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Ultrafine Carbon Nanoparticles Activate Inflammasome Signaling And Cell Death In Murine Macrophages, Alexander Soloniuk, Hadley Lamascus, Jay Brewster, John Mann 2019 Pepperdine University

Ultrafine Carbon Nanoparticles Activate Inflammasome Signaling And Cell Death In Murine Macrophages, Alexander Soloniuk, Hadley Lamascus, Jay Brewster, John Mann

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Carbon black (CB) is the primary nanoparticulate component of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion. This work examines the cellular impact of ultrafine carbon (carbon black, CB) nanoparticles, that range in size down to 30 nm, upon murine macrophages. The size analysis of the carbon black nanoparticles was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. RAW246.7 macrophage cells were exposed to CB doses ranging from 50 – 200 ug/ml in complete media. Analysis of cell survival over time revealed elevated rates of significant nuclear degradation and cell lifting after 48 hours of exposure, and ...


Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo 2019 Università di Torino

Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo

Jared L. Anderson

Background

Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for fast and reliable plant biomolecular analyses. Conventional methods for the isolation of nucleic acids are time-consuming and require multiple and often non-automatable steps to remove cellular interferences, with consequence that sample preparation is the major bottleneck in the bioanalytical workflow. New opportunities have been created by the use of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) thanks to their affinity for nucleic acids.

Results

In the present study, a MIL-based magnet-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (maDLLME) method was optimized for the extraction of genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh leaves. MILs containing different metal ...


An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald

David Grünwald

Single-molecule binding assays enable the study of how molecular machines assemble and function. Current algorithms can identify and locate individual molecules, but require tedious manual validation of each spot. Moreover, no solution for high-throughput analysis of single-molecule binding data exists. Here, we describe an automated pipeline to analyze single-molecule data over a wide range of experimental conditions. In addition, our method enables state estimation on multivariate Gaussian signals. We validate our approach using simulated data, and benchmark the pipeline by measuring the binding properties of the well-studied, DNA-guided DNA endonuclease, TtAgo, an Argonaute protein from the Eubacterium Thermus thermophilus. We ...


Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo 2019 Università di Torino

Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo

Chemistry Publications

Background

Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for fast and reliable plant biomolecular analyses. Conventional methods for the isolation of nucleic acids are time-consuming and require multiple and often non-automatable steps to remove cellular interferences, with consequence that sample preparation is the major bottleneck in the bioanalytical workflow. New opportunities have been created by the use of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) thanks to their affinity for nucleic acids.

Results

In the present study, a MIL-based magnet-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (maDLLME) method was optimized for the extraction of genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh leaves. MILs containing different metal ...


The Cytoplasmic Tail Domain Of The Vacuolar Protein Sorting Receptor Vps10p And A Subset Of Vps Gene Products Regulate Receptor Stability, Function, And Localization, Joan Lin-Cereghino, Eric G. Marcusson, Scott D. Emr 2019 University of California, San Diego

The Cytoplasmic Tail Domain Of The Vacuolar Protein Sorting Receptor Vps10p And A Subset Of Vps Gene Products Regulate Receptor Stability, Function, And Localization, Joan Lin-Cereghino, Eric G. Marcusson, Scott D. Emr

Joan Lin-Cereghino

VPS10 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a type I transmembrane receptor protein required for the sorting of the soluble vacuolar hydrolase carboxypeptidase Y (CPY). To characterize the essential structural features and intercompartmental transport itinerary of the CPY receptor, we have constructed mutant forms of Vps10p that alter the carboxyterminal cytoplasmic tail of the protein. In addition, we have analyzed the effect these mutations as well as mutations in several VPS genes have on the function, stability, and localization of Vps10p. Although wild-type Vps10p is very stable over a 3-h chase period, overproduction of Vps10p results in PEP4-dependent degradation of the receptor ...


Large Scale Dynamical Model Of Macrophage/Hiv Interactions, Matthew M. Froid 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Large Scale Dynamical Model Of Macrophage/Hiv Interactions, Matthew M. Froid

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Properties emerge from the dynamics of large-scale molecular networks that are not discernible at the individual gene or protein level. Mathematical models - such as probabilistic Boolean networks - of molecular systems offer a deeper insight into how these emergent properties arise. Here, we introduce a non-linear, deterministic Boolean model of protein, gene, and chemical interactions in human macrophage cells during HIV infection. Our model is composed of 713 nodes with 1583 interactions between nodes and is responsive to 38 different inputs including signaling molecules, bacteria, viruses, and HIV viral particles. Additionally, the model accurately simulates the dynamics of over 50 different ...


Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe 2019 York College of Pennslyvania

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe

Poroi

The nucleic acid DNA, which contains an organism’s genetic information, consists of a four-letter alphabet that has until recently been characterized as a read-only text. The development of a quick, inexpensive DNA targeting and manipulation technique called CRISPR, pronounced “crisper,” though, has changed DNA from this arhetorical, read-only data set, as it has been characterized in the rhetoric literature to date, to a fully rhetorical text—one that can be not only read but created, interpreted, copied, altered, and stored as well. The Book of Nature, an idea with roots in antiquity but popularized during the nineteenth century, provides ...


