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Climate, Not Conflict, Explains Extreme Middle East Dust Storm, Anthony J. Parolari, Dan Li, Elie Bou-Zeid, Gabriel Katul, Shmuel Assouline 2017 Marquette University

Climate, Not Conflict, Explains Extreme Middle East Dust Storm, Anthony J. Parolari, Dan Li, Elie Bou-Zeid, Gabriel Katul, Shmuel Assouline

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

The recent dust storm in the Middle East (September 2015) was publicized in the media as a sign of an impending ‘Dust Bowl.’ Its severity, demonstrated by extreme aerosol optical depth in the atmosphere in the 99th percentile compared to historical data, was attributed to the ongoing regional conflict. However, surface meteorological and remote sensing data, as well as regional climate model simulations, support an alternative hypothesis: the historically unprecedented aridity played a more prominent role, as evidenced by unusual climatic and meteorological conditions prior to and during the storm. Remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index demonstrates that vegetation cover ...


Estimating River Discharge Using Multiple-Tide Gauges Distributed Along A Channel, Hamed R. Moftakhari, David A. Jay, Stefan Talke 2017 Portland State University

Estimating River Discharge Using Multiple-Tide Gauges Distributed Along A Channel, Hamed R. Moftakhari, David A. Jay, Stefan Talke

Stefan A. Talke

Reliable estimation of freshwater inflow to the ocean from large tidal rivers is vital for water resources management and climate analyses. Discharge gauging stations are typically located beyond the tidal intrusion reach, such that inputs and losses occurring closer to the ocean are not included. Here, we develop a method of estimating river discharge using multiple gauges and time-dependent tidal statistics determined via wavelet analysis. The Multiple-gauge Tidal Discharge Estimate (MTDE) method is developed using data from the Columbia River and Fraser River estuaries and calibrated against river discharge. Next, we evaluate the general applicability of MTDE by testing an ...


Estimating River Discharge Using Multiple-Tide Gauges Distributed Along A Channel, Hamed R. Moftakhari, David A. Jay, Stefan Talke 2017 Portland State University

Estimating River Discharge Using Multiple-Tide Gauges Distributed Along A Channel, Hamed R. Moftakhari, David A. Jay, Stefan Talke

David A. Jay

Reliable estimation of freshwater inflow to the ocean from large tidal rivers is vital for water resources management and climate analyses. Discharge gauging stations are typically located beyond the tidal intrusion reach, such that inputs and losses occurring closer to the ocean are not included. Here, we develop a method of estimating river discharge using multiple gauges and time-dependent tidal statistics determined via wavelet analysis. The Multiple-gauge Tidal Discharge Estimate (MTDE) method is developed using data from the Columbia River and Fraser River estuaries and calibrated against river discharge. Next, we evaluate the general applicability of MTDE by testing an ...


A Look To The Sustainable Draining Systems: Criteria Of Sustainability And Successful Cases, Marian Sabau 2017 Universidad de la Costa

A Look To The Sustainable Draining Systems: Criteria Of Sustainability And Successful Cases, Marian Sabau

Marian Sabau

There have been many studies and research that address sustainable drainage urban systems (SUDS), where factors like costs or the zone where a SUDS is to be installed are determinant, so multicriteria studies are important in decision-making. The development of a multidisciplinary approach could in the future serve as a helping tool to support decision, whose purpose would be to guide users in their choice of the most appropriate solution for managing the collection of rainwater. Another key point is to make use of other strategies to accurately define the most appropriate SUDS for a particular location. Modelling for example ...


A Validated Tropical-Extratropical Flood Hazard Assessment For New York Harbor, Philip M. Orton, T. M. Hall, Stefan A. Talke, Alan F. Blumberg, Nickitas Georgas, S. Vinogradov 2017 Stevens Institute of Technology

A Validated Tropical-Extratropical Flood Hazard Assessment For New York Harbor, Philip M. Orton, T. M. Hall, Stefan A. Talke, Alan F. Blumberg, Nickitas Georgas, S. Vinogradov

Stefan A. Talke

Recent studies of flood risk at New York Harbor (NYH) have shown disparate results for the 100 year storm tide, providing an uncertain foundation for the flood mitigation response after Hurricane Sandy. Here we present a flood hazard assessment that improves confidence in our understanding of the region's present-day potential for flooding, by separately including the contribution of tropical cyclones (TCs) and extratropical cyclones (ETCs), and validating our modeling study at multiple stages against historical observations. The TC assessment is based on a climatology of 606 synthetic storms developed from a statistical-stochastic model of North Atlantic TCs. The ETC ...


