Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson
Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses
Known to cause gas gangrene, Hathewaya histolytica secretes two sister collagenases, collagenase G (Col G) and collagenase H (Col H), to degrade the triple helical structure of collagen to further infection in a host. Individual domains of Col H have been crystalized in previous studies, but methods in x-ray crystallization of full-length Col H have been unsuccessful. Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) data, atomistic modeling was used to generate multiple conformations of Col H while accounting for flexibility between domains. Full-length Col H was found to adopt a two-state conformational model exhibiting a majority compact and a minority elongated ...
Tracking And Modulating Circadian Rhythms In Cell Culture Models, 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Tracking And Modulating Circadian Rhythms In Cell Culture Models, Sujeewa Sampath Lellupitiyage Don
Circadian rhythms are 24–hour activity cycles that exist for all organisms, from yeast and bacteria to mammals. Epidemiological data has shown that disruptions to circadian rhythms are associated with various diseases, including cancers. Circadian rhythms are regulated at the cellular level by a "molecular clock,” whose oscillations in protein transcription and translation control a range of downstream pathways. However, the connections between altered rhythms and diseases at the molecular level is unclear. Therefore, in this project, I tracked circadian rhythms in a high-resolution manner and thoroughly analyzed them to more completely reflect circadian behaviors and clock functioning at the ...
Analysis Of Soxs In S. Typhimurium By Transposon Mutagenesis, 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis
Analysis Of Soxs In S. Typhimurium By Transposon Mutagenesis, Joel Hanns, Brenda Pratte, Lon Chubiz Phd, Lauren Daugherty
Undergraduate Research Symposium
The mar-sox-rob regulon has been implicated in transcriptional regulation of several stress responses, such efflux of antibiotics, enzymes that break down reactive oxygen species, repression of biofilm formation, or repression of motility through downregulation of flagellar expression. This system is conserved among enteric bacteria and has been studied in species, such as E. coli and S. typhimurium. Some of these mechanisms can be costly and slow cell growth while increasing the probability of survival through tolerance of toxic environments. SoxS works in coordination with SoxR to respond to redox stress encountered by the cell. Interestingly, the overexpression of SoxS in ...
Elucidating Mechanisms Of Biofluorescence And Bioluminescence In Marine Organisms, 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Elucidating Mechanisms Of Biofluorescence And Bioluminescence In Marine Organisms, Andrew M. Guarnaccia
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Biofluorescence and bioluminescence are two methods of light emission that entail separate mechanisms of action but end at the same process: a colorful display that have tremendous ecological and behavioral benefits, whether it be used to communicate with conspecifics, camouflage into a multicolored background, attract unsuspecting prey, or alert others to a predator. In biofluorescence, higher-energy, shorter wavelength light is absorbed then re-emitted as lower-energy, longer-wavelength light. Bioluminescence on the other hand entails a chemical reaction in which a small molecule is oxidized by an enzyme, creating a high-energy intermediate that sheds the excess energy in the form of visible ...
Signature Peptide Identification For Body Fluids In Sexual Assault Cases By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Kelci Somers
Body fluids contain proteins that perform functions specific to different types of body fluids. Therefore, the detection of signature peptides for these proteins can potentially identify a body fluid in a forensic investigation. This project aimed to validate a method to detect signature peptides in body fluids commonly found in sexual assault cases by LC-MS/MS. Signature peptides for semen and saliva fluids were combined with two signature peptides for vaginal fluids. Samples created using two donors each for saliva, semen, and vaginal fluids were extracted using a trypsin digest, with separation of the protein and DNA fractions. The LC-MS ...
Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Control of DNA replication is critical for progression of the cell cycle and genomic stability. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate numerous phosphorylation events to accomplish two biological tasks for all living organisms: DNA replication and cell division. One CDK, Cyclin-Cdc28, is responsible for cell cycle progression in budding yeast. DNA replication requires a stepwise assembly of the pre-replicative complex on DNA, including Orc1-6, Cdc6, Cdt1 and Mcm2-7, during M-G1 phase. Cdc6 contains eight Cdc28 consensus sites, SP or TP motifs. Clb5-Cdc28 phosphorylates Cdc6-T7 to recruit Cks1, the Cdc28 phospho-adaptor, for subsequent multisite phosphorylation during S phase. There are two phospho-degrons at ...
