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Rfid Tags For Detecting Concrete Degradation In Bridge Decks, Tyler J. Lesthaeghe, Samuel Frishman, Stephen D. Holland, Terry J. Wipf 2017 Iowa State University

Rfid Tags For Detecting Concrete Degradation In Bridge Decks, Tyler J. Lesthaeghe, Samuel Frishman, Stephen D. Holland, Terry J. Wipf

Stephen D. Holland

Steel reinforcing bar (rebar) corrosion due to chlorine ingress is the primary degradation mechanism for bridge decks. In areas where rock salt is used as a de-icing agent, salt water seeps into the concrete through cracks, causing corrosion of the rebar and potentially leading to catastrophic failure if not repaired. This project explores the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags as low-cost corrosion sensors. RFID tags, when embedded in concrete, will fail due to corrosion in the same manner as rebar after prolonged exposure to salt water. In addition, the presence of salt water interferes with the ability to ...


Rfid Tags For Detecting Concrete Degradation In Bridge Decks, Tyler J. Lesthaeghe, Samuel Frishman, Stephen D. Holland, Terry J. Wipf 2017 Iowa State University

Rfid Tags For Detecting Concrete Degradation In Bridge Decks, Tyler J. Lesthaeghe, Samuel Frishman, Stephen D. Holland, Terry J. Wipf

Stephen D. Holland

Steel reinforcing bar (rebar) corrosion due to chlorine ingress is the primary degradation mechanism for bridge decks. In areas where rock salt is used as a de-icing agent, salt water seeps into the concrete through cracks, causing corrosion of the rebar and potentially leading to catastrophic failure if not repaired. This project explores the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags as low-cost corrosion sensors. RFID tags, when embedded in concrete, will fail due to corrosion in the same manner as rebar after prolonged exposure to salt water. In addition, the presence of salt water interferes with the ability to ...


Everglades Drainage District: Biennial Report 1927-1928 To The Board Of Commissioners Of Everglades Drainage District, F C. Elliot 2017 University of North Florida

Everglades Drainage District: Biennial Report 1927-1928 To The Board Of Commissioners Of Everglades Drainage District, F C. Elliot

City and Regional Planning—Florida

Everglades Drainage District report 1927-1928


Reflective Crack Mitigation Guide For Flexible Pavements Final Report, R. Christopher Williams, Ashley F. Buss, Can Chen 2017 Iowa State University

Reflective Crack Mitigation Guide For Flexible Pavements Final Report, R. Christopher Williams, Ashley F. Buss, Can Chen

R. Christopher Williams

Reflective cracks form in pavements when hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays are placed over jointed and/or severely cracked rigid and flexible pavements. In the first part of the research, survival analysis was conducted to identify the most appropriate rehabilitation method for composite pavements and to evaluate the influence of different factors on reflective crack development. Four rehabilitation methods, including mill and fill, overlay, heater scarification (SCR), and rubblization, were analyzed using three performance indicators: reflective cracking, international roughness index (IRI), and pavement condition index (PCI). It was found that rubblization can significantly retard reflective cracking development compared to the other ...


Reflective Crack Mitigation Guide For Flexible Pavements, R. Christopher Williams, Ashley Buss, Can Chen 2017 Iowa State University

Reflective Crack Mitigation Guide For Flexible Pavements, R. Christopher Williams, Ashley Buss, Can Chen

R. Christopher Williams

Reflective cracks form in pavements when hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays are placed over jointed and/or severely cracked rigid and flexible pavements. In the first part of the research, survival analysis was conducted to identify the most appropriate rehabilitation method for composite pavements and to evaluate the influence of different factors on reflective crack development. Four rehabilitation methods, including mill and fill, overlay, heater scarification (SCR), and rubblization, were analyzed using three performance indicators: reflective cracking, international roughness index (IRI), and pavement condition index (PCI). It was found that rubblization can significantly retard reflective cracking development compared to the other ...