Coupling Of Integrated Biosphere Simulator To Regional Climate Model Version 3, Jonathan M. Winter, Jeremy S. Pal, Elfatih A. B. Eltahir 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Coupling Of Integrated Biosphere Simulator To Regional Climate Model Version 3, Jonathan M. Winter, Jeremy S. Pal, Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

Jeremy Pal

A description of the coupling of Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) to Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) is presented. IBIS introduces several key advantages to RegCM3, most notably vegetation dynamics, the coexistence of multiple plant functional types in the same grid cell, more sophisticated plant phenology, plant competition, explicit modeling of soil/plant biogeochemistry, and additional soil and snow layers.

A single subroutine was created that allows RegCM3 to use IBIS for surface physics calculations. A revised initialization scheme was implemented for RegCM3–IBIS, including an IBIS-specific prescription of vegetation and soil properties.

To illustrate the relative strengths and weaknesses ...


Estimation Of Turbulence Effects On Wind-Induced Suctions On The Roof Of A Low-Rise Building, Chieh-Hsun Wu 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Estimation Of Turbulence Effects On Wind-Induced Suctions On The Roof Of A Low-Rise Building, Chieh-Hsun Wu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The effects of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) on surface pressures of a typical low-rise building roof are investigated in this thesis. A 1/50 geometrically-scaled model of the Texas Tech University Wind Engineering Field Research Lab (WERFL) building model is used for pressure measurements in wind tunnel experiments. ABL wind turbulence intensities ranging from about 10% to 30%, and length scales ranging from 6 to 12 times of the building height (H) are generated. The effects of ABL turbulence on the mean roof pressures within the separated flow are explained from the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The pressure ...


Concrete Pavement Service Condition Assessment Using Infrared Thermography, Yang Lu, Aidin J. Golrokh, M.D. Aminul Islam 2017 Boise State University

Concrete Pavement Service Condition Assessment Using Infrared Thermography, Yang Lu, Aidin J. Golrokh, M.D. Aminul Islam

Yang Lu

Infrared thermography (IRT), an effective nondestructive testing method, is used to obtain an initial evaluation of the concrete pavement surface and near surface in a time effective manner. In this paper, the effect of the depth of delamination inside concrete pavement on infrared thermography technique is studied for bridge decks inspection. To be able to mimic the delamination in subsurface, two Styrofoam cubes have been inserted in different depth near the surface of the concrete cylinder. After heating up the specimen, thermal images were taken from the surface using an infrared thermal camera to evaluate the effect of subsurface defects ...


On The Ramberg-Osgood Stress-Strain Model And Large Deformations Of Cantilever Beams, Ronald J. Giardina Jr 2017 University of New Orleans

On The Ramberg-Osgood Stress-Strain Model And Large Deformations Of Cantilever Beams, Ronald J. Giardina Jr

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis the Ramberg-Osgood nonlinear model for describing the behavior of many different materials is investigated. A brief overview of the model as it is currently used in the literature is undertaken and several misunderstandings and possible pitfalls in its application is pointed out, especially as it pertains to more recent approaches to finding solutions involving the model. There is an investigation of the displacement of a cantilever beam under a combined loading consisting of a distributed load across the entire length of the beam and a point load at its end and new solutions to this problem are ...


Technology To Manufacture Oriented Pvc (Pvc-O) Pipes, Purdue ECT Team 2017 Construction Engineering & Management, Purdue University

Technology To Manufacture Oriented Pvc (Pvc-O) Pipes, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

The development of Molecor´s technology, which is based on the application of a Molecular Orientation process, has delivered a significant turning point in the pipelines sector. With this technological development, the company has begun to manufacture TOM® PVC-O pipes, the most eco-friendly pipes on the market. The Molecor technology enabled eradicating many of the existing disadvantages of thermoplastic pipes.

This technology delivers a clear objective; to provide the water industry with a solution for pipes carrying pressurized water in an environmentally friendly, yet cost efficient manner. This also extends a service life compared to pipeline materials currently in use ...