Isolation And Characterization Of Α-Hcd7 Scfv Expressing Exosomes And Synthesis Of Hybrid Exosome-Liposome For Analyses, 2022 University of Texas at Tyler
Isolation And Characterization Of Α-Hcd7 Scfv Expressing Exosomes And Synthesis Of Hybrid Exosome-Liposome For Analyses, Sahil Patel
The goal of this thesis project is to isolate and characterize exosomes that express anti-human CD7 (α-hCD7) single chain variable fragment (scFv), which will be further utilized for T celltargeted gene editing. To reach this goal, exosomes from HEK 293 cells and Jurkat cells were isolated and characterized with different methodologies. To obtain α-hCD7 scFv-expressing exosomes, the HEK 293 cells were subjected to transfection of custom-plasmid pDisplay-αhCD7 scFv, and the expression of α-hCD7 scFv on the HEK 293-derived exosomes were then confirmed by immunogold staining, western blotting, and flow cytometry. To transfect 293 cells, calcium phosphate transfection was utilized, and ...
Molecular Characterization Of Integrase-Rna Interactions And Their Role In The Replication Of Hiv-1 And Other Retroviruses, 2022 Washington University in St. Louis
Molecular Characterization Of Integrase-Rna Interactions And Their Role In The Replication Of Hiv-1 And Other Retroviruses, Christian Shema Mugisha
Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations
HIV-1 integrase (IN) enzyme has an emerging non-catalytic role in particle maturation, whichinvolves its binding to the viral genome in virions. Allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) and class II integrase substitutions inhibit the binding of IN to the viral genome and cause formation of eccentric non-infectious HIV-1 particles. These viruses are characterized by the mislocalization of the viral ribonucleoprotein complexes between the translucent conical CA lattice and the viral lipid envelope. We have previously demonstrated that IN binding to the viral genome is mediated by basic residues within the C-terminal domain of IN. In the first chapter, we show how basic ...
Defining The Role Of Rare Genetic Variants That Drive Risk And Pathogenesis Of Alzheimer’S Disease, 2022 Washington University in St. Louis
Defining The Role Of Rare Genetic Variants That Drive Risk And Pathogenesis Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Matthew James Rosene
Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and is pathologically defined by the aggregation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Rare heritable mutations within the genes for amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) cause early onset AD and account for approximately 1% of AD cases. While the majority of AD cases are late-onset (LOAD), which is defined by a markedly more complex genetic architecture that is comprised of many genetic risk factors that influence AD through multiple cellular pathways. The advent of deep sequencing analyses have allowed for the ...
Investigation Of Dna Variability And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) In Mississippi, 2022 University of Southern Mississippi
Investigation Of Dna Variability And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) In Mississippi, James C. Valentine, Mac H. Alford
The genus Perlesta Banks, 1906 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) consists of 35 species, 33 native to the United States and Canada and two native to China. For over a century these small, brown stonefly adults and freckled yellow nymphs have gone by the name of the type species of the genus, Perlesta placida, but taxonomic work in the genus since 1989 has resulted in the recognition of additional species. These species were mostly recognized and described using morphological characteristics, but two areas that are lacking include (1) linking nymphs to adults and (2) phylogenetic analysis of all species occurring in Mississippi using ...
Lectin-Glycan Complexes: A Comprehensive Analysis Of Docking Calculations, 2022 University of Mississippi
Lectin-Glycan Complexes: A Comprehensive Analysis Of Docking Calculations, Ashton Custer
Lectins are a type of glycan-binding protein that noncovalently bind glycans. Carbohydrates are molecules consisting of sugar units joined together. Glycans are carbohydrates. Hence, glycans are also sugars. Lectins and lectin-glycan complexes have a range of biological roles and can be found in animals (including humans), plants, bacteria, viruses, and yeasts and fungi.1 Many scientists focus on the computational study of these complexes due to their intricate roles in many living organisms. Computational study is important in furthering our knowledge of lectin-glycan complexes and other such protein complexes. However, computational study is not perfect. There are many challenges in ...
Retro-Structural Analysis Of The Four Helix Bundle Motif In Binuclear Proteins, 2022 University of Mississippi
Retro-Structural Analysis Of The Four Helix Bundle Motif In Binuclear Proteins, Walker Pedigo, Maggie Smith
Protein structure is directly related to protein function. There are four levels of protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. The interactions amongst the structural components of a protein give rise to its unique characteristics. The four helix bundle motif is a common structural trait in a variety of binuclear proteins. In this study, PyMOL, a molecular visualization system, was used to analyze binuclear proteins that possess a four helix bundle. Images of proteins containing dicopper, diiron, and dimanganese sites were captured. The images were compiled into figures for each individual protein. After creating the figures, each protein was further ...
The Use Of Nebulizer Medications As A Possible Treatment For Covid-19, 2022 Murray State University
The Use Of Nebulizer Medications As A Possible Treatment For Covid-19, Jacob Kaufman
Honors College Theses
For the past few years, the COVID-19 pandemic has been the focal point in healthcare and research. This disease has permanently changed daily life and left a historic impact on the world. Most people have felt the effects of this pandemic either directly, via infection, or indirectly, via change in workflow, financial impact, etc. The main question for this virus still remains today; how do we treat this illness effectively? While many ideas are being tested and suggested, a definite answer has yet to be procured. Vaccine rates are climbing on a daily basis, serving as the first and most ...