Development Of Non-Petroleum-Based Binders For Use In Flexible Pavements – Phase Ii, R. Christopher Williams, Elvira Joana Joana Ferreira Ferreira Peralta, Ka Lai Nieve Ng Puga 2017 Iowa State University

Development Of Non-Petroleum-Based Binders For Use In Flexible Pavements – Phase Ii, R. Christopher Williams, Elvira Joana Joana Ferreira Ferreira Peralta, Ka Lai Nieve Ng Puga

R. Christopher Williams

Bio-binders can be utilized as asphalt modifiers, extenders, and replacements for conventional asphalt in bituminous binders. From the rheology results of Phase I of this project, it was found that the bio-binders tested had good performance, similar to conventional asphalt, except at low temperatures. Phase II of this project addresses this shortcoming and evaluates the Superpave performance of laboratory mixes produced with the enhanced bio-binders. The main objective of this research was to develop a bio-binder capable of replacing conventional asphalt in flexible pavements by incorporating ground tire rubber (GTR) into bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of agriculture and forestry ...


Assessment Of Asphalt Interlayer Designed On Jointed Concrete, R. Christopher Williams, Andrew A. Cascione 2017 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Asphalt Interlayer Designed On Jointed Concrete, R. Christopher Williams, Andrew A. Cascione

R. Christopher Williams

Reflective cracking in hot mix asphalt (HMA) overlays has been a common cause of poor pavement performance in Iowa for many years. Reflective cracks commonly occur in HMA overlays when deteriorated portland cement concrete is paved over with HMA. This results in HMA pavement surfaces with poor ride quality and increased transportation maintenance costs. To delay the formation of cracks in HMA overlays, the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) has begun to implement a crack-relief interlayer mix design specification. The crack-relief interlayer is an asphalt-rich, highly flexible HMA that can resist cracking in high strain loading conditions. In this ...


Validation Of Gyratory Mix Design In Iowa, R. Christopher Williams, Ashley Buss, Marie Grace Joson Mercado, Hosin David Lee, Ashkan Bozorgzad 2017 Iowa State University

Validation Of Gyratory Mix Design In Iowa, R. Christopher Williams, Ashley Buss, Marie Grace Joson Mercado, Hosin David Lee, Ashkan Bozorgzad

R. Christopher Williams

The design number of gyrations (Ndesign) introduced by the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) and used in the Superior Performing Asphalt Pavement (Superpave) mix design method has been commonly used in flexible pavement design throughout the US since 1996. Ndesign, also known as the compaction effort, is used to simulate field compaction during construction and has been reported to produce air voids that are unable to reach ultimate pavement density within the initial 2 to 3 years post-construction, potentially having an adverse impact on long-term performance. Other state transportation agencies have conducted studies validating the Ndesign for their specific regions ...


Development Of Non-Petroleum-Based Binders For Use In Flexible Pavements – Phase Ii, R. Christopher Williams, Elvira Joana Joana Ferreira Ferreira Peralta, Ka Lai Nieve Ng Puga 2017 Iowa State University

Development Of Non-Petroleum-Based Binders For Use In Flexible Pavements – Phase Ii, R. Christopher Williams, Elvira Joana Joana Ferreira Ferreira Peralta, Ka Lai Nieve Ng Puga

R. Christopher Williams

Bio-binders can be utilized as asphalt modifiers, extenders, and replacements for conventional asphalt in bituminous binders. From the rheology results of Phase I of this project, it was found that the bio-binders tested had good performance, similar to conventional asphalt, except at low temperatures. Phase II of this project addresses this shortcoming and evaluates the Superpave performance of laboratory mixes produced with the enhanced bio-binders. The main objective of this research was to develop a bio-binder capable of replacing conventional asphalt in flexible pavements by incorporating ground tire rubber (GTR) into bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of agriculture and forestry ...


Assessment Of Nondestructive Testing Technologies For Quality Control/Quality Assurance Of Asphalt Mixtures, Jeramy C. Ashlock, R. Christopher Williams, Hosin David Lee, Shibin Lin, Hanjun Kim, Jeremy Nash 2017 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Nondestructive Testing Technologies For Quality Control/Quality Assurance Of Asphalt Mixtures, Jeramy C. Ashlock, R. Christopher Williams, Hosin David Lee, Shibin Lin, Hanjun Kim, Jeremy Nash

R. Christopher Williams

Asphalt pavements suffer various failures due to insufficient quality within their design lives. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) has been proposed to improve pavement quality through quantitative performance prediction. Evaluation of the actual performance (quality) of pavements requires in situ nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques that can accurately measure the most critical, objective, and sensitive properties of pavement systems. The purpose of this study is to assess existing as well as promising new NDT technologies for quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) of asphalt mixtures. Specifically, this study examined field measurements ...