Performance Of Mud Mortar Walls Under Seismic Loading, Christian L. Berneking VI, Santiago Pujol, Prateek Pratap Shah, Lucas Laughery 2017 Purdue University

Performance Of Mud Mortar Walls Under Seismic Loading, Christian L. Berneking Vi, Santiago Pujol, Prateek Pratap Shah, Lucas Laughery

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The inherently brittle nature of unreinforced masonry structures results in poor performance during earthquakes, presenting major hazards to communities. Many of these structures found in Nepal were severely damaged or destroyed during two earthquakes in 2015. The purpose of this project is to test the effect on seismic response of several modifications to stone and mud mortar structures. These structures are common in many areas of Nepal. Two T-shaped stone and mud mortar masonry walls are constructed. The first wall has no modifications and represents current building practices. The second wall uses steel wire mesh as external reinforcement. Each wall ...


Evaluation Of Radiation And Design Criteria For A Lunar Habitat, Hayley E. Bower, Daniel Gomez, Antonio Bobet, Julio A. Ramirez, Shirley J. Dyke, H. Jay Melosh 2017 Purdue University

Evaluation Of Radiation And Design Criteria For A Lunar Habitat, Hayley E. Bower, Daniel Gomez, Antonio Bobet, Julio A. Ramirez, Shirley J. Dyke, H. Jay Melosh

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Extraterrestrial habitation has long been the object of science fiction, and experts in the fields of science and engineering have proposed many designs for a lunar base. The research conducted has focused on either structural stability, radiation protection, or meteorite-impact vulnerabilities, but rarely have these been considered together. The Resilient ExtraTerrestrial Habitats (RETH) project aims to design a lunar habitat from a hazards perspective, considering general degradation, meteorite impacts, seismic activity, radiation exposure, thermal extremes, and geomagnetic storms in addition to the physiological, psychological, and sociological aspects of astronauts living in such a habitat. Several members of the RETH team ...


Hazard Assessment Of Meteoroid Impact For The Design Of Lunar Habitats, Herta Paola Montoya, Shirley Dyke, Julio A. Ramirez, Antonio Bobet, H. Jay Melosh, Daniel Gomez 2017 Purdue University

Hazard Assessment Of Meteoroid Impact For The Design Of Lunar Habitats, Herta Paola Montoya, Shirley Dyke, Julio A. Ramirez, Antonio Bobet, H. Jay Melosh, Daniel Gomez

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The design of self-sustaining lunar habitats is a challenge primarily due to the Moon’s lack of atmospheric protection and hazardous environment. To assure safe habitats that will lead to further lunar and space exploration, it is necessary to assess the different hazards faced on the Moon such as meteoroid impacts, extreme temperatures, and radiation. In particular, meteoroids pose a risk to lunar structures due to their high frequency of occurrence and hypervelocity impact. Continuous meteoroid impacts can harm structural elements and vital equipment compromising the well-being of lunar inhabitants. This study is focused on the hazard conceptualization and quantification ...


Full-Water Column Turbulence Parameterization Of Stratified Waters In Southern Lake Michigan, Kyla A. Prendergast, Cary D. Troy, David Cannon 2017 Purdue University

Full-Water Column Turbulence Parameterization Of Stratified Waters In Southern Lake Michigan, Kyla A. Prendergast, Cary D. Troy, David Cannon

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Full water column mean flow and turbulence structure was characterized at two stratified locations in Lake Michigan (a. Muskegon, MI; b. Michigan City, IN) in order to better understand the filtration potential of invasive quagga mussels. Invasive quagga mussels in Lake Michigan are filter feeders and can dramatically alter clarity as well as the biological/chemical characteristics of the water column. This filtering capacity is highly contingent on turbulence characteristics throughout the water column, which is poorly understood in the Great Lakes. Using velocity, temperature, and turbulence data collected from these locations, the structure of the water column turbulence was ...


Electrochemical Removal Of Lead In Water With Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube Filters, Benjamin M. Stryker, Sol Park, Zhi Zhou 2017 Purdue University

Electrochemical Removal Of Lead In Water With Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube Filters, Benjamin M. Stryker, Sol Park, Zhi Zhou

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Heavy metals, such as lead, are highly toxic and typical removal techniques are costly for household applications; causing serious public health risks and economic burdens. Previous studies using electrochemical filtration showed that singe-wall carbon nanotube membranes (SWCNTs) were effective at removing lead, but the use of less expensive multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has not been fully explored. Therefore, there is a critical need to determine if MWCNTs are cost-effective for the removal of lead in water. The removal efficiency of lead(II) ions in an aqueous solution was evaluated in a flow-through filtration system over 50 minutes at 1.5 ...