The Role Of Foxd1 In Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, 2022 University of Maine
The Role Of Foxd1 In Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, Kyle H. Bond
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the 8th most common cancer in the United States, with the clear cell variant (ccRCC) being the most prevalent. Over 14,000 people die every year to RCC, with rates continuing to increase with an aging general population. Patients suffering from metastatic RCC (mRCC) have extremely poor prognoses, with a 5-year survival of only 11.2%. Current treatment options include resection of primary lesions, tyrosine kinase inhibition (Sunitinib, Pazopanib), mTOR inhibition (Temsirolimus, Everolimus), and immune checkpoint inhibition (Nivolumab, Atezolizumab). Recent attention has been drawn to inhibition of transcription factors like HIF2α (Belzutifan). There is ...
A Pathogen Outside Its Host: F. Tularensis Survival In Water, 2022 University of Rhode Island
A Pathogen Outside Its Host: F. Tularensis Survival In Water, Aisling Macaraeg
Senior Honors Projects
Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium and is the causative agent for tularemia. While our understanding of F. tularensis survival in the environment is limited, it is clear they can persist in freshwater aquatic environments for long periods of time. Currently, there is a gap in knowledge with the understanding of the genes involved with the long-term survival of F. tularensis in an aquatic environment. In the laboratory setting, it has been found that lower temperatures seem to allow longer survival. The aim of this project is to identify laboratory conditions that allow F. tularensis to survive longterm in ...
Multicopy Suppression Of Ribosomal Protein Deletion Mutants, 2022 The University of Rhode Island
Multicopy Suppression Of Ribosomal Protein Deletion Mutants, Jacqualine Cerbone
Senior Honors Projects
To suppress the ribosome assembly defective phenotype of a ribosomal protein uS17- deficient mutant, various ribosomal proteins were used to act as multicopy suppressors. Ribosomal protein uS17 is a highly conserved component of the 30S (small) ribosomal subunit and is important for 30S subunit assembly. Mutants with a deletion of rpsQ (the gene encoding uS17) are viable but have a severe 30S subunit assembly defect and a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype. While fully assembled 30S subunits do form, incomplete ("20S") particles lacking several proteins accumulate. We hypothesized that increasing the intracellular concentration of one or more of the proteins missing from ...
Describing The Effect Of Thin Layer Sediment Placement On Coastal Microbial Communities Using Foraminifera Diversity, 2022 University of Rhode Island
Describing The Effect Of Thin Layer Sediment Placement On Coastal Microbial Communities Using Foraminifera Diversity, Elizabeth B. Billings
Senior Honors Projects
Salt marshes are rich ecosystems that play an important role in aquatic food systems and prevent erosion while also providing essential habitats for wildlife. Climate change has resulted in rising sea levels and erosion of these coastal wetlands. Thin Layer Sediment Placement (TLP) is a restoration effort being implemented to mitigate the effects of climate change on coastal ecosystems. The TLP process raises elevation of the marsh and provides substrates for vegetative growth by spraying dredged sediment over existing marsh. The impacts of TLP on microbial populations is not widely understood, therefore metrics are required to study the effects of ...
Investigating The Role Of Dullard And Tmem-188 In Lipid Droplet Biogenesis In Mammalian Cells, 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Investigating The Role Of Dullard And Tmem-188 In Lipid Droplet Biogenesis In Mammalian Cells, Mia Kaitlin Buono
Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects
No abstract provided.
Unraveling The Molecular Foundations Behind The Diverged Behaviors Of Mouse Insulin 1 And Insulin 2, Connecting Diabetes Risk With Glucocorticoid Treatment And Chronic Migraine Through The Analysis Of Islet Chemistry, And Capturing Key Posttranslational Modifications All Through The Application Of A Novel Lc-Ims-Ms Workflow, 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Unraveling The Molecular Foundations Behind The Diverged Behaviors Of Mouse Insulin 1 And Insulin 2, Connecting Diabetes Risk With Glucocorticoid Treatment And Chronic Migraine Through The Analysis Of Islet Chemistry, And Capturing Key Posttranslational Modifications All Through The Application Of A Novel Lc-Ims-Ms Workflow, Connor Christopher Long
Select or Award-Winning Individual Scholarship
We display the capabilities of our established liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) workflow in the investigations of islet chemistry at the sub-single-islet level. We begin by characterizing the structural differences of Ins1 and Ins2 to present novel insights as to why their behaviors diverge. We then examine the effects of the stress hormone corticosterone, the rodent equivalent of human cortisol that is often used as a therapeutic, on pancreatic peptide hormone secretion. We also uncover the molecular connection behind the inverse relationship between type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and chronic migraine via the neuropeptides CGRP and PACAP. Lastly, we ...
Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert
Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...