Investigation Of Warm-Mix Asphalt For Iowa Roadways, Phase Ii, Ashley F. Buss, R. Christopher Williams 2017 Iowa State University

Investigation Of Warm-Mix Asphalt For Iowa Roadways, Phase Ii, Ashley F. Buss, R. Christopher Williams

R. Christopher Williams

Phase II of this study further evaluated the performance of plant-produced warm-mix asphalt (WMA) mixes by conducting additional mixture performance tests at a broader range of temperatures, adding additional pavements to the study, comparing virgin and recovered binder properties, performing pavement condition surveys, and comparing survey data with the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) forecast for pavement damage over 20 years of service life. Further objectives detailing curing behavior, quality assurance testing, and hybrid technologies were as follows: * Compare the predicted and observed field performance of existing WMA trials produced in the previous Phase I study to that of ...


Performance Of Recycled Asphalt Shingles In Hot Mix Asphalt, R. Christopher Williams, Andrew A. Cascione, Jianhua Yu, Debra Haugen, Mihai Marasteanu, Jim McGraw 2017 Iowa State University

Performance Of Recycled Asphalt Shingles In Hot Mix Asphalt, R. Christopher Williams, Andrew A. Cascione, Jianhua Yu, Debra Haugen, Mihai Marasteanu, Jim Mcgraw

R. Christopher Williams

State highway agencies are increasingly intersted in using recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) in hot mix asphalt (HMA) applications, yet many agencies share common questions about the effect of RAS on the performance of HMA. Previous research has allowed for only limited laboratory testing and field surveys. The complexity of RAS materials and lack of past experiences led to the creation of Transportation Pooled Fund (TPF) Program TPF-5(213). The primary goal of this study is to address research needs of state DOT and environmental officials to determine the best practices for the use of recycled asphalt shingles in hot-mix asphalt ...


Reflective Crack Mitigation Guide For Flexible Pavements Final Report, R. Christopher Williams, Ashley F. Buss, Can Chen 2017 Iowa State University

Reflective Crack Mitigation Guide For Flexible Pavements Final Report, R. Christopher Williams, Ashley F. Buss, Can Chen

R. Christopher Williams

Reflective cracks form in pavements when hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays are placed over jointed and/or severely cracked rigid and flexible pavements. In the first part of the research, survival analysis was conducted to identify the most appropriate rehabilitation method for composite pavements and to evaluate the influence of different factors on reflective crack development. Four rehabilitation methods, including mill and fill, overlay, heater scarification (SCR), and rubblization, were analyzed using three performance indicators: reflective cracking, international roughness index (IRI), and pavement condition index (PCI). It was found that rubblization can significantly retard reflective cracking development compared to the other ...


Development Of Non-Petroleum-Based Binders For Use In Flexible Pavements – Phase Ii, R. Christopher Williams, Elvira Joana Ferreira Peralta, Ka-Lai Nieve Ng Puga 2017 Iowa State University

Development Of Non-Petroleum-Based Binders For Use In Flexible Pavements – Phase Ii, R. Christopher Williams, Elvira Joana Ferreira Peralta, Ka-Lai Nieve Ng Puga

R. Christopher Williams

Bio-binders can be utilized as asphalt modifiers, extenders, and replacements for conventional asphalt in bituminous binders. From the rheology results of Phase I of this project, it was found that the bio-binders tested had good performance, similar to conventional asphalt, except at low temperatures. Phase II of this project addresses this shortcoming and evaluates the Superpave performance of laboratory mixes produced with the enhanced bio-binders. The main objective of this research was to develop a bio-binder capable of replacing conventional asphalt in flexible pavements by incorporating ground tire rubber (GTR) into bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of agriculture and forestry ...