Purdue Airsense: An Affordable Way To Measure And Study Air Pollution, Stephane Junior Nouafo Wanko, Shadi Tariq Azouz, Ruihang Du, Brandon Boor, Greg Michalski 2017 Hiram College

Purdue Airsense: An Affordable Way To Measure And Study Air Pollution, Stephane Junior Nouafo Wanko, Shadi Tariq Azouz, Ruihang Du, Brandon Boor, Greg Michalski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Air pollution is a major health hazard worldwide, accounting for one-eighth of all deaths in 2012 (World Health Organization). Globally, there is a severe lack of ground-based spatiotemporal monitoring of gaseous and particulate air pollutants, particularly in Africa, South and Central America, and the Middle East. This is in great part due to the high costs of air quality instrumentation that meet accuracy and reliability criteria set by monitoring agencies. The air quality data that is available is often not presented to the public in a user-friendly manner. Taking advantage of recent developments in low-cost sensing technologies, an integrated sensor ...


Buckling Of Cylindrical Shells Under Wind Loading, Tianlong Sun, Eyas Azzuni, Sukru Guzey 2017 Purdue University

Buckling Of Cylindrical Shells Under Wind Loading, Tianlong Sun, Eyas Azzuni, Sukru Guzey

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Cylindrical shells such as aboveground steel storage tanks are widely used to store gases, chemicals and fuels. Stiffener rings are introduced to prevent cylindrical shells from buckling due to wind loads. The current top wind stiffener design rules used in the USA for such cylindrical storage tanks are specified in API 650. However, the design methodology of top stiffener rings is overly conservative. Therefore, relaxation of the design rules for the top stiffener is investigated in this study. The API 650 mandated top stiffener size was reduced to the same size as the mandated intermediate stiffener ring in this study ...


Viscoelastic Analysis And Fatigue Characterization Of Bituminous Materials In Two Length Scales Under The Influence Of Aging, Santosh Reddy Kommidi 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Viscoelastic Analysis And Fatigue Characterization Of Bituminous Materials In Two Length Scales Under The Influence Of Aging, Santosh Reddy Kommidi

Civil Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Fatigue cracking in asphalt concrete (AC) is of immense importance to pavement design and analysis because it is one of the most important forms of distress that can lead to structural failure in pavement. Once started, these types of cracks can be combined with other environmental factors leading to detrimental effects such as faster rates of pavement deterioration and shortened pavement life and functionality.

Currently AASHTO TP101, also known as linear amplitude sweep (LAS) specification, is being widely used to evaluate the ability of an asphalt binder to resist fatigue. The LAS method, although mechanistic in its approach, has certain ...


Simulation And Prediction Of The Groundwater Level In The Surrounding Area Of The Nebraska Management System Evaluation Area Site In Central Nebraska., Cesar Augusto Gomez Peña 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Simulation And Prediction Of The Groundwater Level In The Surrounding Area Of The Nebraska Management System Evaluation Area Site In Central Nebraska., Cesar Augusto Gomez Peña

Civil Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

An efficient water budget is necessary to develop sustainable practices in irrigated lands and determine future trends. Despite a lack of detailed knowledge, climate change is found to profoundly influence groundwater resources through changes in groundwater recharge, groundwater elevation, and groundwater flow processes. Prediction of the groundwater level (GWL) under a changing climate is essential to improve agricultural management.

The goal of this research is to predict the GWL from 2056 to 2060 in the surrounding area of the MSEA. In order to achieve the target, the first research task is to develop a groundwater flow model and then simulate ...


Mitigation And Evaluation Of Alkali-Silica Reaction (Asr) And Freezing And Thawing In Concrete Transportation Structures, Richard Albert Deschenes Jr. 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mitigation And Evaluation Of Alkali-Silica Reaction (Asr) And Freezing And Thawing In Concrete Transportation Structures, Richard Albert Deschenes Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

An evaluation of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and freezing and thawing (F/T) in concrete transportation structures is presented along with mitigation methods for slowing the rate of deterioration in concrete. A combination of field and laboratory testing confirms ASR deterioration is exacerbated by exposure to F/T. Laboratory testing indicates an aggregate previously deemed inert to ASR, caused ASR deterioration in several concrete pavement and transportation structures. Existing standard test methods deem this aggregate safe for use in concrete. A modified test method shows the concrete can deteriorate rapidly when subjected to cycles of conditions promoting ASR and F/T ...


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