb-Interacting Proteins In Cellular Immune Functions, Seung June Kim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The retinoblastoma protein (RB) is historically known for its function in cell cycle control. However, mice carrying targeted Rb1 mutations have revealed that RB serves various non-cell cycle control roles. Notably, RB acts as a scaffold that recruits chromatin regulatory proteins, condensin II and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2). These complexes protect the genome integrity through maintaining proper chromosome condensation, long range contacts, and transcriptionally repressive histone modification. This thesis explores the mechanistic links that regulate such RB-condensin II complex or that are leveraged upon pharmacological inhibition of the RB-EZH2 complex. First, I identified potential phosphorylation sites in the ...


Occurrence Of Kanamycin-Resistant Bacteria Relative To Anthropogenic Pollution Along Richland Creek In Nashville, Tn​, Jolene Ho Mach, Annie Le, Brandon Torres Ramirez 2022 Belmont University

Occurrence Of Kanamycin-Resistant Bacteria Relative To Anthropogenic Pollution Along Richland Creek In Nashville, Tn​, Jolene Ho Mach, Annie Le, Brandon Torres Ramirez

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

The overuse of antibiotics has caused an increase in antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria, which is a serious public health concern. Previous studies showed a significant correlation between anthropogenic pollution and AR bacteria. This project aims to identify AR bacteria in Richland Creek relative to local anthropogenic pollution. Water samples were collected at four locations along Richland Creek in Nashville, Tennessee. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic kanamycin were isolated from the water samples, identified to genera using DNA barcoding, and compared among the sites. We expect to see a greater abundance and diversity of kanamycin-resistant bacteria closer to the end than near ...


Changes In Gene Expression From Long-Term Warming Revealed Using Metatranscriptome Mapping To Fac-Sorted Bacteria, Christopher A. Colvin 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Changes In Gene Expression From Long-Term Warming Revealed Using Metatranscriptome Mapping To Fac-Sorted Bacteria, Christopher A. Colvin

Masters Theses

Soil microbiomes play pivotal roles to the health of the environment by maintaining metabolic cycles. One question is how will climate change affect soil bacteria over time and what could the repercussions be. To answer these questions, the Harvard Forest Long-Term Warming Experiment was established to mimic predicted climate change by warming plots of land 5℃ above ambient conditions. In 2017, 14 soil core samples were collected from Barre Woods warming experiment to mark 15 years since the establishment of the soil warming in that location. These samples underwent traditional metatranscriptomics to generate an mRNA library as well as a ...


Characterization Of The Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase Family In The Fusarium Oxysporum Species Complex, Daniel Norment 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Characterization Of The Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase Family In The Fusarium Oxysporum Species Complex, Daniel Norment

Masters Theses

Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus that is known to invade over a hundred different hosts and poses a major threat to the economy and food supply world-wide. Poly (Adenosine diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) is a family of regulatory proteins that affect change in the cell through transfer of ADP-Ribose moieties onto target molecules. The most well-studied PARP protein is the human PARP1, a PARylating nuclear protein that serves as our model PARP protein. F. oxysporum was found to contain a large expansion of PARP catalytic-domain-containing proteins compared to other filamentous fungi. We utilized in silico multiple sequence alignments and domain ...


Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins

Masters Theses

Chemosensation is achieved through the binding of chemical signals to chemoreceptor proteins embedded in the membranes of sensory neurons. The molecular identity of these receptors, as well as the downstream processing of chemosensory signals, has been well studied in arthropods and vertebrates. However, very little is known about molluscan chemosensation. The identity of chemoreceptor proteins in the nudibranch mollusc Berghia stephanieae are unknown. Data from other protostome and molluscan studies suggest Berghia may use ionotropic receptors for some forms of chemoreception. This study used a bioinformatics approach to identify potential chemosensory ionotropic receptors in the transcriptome of Berghia. A hidden ...


The Sos Response In Escherichia Coli K12: An Exploration Of Mutations In Lexa And Reca Using Fluorescence Microscopy, Steven Van Alstine 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Sos Response In Escherichia Coli K12: An Exploration Of Mutations In Lexa And Reca Using Fluorescence Microscopy, Steven Van Alstine

Doctoral Dissertations

Faithful replication of the genome is paramount for maintaining the fitness of an organism. Therefore, life has evolved inducible mechanisms to be able to repair damaged DNA and maintain evolutionary fitness. The SOS response is a highly conserved DNA damage inducible response that is tightly regulated. Multiple factors contribute to the ability of the cell to perform proper DNA repair and induction of the SOS response including the amount of RecA, mutations in RecA that affect competition for DNA, and other proteins that interact with the RecA filament. The complex relationship between RecA and LexA is the subject of this ...