An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald

Open Access Articles

Single-molecule binding assays enable the study of how molecular machines assemble and function. Current algorithms can identify and locate individual molecules, but require tedious manual validation of each spot. Moreover, no solution for high-throughput analysis of single-molecule binding data exists. Here, we describe an automated pipeline to analyze single-molecule data over a wide range of experimental conditions. In addition, our method enables state estimation on multivariate Gaussian signals. We validate our approach using simulated data, and benchmark the pipeline by measuring the binding properties of the well-studied, DNA-guided DNA endonuclease, TtAgo, an Argonaute protein from the Eubacterium Thermus thermophilus. We ...


The Non-Canonical Smc Protein Smchd1 Antagonises Tad Formation And Compartmentalisation On The Inactive X Chromosome, Michal R. Gdula, Tatyana B. Nesterova, Greta Pintacuda, Jonathan Godwin, Ye Zhan, Hakan Ozadam, Michael McClellan, Daniella Moralli, Felix Krueger, Catherine M. Green, Wolf Reik, Skirmantas Kriaucionis, Edith Heard, Job Dekker, Neil Brockdorff 2019 University of Oxford

The Non-Canonical Smc Protein Smchd1 Antagonises Tad Formation And Compartmentalisation On The Inactive X Chromosome, Michal R. Gdula, Tatyana B. Nesterova, Greta Pintacuda, Jonathan Godwin, Ye Zhan, Hakan Ozadam, Michael Mcclellan, Daniella Moralli, Felix Krueger, Catherine M. Green, Wolf Reik, Skirmantas Kriaucionis, Edith Heard, Job Dekker, Neil Brockdorff

Open Access Articles

The inactive X chromosome (Xi) in female mammals adopts an atypical higher-order chromatin structure, manifested as a global loss of local topologically associated domains (TADs), A/B compartments and formation of two mega-domains. Here we demonstrate that the non-canonical SMC family protein, SmcHD1, which is important for gene silencing on Xi, contributes to this unique chromosome architecture. Specifically, allelic mapping of the transcriptome and epigenome in SmcHD1 mutant cells reveals the appearance of sub-megabase domains defined by gene activation, CpG hypermethylation and depletion of Polycomb-mediated H3K27me3. These domains, which correlate with sites of SmcHD1 enrichment on Xi in wild-type cells ...


Extracellular Matrix In Development And Disease, Julia Thom Oxford, Jonathon C. Reeck, Makenna J. Hardy 2019 Boise State University

Extracellular Matrix In Development And Disease, Julia Thom Oxford, Jonathon C. Reeck, Makenna J. Hardy

Biomolecular Research Center Publications and Presentations

The evolution of multicellular metazoan organisms was marked by the inclusion of an extracellular matrix (ECM), a multicomponent, proteinaceous network between cells that contributes to the spatial arrangement of cells and the resulting tissue organization. The development of an ECM that provides support in larger organisms may have represented an advantage in the face of selection pressure for the evolution of the ECM.


Of Course, Humans Are Not Unique!, Bernard Wallner 2019 University of Vienna

Of Course, Humans Are Not Unique!, Bernard Wallner

Animal Sentience

This commentary focuses on the question of the uniqueness of humans in comparison to other species and on the false assumption that single arguments support logical conclusions. Comparative analysis of genetic data in humans and nonhuman primates regarding the dopaminergic system of the subcortical mesolimbic reward system highlights homologous traits shared and modified by the process of evolution. Such an analytical approach is more relevant than claims of uniqueness.


Protein Degradation Regulates Phospholipid Biosynthetic Gene Expression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Bryan Salas-Santiago 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Protein Degradation Regulates Phospholipid Biosynthetic Gene Expression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Bryan Salas-Santiago

Doctoral Dissertations

Transcriptional regulation of most phospholipid biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is coordinated by inositol and choline. Inositol affects phosphatidic acid (PA) intracellular levels. Opi1p interacts physically with PA and is the main repressor of the phospholipid biosynthetic genes. It is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bound to the ER membrane protein Scs2p. When PA levels drop, Opi1p is translocated into the nucleus repressing most phospholipid biosynthetic genes. The OPI1 locus was identified in a screen looking for overproduction and excretion of inositol (Opi-). Opi- mutants are generally associated with a defect in repression of the ...


Nascent Dna Proteomics Analysis Uncovers Dna Replication Dynamics In The Human Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Maria Rocha Granados 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Nascent Dna Proteomics Analysis Uncovers Dna Replication Dynamics In The Human Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Maria Rocha Granados

Doctoral Dissertations

DNA is the substrate of many cellular processes including DNA replication, transcription and chromatin remodeling. These processes are coordinated to maintain genome integrity and ensure accurate duplication of genetic and epigenetic information. Genome-wide studies have provided evidence of the relationship between transcription and DNA replication timing. A global analysis of DNA replication initiation in T. brucei showed that TbORC1 (subunit of the origin recognition complex, ORC) binding sites are located at the boundaries of transcription units. Although recent studies in T. brucei indicate functional links among DNA replication and transcription, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we adapted ...


Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey 2019 Eastern Illinois University

Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey

Masters Theses

The occurrence and spread of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) are pressing public health problems worldwide. A key factor contributing to the spread of ARGs is lateral gene transfer. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are measured hot spots of microbial diversity and resistance because they receive polluted wastewater from diverse sources and contain a variety of different environments with dense bacterial loads. Due to the overuse of antibiotics the genetic capacities of microbes have profited. This helps every source of resistance gene and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop the multiple mechanism of resistance to each antibiotic used clinically, agriculturally, or ...


Hla-Do Modulates The Diversity Of The Mhc-Ii Self-Peptidome, Padma P. Nanaware, Mollie M. Jurewicz, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Lawrence J. Stern 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hla-Do Modulates The Diversity Of The Mhc-Ii Self-Peptidome, Padma P. Nanaware, Mollie M. Jurewicz, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Lawrence J. Stern

Open Access Articles

Presentation of antigenic peptides on MHC-II molecules is essential for tolerance to self and for initiation of immune responses against foreign antigens. DO (HLA-DO in humans, H2-O in mice) is a non-classical MHC-II protein that has been implicated in control of autoimmunity and regulation of neutralizing antibody responses to viruses. These effects likely are related to a role of DO in selecting MHC-II epitopes, but previous studies examining the effect of DO on presentation of selected CD4 T cell epitopes have been contradictory. To understand how DO modulates MHC-II antigen presentation, we characterized the full spectrum of peptides presented by ...


Membrane Protein Nanoparticles: The Shape Of Things To Come, Kailene S. Simon, Naomi L. Pollock, Sarah C. Lee 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Membrane Protein Nanoparticles: The Shape Of Things To Come, Kailene S. Simon, Naomi L. Pollock, Sarah C. Lee

Open Access Articles

The use of styrene-maleic acid (SMA) for the purification of a wide range of membrane proteins (MPs) from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources has begun to make an impact in the field of MP biology. This method is growing in popularity as a means to purify and thoroughly investigate the structure and function of MPs and biological membranes. The amphiphilic SMA copolymer can effectively extract MPs directly from a native lipid bilayer to form discs approximately 10 nm in diameter. The resulting lipid particles, or styrene-maleic acid lipid particles (SMALPs), contain SMA, protein and membrane lipid. MPs purified in SMALPs ...


Resistance From Afar: Distal Mutation V36m Allosterically Modulates The Active Site To Accentuate Drug Resistance In Hcv Ns3/4a Protease, Aysegul Ozen, Kuan-Hung Lin, Keith P. Romano, Davide Tavella, Alicia Newton, Christos J. Petropoulos, Wei Huang, Cihan Aydin, Celia A. Schiffer 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Resistance From Afar: Distal Mutation V36m Allosterically Modulates The Active Site To Accentuate Drug Resistance In Hcv Ns3/4a Protease, Aysegul Ozen, Kuan-Hung Lin, Keith P. Romano, Davide Tavella, Alicia Newton, Christos J. Petropoulos, Wei Huang, Cihan Aydin, Celia A. Schiffer

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Hepatitis C virus rapidly evolves, conferring resistance to direct acting antivirals. While resistance via active site mutations in the viral NS3/4A protease has been well characterized, the mechanism for resistance of non-active site mutations is unclear. R155K and V36M often co-evolve and while R155K alters the electrostatic network at the binding site, V36M is more than 13 Angstrom away. In this study the mechanism by which V36M confers resistance, in the context of R155K, is elucidated with drug susceptibility assays, crystal structures, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for three protease inhibitors: telaprevir, boceprevir and danoprevir. The R155K and R155K ...


Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Two efficient recombination systems were combined to produce a versatile method for chromosomal engineering that obviates the need to prepare double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recombination substrates. A synthetic "targeting oligonucleotide" is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annealase. This oligonucleotide contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a "payload plasmid" that contains a cognate recombination site and a selectable marker. The targeting oligonucleotide and payload plasmid are cotransformed into a RecT- and Int-expressing strain, and drug-resistant homologous recombinants are selected in a single step ...


The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee

ELAIA

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...


General Decapping Activators Target Different Subsets Of Inefficiently Translated Mrnas, Feng He, Alper Celik, Chan Wu, Allan Jacobson 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

General Decapping Activators Target Different Subsets Of Inefficiently Translated Mrnas, Feng He, Alper Celik, Chan Wu, Allan Jacobson

Open Access Articles

The Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping enzyme and the decapping activators Pat1, Dhh1, and Lsm1 regulate mRNA decapping, but their mechanistic integration is unknown. We analyzed the gene expression consequences of deleting PAT1, LSM1, or DHH1, or the DCP2 C-terminal domain, and found that: i) the Dcp2 C-terminal domain is an effector of both negative and positive regulation; ii) rather than being global activators of decapping, Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 directly target specific subsets of yeast mRNAs and loss of the functions of each of these factors has substantial indirect consequences for genome-wide mRNA expression; and iii) transcripts targeted by Pat1, Lsm1, and ...


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