Validation Of Gyratory Mix Design In Iowa, R. Christopher Williams, Ashley Buss, Marie Grace Joson Mercado, Hosin David Lee, Ashkan Bozorgzad 2017 Iowa State University

Validation Of Gyratory Mix Design In Iowa, R. Christopher Williams, Ashley Buss, Marie Grace Joson Mercado, Hosin David Lee, Ashkan Bozorgzad

R. Christopher Williams

The design number of gyrations (Ndesign) introduced by the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) and used in the Superior Performing Asphalt Pavement (Superpave) mix design method has been commonly used in flexible pavement design throughout the US since 1996. Ndesign, also known as the compaction effort, is used to simulate field compaction during construction and has been reported to produce air voids that are unable to reach ultimate pavement density within the initial 2 to 3 years post-construction, potentially having an adverse impact on long-term performance. Other state transportation agencies have conducted studies validating the Ndesign for their specific regions ...


Investigation Of Warm-Mix Asphalt For Iowa Roadways, Phase Ii, Ashley F. Buss, R. Christopher Williams 2017 Iowa State University

Investigation Of Warm-Mix Asphalt For Iowa Roadways, Phase Ii, Ashley F. Buss, R. Christopher Williams

R. Christopher Williams

Phase II of this study further evaluated the performance of plant-produced warm-mix asphalt (WMA) mixes by conducting additional mixture performance tests at a broader range of temperatures, adding additional pavements to the study, comparing virgin and recovered binder properties, performing pavement condition surveys, and comparing survey data with the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) forecast for pavement damage over 20 years of service life. Further objectives detailing curing behavior, quality assurance testing, and hybrid technologies were as follows: * Compare the predicted and observed field performance of existing WMA trials produced in the previous Phase I study to that of ...


Investigation Of Warm-Mix Asphalt Using Iowa Aggregates, Ashley F. Buss, Mohamed H. Rashwan, R. Christopher Williams 2017 Iowa State University

Investigation Of Warm-Mix Asphalt Using Iowa Aggregates, Ashley F. Buss, Mohamed H. Rashwan, R. Christopher Williams

R. Christopher Williams

The implementation of warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more widespread with a growing number of contractors utilizing various WMA technologies. Early research suggests WMA may be more susceptible to moisture damage than traditional hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mixes. The objectives of this study are to test the binder and mix properties of WMA technologies for both field- and laboratory-produced mixes to determine the performance of WMA compared to traditional HMA. Field- and laboratory-produced mixes were studied. The laboratory-produced mixes compared HMA control mixes with WMA mixes that had the same mix design. The WMA technologies used for the laboratory study were ...


Assessment Of Nondestructive Testing Technologies For Quality Control/Quality Assurance Of Asphalt Mixtures, Jeramy C. Ashlock, R. Christopher Williams, Hosin David Lee, Shibin Lin, Hanjun Kim, Jeremy Nash 2017 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Nondestructive Testing Technologies For Quality Control/Quality Assurance Of Asphalt Mixtures, Jeramy C. Ashlock, R. Christopher Williams, Hosin David Lee, Shibin Lin, Hanjun Kim, Jeremy Nash

R. Christopher Williams

Asphalt pavements suffer various failures due to insufficient quality within their design lives. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) has been proposed to improve pavement quality through quantitative performance prediction. Evaluation of the actual performance (quality) of pavements requires in situ nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques that can accurately measure the most critical, objective, and sensitive properties of pavement systems. The purpose of this study is to assess existing as well as promising new NDT technologies for quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) of asphalt mixtures. Specifically, this study examined field measurements ...


Development Of Non-Petroleum Based Binders For Use In Flexible Pavements, R. Christopher Williams 2017 Iowa State University

Development Of Non-Petroleum Based Binders For Use In Flexible Pavements, R. Christopher Williams

R. Christopher Williams

Bio-oils can be implemented as binders to help reduce the pavement industry’s reliance on fossil fuels.


Assessment Of Asphalt Interlayer Designed On Jointed Concrete, R. Christopher Williams, Andrew A. Cascione 2017 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Asphalt Interlayer Designed On Jointed Concrete, R. Christopher Williams, Andrew A. Cascione

R. Christopher Williams

Reflective cracking in hot mix asphalt (HMA) overlays has been a common cause of poor pavement performance in Iowa for many years. Reflective cracks commonly occur in HMA overlays when deteriorated portland cement concrete is paved over with HMA. This results in HMA pavement surfaces with poor ride quality and increased transportation maintenance costs. To delay the formation of cracks in HMA overlays, the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) has begun to implement a crack-relief interlayer mix design specification. The crack-relief interlayer is an asphalt-rich, highly flexible HMA that can resist cracking in high strain loading conditions. In this ...


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