Chemical Biology Approaches For Tracking And Manipulation Of Macrophage Phenotypes, Javier A. Mas Rosario 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemical Biology Approaches For Tracking And Manipulation Of Macrophage Phenotypes, Javier A. Mas Rosario

Doctoral Dissertations

Macrophages are white blood cells of the innate immune system that have the ability to change phenotypically depending on the stimuli present in their surroundings through a process commonly referred to as polarization. Macrophage phenotypes broadly range from pro-inflammatory, anti-tumor (M1) to immune-suppressing (M2). Of particular interest to this work, breast cancer progression and metastasis rely on the presence of M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). While many studies have shown the involvement of macrophages in tumor progression and metastasis, there remains a need to further explore these interactions and the polarization process, including tracking of macrophage subtypes. Toward this end, I ...


Using The Embl-Ebi Clustal Omega Tool To Calculate Diversity Of Heavy Chain Phage-Display Libraries, Michael Bodri, Shane A. Webb 2022 University of North Georgia

Using The Embl-Ebi Clustal Omega Tool To Calculate Diversity Of Heavy Chain Phage-Display Libraries, Michael Bodri, Shane A. Webb

Georgia Journal of Science

Here we show that traditional Sanger sequencing combined with analysis tools available from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), specifically EMBOSS Transeq and Clustal Omega, is extremely effective in the analysis of naïve phage display antibody libraries for the determination of library size and diversity. The free tools are easy to use and require little manipulation of reads by hand, allowing analysis to be performed on a standard personal computer. Utilization of this technique has applicability to researchers with limited access to deep sequencing. The primary drawback to this analysis methodology is that antibodies with particular molecular or ...


Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten 2022 University of North Florida

Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Individuals affected by NGLY1 Deficiency cannot properly deglycosylate and recycle certain proteins. Even though less than 100 people worldwide have been diagnosed with this rare autosomal recessive condition, thousands are affected by similar glycosylation disorders. Common phenotypic manifestations of NGLY1 Deficiency include severe neural and intellectual delay, impaired muscle and liver function, and seizures that may become intractable. Very little is currently known about the various mechanisms through which NGLY1 deficiency affects the body and this has led to a lack of viable treatment options for those afflicted. This experiment uses a loss-of-function (LOF) mouse model of NGLY1 Deficiency homologous ...


Examination Of The Time Delayed Induction Between Prior Encapsulation Of Catalytic Enzymes In P22 Virus-Like Particles, Andrea Hernandez Irias 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Examination Of The Time Delayed Induction Between Prior Encapsulation Of Catalytic Enzymes In P22 Virus-Like Particles, Andrea Hernandez Irias

Chemistry Theses

Protein cages found in nature have the ability to protect and develop new nanomaterials in order to enhance catalytic reactions. This is due to the ability of these organelle structures to mimic protein-based organelles such as Virus-Like Particles (VLPs). VLPs have the ability to not only resemble virus protein structures but to encapsulate enzymes while retaining their activity. This research examines the in vitro encapsulation withing the bacteriophage P22 derived VLP, and show that some enzymes may require a delay in encapsulation to allowed proper folding

and maturation before they can be encapsulated inside P22 as fully active enzymes. Exploring ...


Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) gene is often mutated in cancer, with missense mutations found in the central DNA binding domain, and less often in the oligomerization domain (OD) and C-terminal domain (CTD). The OD and CTD have been found to be critical for the tumor suppressor functionality of wild-type p53 (wtp53). Specific missense mutations in the DNA binding domain have been found to confer new gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Mutations that destabilize tetramer formation, or deletion of key lysine residues within the CTD, downregulate the ability of wtp53 to transactivate (increase the rate of transcription of) its target genes. We ...


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in ...


Mechanisms And Roles Of Dynamic Actin Assembly Around Dysfunctional Mitochondria, Tak Shun Fung 2022 Dartmouth College

Mechanisms And Roles Of Dynamic Actin Assembly Around Dysfunctional Mitochondria, Tak Shun Fung

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Possessing the ability to efficiently generate ATP required to sustain cellular functions, mitochondria are often considered the ‘powerhouses of the cell’. However, our understanding of mitochondria in cell biology was further expanded when we recognized that communication between this unique organelle and the rest of the cell regulates cellular bioenergetics, metabolism and signaling processes such as mitophagy and apoptosis. Here, I investigate signaling between mitochondria and the actin cytoskeleton, and how this signaling regulates mitochondrial dynamics and cellular function. Specifically, I find that, upon mitochondrial dysfunction, actin polymerizes rapidly around the dysfunctional organelle, which we term ‘acute damage-induced actin’ (ADA ...


Perseverance Of Protein Homeostasis Despite Mistranslation, Farah Hasan 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Perseverance Of Protein Homeostasis Despite Mistranslation, Farah Hasan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are essential for protein synthesis and translation fidelity. Some human tRNA variants may cause amino acid misincorporation: tRNAGly variants (tRNAGlyCCC, tRNAGlyGCC) have mutations that generate an alanine tRNA identity element (G3:U70), likely causing mis-aminoacylation of glycine tRNAs with alanine, while the tRNAAlaAGC G35C (tRNAAlaACC) variant may function similarly to mis-incorporate Ala at Gly codons by generating a Gly anticodon. I propose that these mistranslating tRNAs will disrupt protein homeostasis in mammalian cells. Although the tRNAGly and tRNAAla variants did not affect protein synthesis in normal ...


Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand 2022 Western

Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A general description of why RNAi based pesticide technology is a breakthrough technology able to target only pests while not harming others. This presentation gives a summary of RNAi technology, the current drawbacks of conventional pesticides, and our research on how RNAi can be used against the two-spotted spidermite; a polyphagic pest that causes significant financial damage to Canadian and worldwide agriculture


Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib 2022 Western University

Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Translation, or the production of protein from an mRNA blueprint, is among the most fundamental processes to life as we know it. tRNAs are essential to accurate translation, as they decode the codons of mRNA and recruit corresponding amino acids. Variant tRNAs with anticodon mutations can decrease translational fidelity by recruiting the incorrect amino acid, an aberrant process known as mistranslation. When proteins are produced with incorrect amino acid sequences, they may misfold. The heat shock response functions to alleviate cellular stress caused by misfolded proteins, either by refolding or targeting misfolded proteins for degradation. Hsf1 acts as a transcriptional ...


From The Headlines: A Textual Analysis Of Social Polarization And Discord In Times Of Pandemic Across A Century In The United States, Alexa DeMarco 2022 Brigham Young University

From The Headlines: A Textual Analysis Of Social Polarization And Discord In Times Of Pandemic Across A Century In The United States, Alexa Demarco

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Within the past century, three major pandemics have affected the United States – the Spanish Flu, AIDS, and COVID-19. Each of these pandemics has tested the capabilities of the public health sector and the social resilience of the population. Scientists have studied the viruses and implemented public health measures to limit viral transmission, but the social responses to these preventative measures proved to be difficult to predict and control. The dissonance and polarization between the public health initiatives and the response of the general public in the most recent pandemic was apparent. Was this a pattern in other pandemics? Was there ...


Qualitative Proteomic And Genomic Analysis Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Bacteriophage Kaomega, Emilee Carr 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

Qualitative Proteomic And Genomic Analysis Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Bacteriophage Kaomega, Emilee Carr

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae that is a common nosocomial pathogen causing pneumonia, infections in the bloodstream, wound infections, and meningitis. It has developed natural resistance to multiple antibiotics, most notably carbapenems which are often seen as the last line of defense against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Bacteriophages are being investigated as a promising alternative treatment to antibiotics in fighting these resistant pathogens. KaOmega, a Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage, was isolated, sequenced, and annotated to characterize and understand its potential for use in a phage therapy. Characterization included Phyre2 analysis to predict putative protein functions based on structural homology, burst size ...


Location And Conformation Of Titin In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Gaberielle S. Prince 2022 University of South Alabama

Location And Conformation Of Titin In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Gaberielle S. Prince

Theses and Dissertations

Striated muscles consist of contractile myofibrils that generate force. The repeating units (sarcomeres) of striated myofibrils contain thin & thick filaments composed of actin and myosin. In vertebrates, titin connects thin & thick filaments during myofibril assembly and produces passive tension. Invertebrate homologs of vertebrate titin are similar in structure molecularly. However, invertebrate titin homologs are smaller than vertebrate titin, and likely function differently within invertebrate muscles. Here, I used Ce-TTN-1, a titin homolog in the invertebrate roundworm C elegans. To visualize Ce-TTN-1 in C. elegans, I used Nested CRISPR gene editing to generate translational fusions of a red fluorescent protein at ...


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